Endocrinology

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Editorial
Endocrinology
Is type 1 diabetes related to coronavirus disease 2019 in children?
Minsun Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(5):252-253.   Published online March 29, 2022
· Evidence shows that patients with type 1 diabetes have been severely affected by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in various ways.
· Although there is no reliable evidence that COVID-19 worsens or induces diabetes, it can impair β-cell insulin secretion and glucose control by inducing inflammation and cytokine production.
· A study is needed of the short- and long-term relationship between diabetes and COVID-19 in the Korean pediatric population.
Review Article
Endocrinology
Genetic factors in precocious puberty
Young Suk Shim, Hae Sang Lee, Jin Soon Hwang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(4):172-181.   Published online October 18, 2021
· Mutations in the kisspeptin (KISS1), kisspeptin receptor (KISS1R), makorin ring finger protein 3 (MKRN3), and delta-like homolog 1 (DLK1) genes are associated with idiopathic central precocious puberty (ICPP).
· A few genes related to pubertal onset have been implicated in ICPP.
· Epigenetic factors such as DNA methylation, histone posttranslational modifications, and noncoding ribonucleic acids may be related to ICPP
Editorial
Endocrinology
Clinical and diagnostic importance of dyslipidemia in children and adolescents during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic
Eun Young Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(3):129-130.   Published online January 14, 2022
∙ Because childhood lipid concentrations continue into adulthood, early evaluation and treatment are needed, but dyslipidemia awareness is low.
∙ For the prevention and treatment of dyslipidemia in childhood and adolescence, a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease in adulthood, lifestyle modifications, appropriate exercise, and drug treatment are required.
∙ A large-scale study of the prevalence and therapeutic effects of dyslipidemia in children and adolescents in Korea is needed.
Original Article
Endocrinology
Association between polycystic ovary syndrome and risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in offspring: a meta-analysis
Azam Maleki, Saeid Bashirian, Ali Reza Soltanian, Ensiyeh Jenabi, Abdollah Farhadinasab
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(2):85-89.   Published online April 15, 2021
Question: Have polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) increased risk of having an offspring with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?
Finding: Six articles (3 cohort and 3 case-control studies; 401,413 total ADHD cases) met the study criteria. Maternal PCOS was associated with an increased risk of ADHD in the offspring based on odds ratio (OR) and relative ratio (RR) (OR, 1.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.27–1.57) and (RR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.35–1.51), respectively.
Meaning: Our study showed that maternal PCOS is a risk factor for ADHD.
Editorial
Endocrinology
Pediatricians must consider familial environment when diagnosing and managing childhood obesity
Young Suk Shim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(1):31-32.   Published online April 19, 2021
•The prevalence of childhood obesity is increasing worldwide, including in the Republic of Korea, creating a major public healthissue.
•Accumulated evidence indicates a strong relationship between parentalandchildobesity.
•A family-based approach is indicated to prevent and manage childhoodandadultobesity.
Pediatric obesity: life cycle approach of pediatrician and society
Yong Hee Hong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(1):29-30.   Published online December 28, 2021
• With the emerging epidemic of pediatric obesity, many endocrine comorbidities classically seen in adulthood are surfacing much earlier in life.
• Appropriate obesity counseling and education should be provided from infancy to adolescence.
• Managing pediatric obesity may require school and society involvement.
Review Article
Endocrinology
Endocrine comorbidities of pediatric obesity
Jieun Lee, Jae Hyun Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(12):619-627.   Published online August 26, 2021
∙ Pediatric obesity can involve endocrine comorbidities such as prediabetes, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome, polycystic ovary syndrome, and central precocious puberty.
∙ Prediabetes and type 2 diabetes in youth aged 10–19 years had a prevalence of 25.9% and 0.6% in 2013–2014, respectively.
∙ Dyslipidemia in Korean adolescents aged 10–18 years had a prevalence of 7.64% (total cholesterol ≥200 mg/dL), 6.09% (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥130 mg/dL), 8.69% (triglyceride ≥150 mg/dL), and 12.52% (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≤40 mg/dL) in 2007–2018.
∙ Metabolic syndrome in Korean youth has a prevalence of 1.9%–14.7% in males and 1.7%–12.6% in females with wide variation in definitions.
∙ Appropriate comorbidity screening and management and/or specialist referral are necessary for obese children and adolescents.
