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Oncology
Infantile hemangioma: timely diagnosis and treatment
Meerim Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(11):573-574.   Published online July 22, 2021
While the majority of infantile hemangiomas (IHs) do not require therapy and regress spontaneously, about 10%–15% develop complications such as ulceration, obstruction, or disfigurement. Early intervention is recommended for infants with potentially problematic IHs. Oral propranolol 2–3 mg/kg/day is currently the treatment of choice.
Endocrinology
Ambient air pollution and pediatric diabetes
Jae Hyun Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(10):523-534.   Published online March 12, 2021
· Epidemiological studies have shown that ambient air pollution is associated with diabetes mellitus in children and adults.
· The mechanism of ambient air pollution causing diabetes mellitus is unclear.
· A study of the association between diabetes and air pollution in Korean pediatric populations is required.
Nephrology (Genitourinary)
Obesity and chronic kidney disease: what should pediatric nephrologists know?
Jung Won Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(10):521-522.   Published online June 1, 2021
• Obesity is not only a comorbidity of hypertension, it may be a riskfactorfor chronickidneydisease.
• Renal impairment associated with obesity is believed to start early in childhood and continue into adulthood, implying a higher risk of adverse cardiovascular events.
• The identification of kidney injury, implementation of preventive strategies, and prompt treatment are essential to improving clinical outcomes in obese children with early kidney disease.
Immunology
Importance of neonatal screening for primary immunodeficiencies
Jung Woo Rhim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(10):519-520.   Published online May 4, 2021
· Early detection of asymptomatic infants with primary immunodeficiencies before the onset of infections enables effective treatment and intervention to prevent serious sequelae.
· T-cell receptor excision circles and kappa-deleting recombination excision circles have recently been used to detect T- or B-cell lymphopenia in neonates.
Gastroenterology
Does smartphone overuse affect functional gastrointestinal disorders?
Jee Hyun Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(9):471-472.   Published online December 28, 2020
Functional gastrointestinal disorders are common disorders characterized by persistent and recurrent gastrointestinal symptoms. Pathophysiological mechanisms have been suggested, including intestinal microbiota, altered intestinal permeability and motility, dietary effects, sensory abnormalities, and brain-gut dysregulation. Lifestyle factors such as diet, sleep, affect, and physical activity might function as moderators.
Nutrition
Advantages and limitations of using national survey datasets in child and adolescent research
Yoon Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(9):468-470.   Published online January 26, 2021
The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey are major nationwide health and nutrition surveys in Korea. Although these surveys have some limitations of cross-sectional sample surveys, the accumulated data are valuable and provide new prospects for understanding public health depending on the interpretation method.
Nephrology (Genitourinary)
Pulmonary thromboembolism: a rare but life-threatening complication of nephrotic syndrome
Heeyeon Cho
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(8):406-407.   Published online February 4, 2021
Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) is often diagnosed in children with nephrotic syndrome. Massive PTE can cause hemodynamic instability, right ventricular failure, and circulatory collapse. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation can be used for massive PTE as a method of hemodynamic support and adjunct to surgical embolectomy.
Neurology
Recent trends in autism spectrum disorder research using text mining of PubMed: importance of early detection
Seung Soo Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(7):339-340.   Published online November 9, 2020
Behavioral therapy, the most widely proven intervention for the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), is required for life for individuals with ASD. Parent involvement, early detection, and early therapy play important roles. We must organize the risk factors for ASD and develop a screening tool that can be easily applied in the clinical, daycare, or school setting.
Infection
Should we prescribe carbapenem for treating febrile urinary tract infection caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in children with vesicoureteral reflux?
Ji Young Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(6):284-285.   Published online January 5, 2021
Recent studies are focused on the noninferiority of noncarbapenem therapy for the treatment of extended-spectrum β-lactamases producing Enterobacteriaceae infections to reduce the utilization of carbapenem.
Neurology
Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures; beyond differentiating from epileptic seizures
Sang Ook Nam
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(6):282-283.   Published online November 12, 2020
Infection
Babies born to mothers positive for SARS-CoV-2 – Are they in danger?
Joon Kee Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(6):280-281.   Published online May 4, 2021
Concerns have arisen in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic upon pregnancy and postnatal care starting from reproductive decision-making. To the utmost knowledge, reproductive decisions should not be based primarily on health-related COVID-19 concerns, as the possibility of vertical transmission is negligible and the perinatal outcome is generally not poor compared to pregnancies without COVID-19, as long as infection control measures are well kept.
Cardiology
When should mechanical circulatory support be considered in pediatric patients with acute fulminant myocarditis?
Hye Won Kwon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(5):227-228.   Published online September 22, 2020
Acute fulminant myocarditis is an uncommon syndrome characterized by sudden and severe cardiac inflammation, which leads to cardiogenic shock, ventricular arrhythmia, heart blocks, or multiorgan failure. Despite aggressive clinical course, patients with acute fulminant myocarditis have better outcomes than those with the nonfulminant type when appropriately supported during the acute phase of the disease. Therefore, early recognition of deteriorating myocarditis and timely mechanical circulatory support are crucial to improve outcomes.
Other
Is multisystem inflammatory syndrome related with coronavirus disease 2019, Kawasaki disease, and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 in children?
Lucy Youngmin Eun
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(5):225-226.   Published online March 5, 2021
With the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, it is important to consider why Kawasaki disease (KD) is prevalent in young children and its symptoms are similar to multisystem inflammatory syndrome in older children. We hypothesized that angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) expression may be related. In fact, this may be an answer why COVID-19 occurs less frequently in children with lower ACE2 expression.
Allergy
Targeting eosinophils: another strategy for asthma treatment
Hye Mi Jee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(5):223-224.   Published online March 5, 2021
Identifying phenotypes and endotypes of asthma patients is challenging, and eosinophilic phenotypes are generally characterized by severe or refractory asthma.
Biologicals targeting eosinophils are promising for the control of severe or refractory asthma symptoms.
To ensure proper treatment, increased understanding of the diverse phenotypes of high Th2 inflammation in pediatric asthma is needed.
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Which factors predict outcomes of neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy following therapeutic hypothermia?
Gyu Hong Shim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(4):169-171.   Published online December 11, 2020
Determining the therapeutic hypothermia and predict long-term prognosis quickly and accurately in infants with moderate to severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy requires a thorough history taking, physical examination, amplitude-integrated electroencephalography, brain magnetic resonance imaging with diffusion-weighted imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, heart evaluation (cardiac enzymes, electrocardiography, and echocardiography), and several other biomarkers.
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