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Original Article
Neurodevelopmental outcomes and comorbidities of children with congenital muscular torticollis: evaluation using the national health screening program for infants and children database
Og Hyang Kim, Seung Won Lee, Eun Kyo Ha, Ju Hee Kim, Yun Hye Jo, Seongyeong Rhie, Man Yong Han, Kyu Young Chae
Received September 14, 2021  Accepted November 5, 2021  
Background: Congenital muscular torticollis (CMT) is a common musculoskeletal disorder occurring at birth or in infancy.
Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the risk of comorbidities in congenital muscular torticollis (CMT) and explore the differences in neurodevelopmental outcomes between children who received physical therapy and those who did not. Methods: Children with CMT born in 2008 and 2009 in Korea were...
Early myocardial functional abnormalities in primary dyslipidemia: clinical and echocardiographic observations in young children from a highly consanguineous population
Nehal M. El-koofy, Aya M. Fattouh, Areef Ramadan, Mohamed A. Elmonem, Dina H. Hamed
Received May 5, 2021  Accepted November 18, 2021  
Background: Dyslipidemia is a major health problem among children and adolescents worldwide due to its significant association with cardiovascular disease. Primary dyslipidemias are commonly familial syndromes that can be completely asymptomatic.
Purpose: Apart from the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD), limited data are currently available on the direct effects of dyslipidemia on myocardial function in children. Methods: We recruited 25...
Review Article
Pediatric hypertension based on Japanese Society of Hypertension Guidelines (JSH 2019) with actual school blood pressure screening data in Japan
Toru Kikuchi
Received July 10, 2021  Accepted October 28, 2021  
Blood pressure (BP) in children and adolescents is associated with their growth. BP is most strongly associated with height during height gain and with degree of obesity after reaching final height. BP in childhood and adolescence is correlated with BP in adulthood. The pathophysiology of pediatric essential hypertension is associated with obesity, excess salt intake, and a low birth weight....
Original Article
Effectiveness of obesity interventions among South Korean children and adolescents and importance of the type of intervention component: a meta-analysis
Siyoung Choe, Jaesin Sa, Jean-Philippe Chaput, Deokjin Kim
Received April 7, 2021  Accepted October 14, 2021  
Background: Various interventions have been tested to prevent or treat childhood obesity in South Korea. However, the overall effect of those interventions is unclear, as very few reviews and meta-analyses were specific to Korean children and adolescents.
Purpose: We aimed to examine the overall effect of obesity interventions among Korean children and adolescents, while also examining differences by gender, age...
Review Article
Four months of rifampicin monotherapy for latent tuberculosis infection in children
Chi Eun Oh, Dick Menzies
Received August 11, 2021  Accepted October 14, 2021  
Diagnosing and treating latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is an important part of efforts to combat TB. The Korean guidelines for TB published in 2020 recommend two LTBI regimens for children and adolescents: nine months of daily isoniazid (9H) and three months of daily isoniazid plus rifampicin. Isoniazid for 6–12 months has been used to effectively treat LTBI in children for...
Original Article
Infection
Viral load and rebound in children with coronavirus disease 2019 during the first outbreak in Daegu city
Mi Ae Chu, Yoon Young Jang, Dong Won Lee, Sung Hoon Kim, Namhee Ryoo, Sunggyun Park, Jae Hee Lee, Hai Lee Chung
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(12):652-660.   Published online October 12, 2021
Question: What is the natural course of viral load in children with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?
Finding: A significant number of patients still had a relatively high viral load once clinically asymptomatic. Nearly half of the patients experienced viral rebound, which contributed to prolonged viral detection in their respiratory specimens.
Meaning: Further studies are needed to determine the clinical significance of viral rebound in asymptomatic or mild pediatric cases of COVID-19.
Review Article
BP measurements and hypertension in infants, children, and adolescents: from the postmercury to mobile devices
Seon Hee Lim, Seong Heon Kim
Received February 4, 2021  Accepted August 19, 2021  
A mercury sphygmomanometer (MS) has been the gold standard for pediatric blood pressure (BP) measurements, and diagnosing hypertension is critical. However, because of environmental issues, other alternatives are needed. Non-invasive BP measurement devices are largely divided into auscultatory and oscillometric types. The aneroid sphygmomanometer, the currently used auscultatory method, is inferior to mercury sphygmomanometers in terms of limitations such as...
Original Article
Non-fatal injury in Korean children and adolescents from 2007 to 2018
Gyu Min Yeon, Yoo Rha Hong, Seom Gim Kong
Received April 29, 2021  Accepted August 30, 2021  
Background: Injury is the leading cause of death or disability in children and adolescents. Deaths from injuries have recently declined, but studies on the occurrence of non-fatal injuries are lacking.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the experience of non-fatal injury in children and adolescents younger than 20 years based on Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey data...
