Accepted articles

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Original article
Effect of probiotics plus zinc supplementation on clinical outcomes of infants and children with acute infectious diarrhea: a randomized controlled trial
Deldar Morad Abdulah, Saad Jbraeil Sulaiman, Zaid Waad Ahmed
Background: Findings are conflicting regarding the effect of zinc supplementation on disease severity in children with acute gastroenteritis.
Purpose: To examine the effects of probiotics and zinc on the clinical outcomes of infants and children with acute infectious diarrhea. Methods: In this randomized controlled trial, children with mild or moderate to severe acute gastroenteritis in the Kurdistan Region from November 2021 to...
Review article
Evidence-based management guidelines for noncystic fibrosis bronchiectasis in children and adolescents
Eun Lee, Kyunghoon Kim, You Hoon Jeon, In Suk Sol, Jong Deok Kim, Taek Ki Min, Yoon Ha Hwang, Hyun-Ju Cho, Dong In Suh, Hwan Soo Kim, Yoon Hee Kim, Sung-Il Woo, Yong Ju Lee, Sungsu Jung, Hyeon-Jong Yang, Gwang Cheon Jang
Noncystic fibrosis bronchiectasis is a chronic respiratory disease that carries high socioeconomic and medical burdens and is caused by diverse respiratory illnesses. To improve clinical outcomes, early recognition, active treatment of exacerbations, and prevention of further exacerbations are essential. However, evidence for the treatment and prevention of acute exacerbation of noncystic fibrosis bronchiectasis, especially in children, is lacking. Therefore, the...
Review Article
Effects of diethylene glycol contamination of pharmaceutical products on unexplained acute kidney injury in children: a systematic review
Sani Soleman, Muhammad Adnan, Hilmi Sudiarto, Satria Mahathma, Alya Tazkia, Hana Firdaus, Alfreda Khotijah, Miranti Pramaningtyas, Emi Choironi
Unexplained acute kidney injury (AKI) in children owing to diethylene glycol (DEG) contamination during drug production has gained attention in recent years. This qualitative study investigated the effects of DEG exposure on the incidence of unknown AKI in children. A systematic review following the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis) guidelines was proposed to search for studies...
Review article
Recent advances in food allergen immunotherapy
You Hoon Jeon, Edwin H. Kim
Food allergies can pose significant risks and profoundly impact the quality of life of children and their families, making them a major public health concern. Allergen avoidance has been the traditional mainstay of treatment; however, recent research has focused on various approaches to food allergen immunotherapy. This review summarizes the recent advancements in oral, sublingual, and epicutaneous immunotherapies, highlighting their...
Quantifying myelin in neonates using magnetic resonance imaging: a systematic literature review
Nabila Hanem Arshad, Hasyma Abu Hassan, Nur Farhayu Omar, Zurina Zainudin
This review aimed to assess the usefulness of various magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques for the quantification of neonatal white matter myelination. The Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science databases were searched to identify studies following the PRISMA (preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses) statement using quantitative MRI techniques to examine samples collected from neonates to quantify myelin....
Review Article
Association of prenatal and postnatal exposure to some endocrine-disrupting chemicals with birth and neurodevelopmental outcomes: an extensive review
Ozge Yesildemir, Mensure Nur Celik
Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are natural or human-made chemicals that can mimic, block, or interfere with the body's hormones. The most common and well-studied EDCs are bisphenol A, phthalate, and persistent organic pollutants, including polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances, other brominated flame retardants, organochlorine pesticides, dioxins, and furans. Humans are constantly exposed to EDCs through air, diet,...
Metabolic complications of obesity in children and adolescents
Hyunjin Park, Jung Eun Choi, Seunghee Jun, Hyelim Lee, Hae Soon Kim, Hye Ah Lee, Hyesook Park
The global prevalence of childhood and adolescent obesity, exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic, is affecting not only school-aged children but also preschoolers. Early-onset obesity, along with a higher risk of metabolic complications, may contribute to a lower age of onset of cardiovascular disease (CVD). As metabolic diseases such as diabetes, dyslipidemia, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) observed in adulthood...
Influence of infant microbiome on health and development
Noelle Younge
The microbiome is a complex ecosystem comprising microbes, their genomes, and the surrounding environment. The microbiome plays a critical role in early human development, including maturation of the host immune system and gastrointestinal tract. Multiple factors, including diet, antibiotic use, and other environmental exposures, influence the establishment of the microbiome during infancy. Numerous studies have identified associations between the microbiome...
Children’s health affected by parent’s behavioral characteristics: a review
Sung Eun Kim, Jongin Lee
Exposure of an individual to occupational and environmental risk factors for a certain disease affects them and their family. Children are highly vulnerable in this setting because they are family-dependent. This review discusses diseases that occur in children according to the occupational and behavioral characteristics of their parents. Toxic agents in the home environment can affect children’s health. Maternal exposure...
Updates in neonatal resuscitation: routine use of laryngeal masks as an alternative to face masks
Eun Song Song, Ga Won Jeon
Though positive-pressure ventilation (PPV) has traditionally been performed using a face mask in neonatal resuscitation, face mask ventilation has a high failure rate in delivering PPV due to mask leaks, airway obstruction, or gastric inflation. Further, face mask ventilation is compromised during chest compressions. Endotracheal intubation in neonates requires a high skill level, with a first-attempt success rate of <50%....
Macronutrients modifed dietary intervention in the management of overweight/obese children and adolescents - Systematic review
Jihyun Park, Oh Yoen Kim
The prevalence of obesity in both adults and children is rapidly increasing worldwide. Obesity is one of main causes developing chronic diseases and various problems like economic consequence. It can be affected by genetic, environmental, psychological, and socioeconomic factors. Dietary modification is a well-known important factor in weight control. Precisely, dietary macronutrients composition, food selection, and dietary patterns...
Development of orphan drugs for rare disease
Han-Wook Yoo
Most rare diseases(orphan diseases) still lack approved treatments despite major advances in research providing the tools to understand their molecular basis, as well as legislation providing regulatory and economic incentives to expedite the development of specific therapies. Addressing this translational gap is a multifaceted challenge, for which a key aspect is the selection of the optimal therapeutic modality for translating...
Heart failure in children and adolescents: an update on diagnostic approaches and management
Amit Agrawal, Dalwinder Janjua, Abdulrahman Ahmed Alsayed Ali Zeyada, Ahmed Taher Elsheikh
Cardiac failure is a clinical syndrome that may develop in children due to cardiac dysfunction or underlying structural heart diseases. Considering the differences in the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches of pediatric heart failure (PHF) and adult HF, we aimed to review the current literature on PHF. Relevant studies were extracted from Medline/PubMed, Google Scholar, and Clinical Trial Registries using the...
Neonatal family-centered care: evidences and practice models
Juyoung Lee
Although advances in neonatology have reduced the mortality rate of high-risk infants, sick newborns or premature infants have been exposed to more intensive monitoring and painful procedures, and lengthy hospitalization leading to prolonged separation from their parents. Over recent decades, the importance of parent-infant closeness early in an infant’s life has become more apparent, especially for preterm infants who are...
Skin and oral intervention for food allergy prevention based on the dual allergen exposure hypothesis
Kiwako Yamamoto-Hanada, Yukihiro Ohya
Early-onset atopic dermatitis increases the risk of food allergies, suggesting that transcutaneous sensitization may occur through inflamed skin. Regarding food allergy causation, the dual allergen exposure hypothesis proposes that oral-route allergen exposure leads to immune tolerance, whereas allergen exposure via the inflamed skin causes food allergy. This hypothesis implies that it is important to induce oral immune tolerance and prevent...
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