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Letter to the Editor
Infection
Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children and Kawasaki disease in infants: 2 sides of the same coin?
Hing Cheong Kok, Dinesh Nair, Ke Juin Wong, Siew Moy Fong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(11):599-601.   Published online October 7, 2021
Question: Are multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) and Kawasaki disease (KD) in infants, 2 sides of the same coin?
Finding: Here we report on a 4-month-old girl with MIS-C and signs of KD with shock. Most (83%) infants with MIS-C had features of KD, especially KD shock syndrome.
Meaning: MIS-C is similar to KD, and likely is a consequence of dysregulated immune responses secondary to sudden acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection.
Clinical Note
Infection
A neonate infected with coronavirus disease 2019 with severe symptoms suggestive of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in childhood
Fatemeh Eghbalian, Ghazal Sami, Saeid Bashirian, Ensiyeh Jenabi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(11):596-598.   Published online September 10, 2021
Question: Can multisystem inflammatory syndrome in childhood (MIS-C) occur in the neonate associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?
Finding: A 9-day-old neonate infected with COVID-19 had fever, respiratory distress, and gastrointestinal symptoms suggestive of MIS-C. This neonate recovered after treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG).
Meaning: IVIG successfully treated a rare case of a 9-day-old neonate with COVID-19 and severe symptoms suggestive of MIS-C.
Original Article
General Pediatrics
Risk factors for childhood pneumonia: a case-control study in a high prevalence area in Indonesia
Vivi Ninda Sutriana, Mei Neni Sitaresmi, Abdul Wahab
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(11):588-595.   Published online March 15, 2021
Question: Is the incidence of childhood pneumonia influenced by breastfeeding and basic immunization status?
Finding: Exclusive breastfeeding and complete basic immunization status have an effect in limiting the incidence of childhood pneumonia.
Meaning: While exclusive breastfeeding and complete basic immunization the Expanded Program on Immunization status are important factors for reducing the incidence of childhood pneumonia, indoor air pollution was also a significant risk factor.
Cardiology
Assessment of cardiac function in syncopal children without organic causes
Heoungjin Kim, Lucy Youngmin Eun
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(11):582-587.   Published online March 10, 2021
Question: Does a subtle deterioration in cardiac function affect the severity of syncope in patients without underlying disease?
Finding: For syncope patients with reasonable cardiac function but without underlying disease, tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) measurements helped reveal subtle differences in cardiac function with syncope and predicted the severity of syncope or a potential recurrent event.
Meaning: TDI measurements might be a useful indicator for predicting the severity of syncope.
Original article
Infection
The global prevalence of Toxocara spp. in pediatrics: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Behnam Abedi, Mehran Akbari, Sahar KhodaShenas, Alireza Tabibzadeh, Ali Abedi, Reza Ghasemikhah, Marzieh Soheili, Shnoo Bayazidi, Yousef Moradi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(11):575-581.   Published online February 5, 2021
Is the global prevalence of toxocariasis high among children? The prevalence of toxocariasis is high in pediatric patients. Asian children are more susceptible to the disease than other children. Its virulence varies among different socioeconomic classes in various countries. Hand washing after soil contact, routine pet deworming, and appropriate disposal of pet feces in households with Asian pediatrics are needed to prevent toxocariasis.
Editorial
Oncology
Infantile hemangioma: timely diagnosis and treatment
Meerim Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(11):573-574.   Published online July 22, 2021
While the majority of infantile hemangiomas (IHs) do not require therapy and regress spontaneously, about 10%–15% develop complications such as ulceration, obstruction, or disfigurement. Early intervention is recommended for infants with potentially problematic IHs. Oral propranolol 2–3 mg/kg/day is currently the treatment of choice.
Review Article
Oncology
Update on infantile hemangioma
Hye Lim Jung
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(11):559-572.   Published online May 26, 2021
· Infantile hemangiomas (IHs) are the most common benign vascular tumors, occurring in 5%–10% of infants.
· IHs are characteristically not present at birth but are usually diagnosed at 1–4 weeks of age, rapidly proliferate until 5 months of age, and then spontaneously involute.
· High-risk IHs (10%) require early treatment from 1 month of age.
· Oral propranolol, a nonselective beta-blocker, is the first-line treatment for IHs.