Review Article
Endocrinology
Endocrine comorbidities of pediatric obesity
Jieun Lee, Jae Hyun Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(12):619-627.   Published online August 26, 2021
∙ Pediatric obesity can involve endocrine comorbidities such as prediabetes, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome, polycystic ovary syndrome, and central precocious puberty.
∙ Prediabetes and type 2 diabetes in youth aged 10–19 years had a prevalence of 25.9% and 0.6% in 2013–2014, respectively.
∙ Dyslipidemia in Korean adolescents aged 10–18 years had a prevalence of 7.64% (total cholesterol ≥200 mg/dL), 6.09% (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥130 mg/dL), 8.69% (triglyceride ≥150 mg/dL), and 12.52% (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≤40 mg/dL) in 2007–2018.
∙ Metabolic syndrome in Korean youth has a prevalence of 1.9%–14.7% in males and 1.7%–12.6% in females with wide variation in definitions.
∙ Appropriate comorbidity screening and management and/or specialist referral are necessary for obese children and adolescents.
Original Article
Other
Clinical spectrum and short-term outcomes of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children in a south Indian hospital
Muruganantham Balagurunathan, Thrilok Natarajan, Jothilakshmi Karthikeyan, Venkateshwaran Palanisamy
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(10):531-537.   Published online August 4, 2021
Question: What are the clinical spectrum, course, and short-term outcomes of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C)?
Finding: MIS-C can have variable clinical manifestations. Fever is most common, followed by gastrointestinal and cardiovascular symptoms. Early identification and appropriate management lead to favorable outcomes.
Meaning: MIS-C can present in a myriad of ways and severities. High suspicion is necessary to ensure its early identification and appropriate management and favorable patient outcomes.
Review Article
Infection
School closures during the coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak
Eun Young Cho, Young June Choe
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(7):322-327.   Published online May 31, 2021
· Earlier modeling studies of the effects of school closures on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 were largely derived from the pandemic influenza model, resulting in conflicting implications.
· Observational findings suggest no clear effect of school closures on community transmission or overall mortality.
· School closures must be weighed against potential high social costs, which can also negatively affect children’s health.
Original Article
Emergency Medicine
Comparison of clinical features and laboratory findings of coronavirus disease 2019 and influenza A and B infections in children: a single-center study
Meraj Siddiqui, Ayşe Gültekingil, Oğuz Bakırcı, Nihal Uslu, Esra Baskın
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(7):364-369.   Published online May 18, 2021
Question: What are the differences between coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and influenza infections in children?
Finding: Pediatric COVID-19 patients predominantly exhibited respiratory and/or gastrointestinal symptoms, neurological manifestations, olfactory/gustatory dysfunction, elevated monocytes, mildly elevated C-reactive protein, and unilateral or diffuse abnormalities on chest x-ray. Patients with underlying medical conditions had higher intensive care unit admission rates and should be followed closely.
Meaning: The clinical presentations of pediatric COVID-19 patients varied from asymptomatic/mild to severe.
Effect of maternal and child factors on stunting: partial least squares structural equation modeling
Agus Santosa, Essa Novanda Arif, Dinal Abdul Ghoni
Received January 27, 2021  Accepted April 27, 2021  
Background: Stunting is affected by various factors from mother and child. Previous studies assessed only one or more influencing variables. Unfortunately, nor the significant influence of maternal and child factors nor the indicators contributing to maternal and child factors that affect the stunting incidence have ever been analyzed.
Purpose: This study analyzed the effect of maternal and child factors on...
General Pediatrics
Global relationship between parent and child obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Ju Suk Lee, Mi Hyeon Jin, Hae Jeong Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(1):35-46.   Published online March 29, 2021
Question: Are parent and child obesity correlated worldwide?
Finding: Overweight and obese status of parents and children were significantly associated worldwide. The association between parent and child obesity was stronger in Asia than in Europe and the Middle East, and in high-income than in middle- and low-income countries.
Meaning: Childhood obesity is highly influenced by parental weight status, indicating that parents could play an important role in its prevention.
Cardiology
Assessment of cardiac function in syncopal children without organic causes
Heoungjin Kim, Lucy Youngmin Eun
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(11):582-587.   Published online March 10, 2021
Question: Does a subtle deterioration in cardiac function affect the severity of syncope in patients without underlying disease?
Finding: For syncope patients with reasonable cardiac function but without underlying disease, tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) measurements helped reveal subtle differences in cardiac function with syncope and predicted the severity of syncope or a potential recurrent event.
Meaning: TDI measurements might be a useful indicator for predicting the severity of syncope.
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