Original Article
Endocrinology
Correlation between total air pollutant emissions and incidence of type 1 diabetes in the Russian Federation
Hoon Sung Choi, Jin Taek Kim, Ji-Young Seo, Faina Linkov, Evgeniy Shubnikov, Hong Kyu Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(10):525-530.   Published online January 18, 2021
Question: Is there a quantitative relationship between air pollutant emissions and the incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D)?
Finding: The incidence of T1D in each region of the Russian Federation correlated with the total air pollutants emitted each year.
Meaning: These findings suggest that air pollution contributes to the development of T1D.
Editorial
Endocrinology
Ambient air pollution and pediatric diabetes
Jae Hyun Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(10):523-534.   Published online March 12, 2021
· Epidemiological studies have shown that ambient air pollution is associated with diabetes mellitus in children and adults.
· The mechanism of ambient air pollution causing diabetes mellitus is unclear.
· A study of the association between diabetes and air pollution in Korean pediatric populations is required.
Review Article
Endocrinology
Early menarche and its consequence in Korean female: reducing fructose intake could be one solution
Ji Hyun Kim, Jung Sub Lim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(1):12-20.   Published online May 14, 2020
In Korea, the average age of menarche has declined sharply. Early menarche is associated with psychosocial and behavioral problems and cardiometabolic disease. Excess fructose intake has been suggested as one cause of early menarche in recent studies, so reducing fructose intake may be one solution.
Guideline
Endocrinology
2017 Clinical practice guidelines for dyslipidemia of Korean children and adolescents
Jung Sub Lim, Eun Young Kim, Jae Hyun Kim, Jae-Ho Yoo, Kyung Hee Yi, Hyun Wook Chae, Jin-Ho Choi, Ji Young Kim, Il Tae Hwang; the Committee of Dyslipidemia of Korean Children and Adolescents on behalf of Korean Society of Pediatric Endocrinology (KSPE)
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(12):454-462.   Published online November 25, 2020
Question: How are children and adolescents with dyslipidemia treated and managed in Korea?
Finding: 2017 guidelines recommend to measure nonfasting non-HDL-C as a screening test and introduce new diet methods: Cardiovascular Health Integrated Lifestyle Diet (CHILD)-1, CHILD-2-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and CHILD-2-triglyceride. Statin is the only drug approved in children older than 10 years.
Meaning: New clinical practice guidelines for treating and managing dyslipidemia of Korean children and adolescents are provided.
Original Article
Endocrinology
Zinc transporter 8 autoantibody in the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes in children
Nur Rochmah, Muhammad Faizi, Siti Wahyu Windarti
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(10):402-405.   Published online October 6, 2020
Question: Can zinc transporter 8 autoantibody (ZnT8A) be used for diagnosing type 1 diabetes (T1D)?
Finding: Twenty-two of 30 subjects with type 1 diabetes (73.3 %) were positive for ZnT8A compared to 5 of 18 controls (27.8%).
Meaning: ZnT8A has potential for clinical applications in the diagnosis of T1D.
Review Article
Endocrinology
Air pollution and childhood obesity
Moon Young Seo, Shin-Hye Kim, Mi Jung Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(10):382-388.   Published online March 27, 2020
Questions: What are the possible effects of air pollution on the occurrence of childhood obesity and what are the mechanisms?
Finding: Epidemiologic studies suggest that air pollutants might act as obesogens in the pediatric population, and their possible mechanisms include oxidative stress, physical inactivity, and epigenetic modulation.
Meaning: This paper reviews updated information on air pollution, one of the modifiable environmental factors in childhood obesity.
Original Article
Endocrinology
Effect of agricultural pesticide on precocious puberty in urban children: an exploratory study
Junghwan Suh, Han Saem Choi, Ahreum Kwon, Hyun Wook Chae, Ho-Seong Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(4):146-150.   Published online December 6, 2019
Question: Does agricultural pesticide effect precocious puberty in girls?
Finding: Dinotefuran, an insecticide of neonicotinoid class, was detected in one of 30 patients with precocious puberty, and in 2 girls of the normal control group, which was not statistically significant.
Meaning: There was no close relationship between agricultural pesticides and development of precocious puberty.
Influence of subclinical hypothyroidism on metabolic parameters in obese children and adolescents
Ozlem Kara
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(3):110-114.   Published online March 6, 2020
Question: Does subclinical hypothyroidism in obese children and adolescents affect metabolic parameters?
Finding: Insulin, HOMA-IR, and TG levels were higher and the HDL-C level was lower in patients with SH.
Meaning: A clear association is observed between SH, and insulin resistance and dyslipidemia in obese children. It can be said that the TSH may be evaluated as a metabolic risk factor in obese patients.
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