Nutrition
Changes in health status of North Korean children and emerging health challenges of North Korean refugee children
Seong-Woo Choi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(11):552-558.   Published online May 17, 2021
· Among North Korean refugee (NKR) children under 5 years, 61% and 9.3% were underweight in 1998 and 2017, respectively.
· The immunization rate of NKR children exceeded 90% since 2006.
· For NKR children, protein-energy malnutrition was the #1 cause of death in 2009 versus #17 in 2019.
· In 2020, stunting affected 5.4% and 0.9% and obesity affected 10.7% and 2.7% of NKR versus South Korean children, respectively.
Infection
Effects of nasopharyngeal microbiota in respiratory infections and allergies
Hyun Mi Kang, Jin Han Kang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(11):543-551.   Published online April 15, 2021
· The nasal microbiota varies with age and is shaped by various factors in healthy individuals.
· The pathological condition of the respiratory tract appears to be associated with reduced nasal microbiota biodiversity, while dysbiosis is involved in the pathophysiology of many respiratory diseases, including otitis, sinusitis, allergic diseases, and lower respiratory infections.
Original Article
Psychiatric/Psychology
Association between small for gestational age and risk of autism spectrum disorders: a meta-analysis
Ensiyeh Jenabi, Saeid Bashirian, Zahra Asali, Mahdieh Seyedi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(10):538-542.   Published online January 28, 2021
• The relationship between small for gestational age (SGA) and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and remains conflicting.
• We showed based on odds ratio reports in epidemiological studies that SGA can increase the risk of ASD and SGA is a risk factor for ASD.
• The association between SGA and the risk of ASD has further momentum to the current public health emphasis on appropriate prepregnancy weight and weight gain during pregnancy
Other
Clinical spectrum and short-term outcomes of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children in a south Indian hospital
Muruganantham Balagurunathan, Thrilok Natarajan, Jothilakshmi Karthikeyan, Venkateshwaran Palanisamy
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(10):531-537.   Published online August 4, 2021
Question: What are the clinical spectrum, course, and short-term outcomes of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C)?
Finding: MIS-C can have variable clinical manifestations. Fever is most common, followed by gastrointestinal and cardiovascular symptoms. Early identification and appropriate management lead to favorable outcomes.
Meaning: MIS-C can present in a myriad of ways and severities. High suspicion is necessary to ensure its early identification and appropriate management and favorable patient outcomes.
Endocrinology
Correlation between total air pollutant emissions and incidence of type 1 diabetes in the Russian Federation
Hoon Sung Choi, Jin Taek Kim, Ji-Young Seo, Faina Linkov, Evgeniy Shubnikov, Hong Kyu Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(10):525-530.   Published online January 18, 2021
Question: Is there a quantitative relationship between air pollutant emissions and the incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D)?
Finding: The incidence of T1D in each region of the Russian Federation correlated with the total air pollutants emitted each year.
Meaning: These findings suggest that air pollution contributes to the development of T1D.
Editorial
Endocrinology
Ambient air pollution and pediatric diabetes
Jae Hyun Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(10):523-534.   Published online March 12, 2021
· Epidemiological studies have shown that ambient air pollution is associated with diabetes mellitus in children and adults.
· The mechanism of ambient air pollution causing diabetes mellitus is unclear.
· A study of the association between diabetes and air pollution in Korean pediatric populations is required.
Nephrology (Genitourinary)
Obesity and chronic kidney disease: what should pediatric nephrologists know?
Jung Won Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(10):521-522.   Published online June 1, 2021
• Obesity is not only a comorbidity of hypertension, it may be a riskfactorfor chronickidneydisease.
• Renal impairment associated with obesity is believed to start early in childhood and continue into adulthood, implying a higher risk of adverse cardiovascular events.
• The identification of kidney injury, implementation of preventive strategies, and prompt treatment are essential to improving clinical outcomes in obese children with early kidney disease.
Immunology
Importance of neonatal screening for primary immunodeficiencies
Jung Woo Rhim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(10):519-520.   Published online May 4, 2021
· Early detection of asymptomatic infants with primary immunodeficiencies before the onset of infections enables effective treatment and intervention to prevent serious sequelae.
· T-cell receptor excision circles and kappa-deleting recombination excision circles have recently been used to detect T- or B-cell lymphopenia in neonates.
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