Accepted articles

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Review Article
Knowledge-guided artificial intelligence technologies for decoding complex multiomics interactions in cells
Dohoon Lee, Sun Kim
Received September 15, 2021  Accepted October 21, 2021  
Cells survive and proliferate through complex interactions among diverse molecules across multi-omics layers. Conventional experimental approaches for identifying these interactions have built a firm foundation for molecular biology, but their scalability is gradually becoming inadequate compared to the rapid accumulation of multi-omics data measured by high-throughput technologies. Therefore, the need for data-driven computational modeling of interactions within cells has been...
Letters to the Editor
Retrospective review of SARS-CoV2 infection in children withacute leukemia from a tertiary hospital in Northern India
Suhail Chhabra, Aditya Dabas, Richa Mittal, Neha Goel, Ritabrata Roy Chowdhury, Satyender Batra, Amitabh Singh, Rani Gera
Received August 9, 2021  Accepted November 5, 2021  
Question: What are the demographic features, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of children with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) undergoing chemotherapy for acute leukemia?
Finding: Mild illness with fever was predominant. Increased inflammatory markers were noted irrespective of disease severity. Severe/critical disease were infrequent. Seventeen patients recovered, while two died.
Meaning: Most children receiving chemotherapy for acute leukemia who develop SARS-CoV-2 infection have favorable outcomes.
Review Article
Pediatric hypertension based on Japanese Society of Hypertension Guidelines (JSH 2019) with actual school blood pressure screening data in Japan
Toru Kikuchi
Received July 10, 2021  Accepted October 28, 2021  
Blood pressure (BP) in children and adolescents is associated with their growth. BP is most strongly associated with height during height gain and with degree of obesity after reaching final height. BP in childhood and adolescence is correlated with BP in adulthood. The pathophysiology of pediatric essential hypertension is associated with obesity, excess salt intake, and a low birth weight....
Big data analysis and artificial intelligence (AI) in epilepsy – common data model analysis and machine learning–based seizure detection and forecasting
Yoon Gi Chung, Yonghoon Jeon, Sooyoung Yoo, Hunmin Kim, Hee Hwang
Received May 31, 2021  Accepted October 27, 2021  
There has been significant interest in big data analysis and artificial intelligence (AI) in medicine. Ever-increasing medical data and advanced computing power have enabled the number of big data analyses and AI studies to increase rapidly. Here we briefly introduce epilepsy, big data, and AI and review big data analysis using a common data model. Studies in which AI has...
Etiological and pathophysiological enigmas of severe coronavirus disease 2019, multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, and Kawasaki disease
Jung-Woo Rhim, Jin-Han Kang, Kyung-Yil Lee
Received August 19, 2021  Accepted November 1, 2021  
During the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, a novel multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) has been reported worldwide since the first cases were reported in Europe in April 2020. MIS-C is temporally associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and shows Kawasaki disease (KD)-like features. The epidemiological and clinical characteristics in COVID-19, KD, and MIS-C differ, but...
Original Article
Effectiveness of obesity interventions among South Korean children and adolescents and importance of the type of intervention component: a meta-analysis
Siyoung Choe, Jaesin Sa, Jean-Philippe Chaput, Deokjin Kim
Received April 7, 2021  Accepted October 14, 2021  
Background: Various interventions have been tested to prevent or treat childhood obesity in South Korea. However, the overall effect of those interventions is unclear, as very few reviews and meta-analyses were specific to Korean children and adolescents.
Purpose: We aimed to examine the overall effect of obesity interventions among Korean children and adolescents, while also examining differences by gender, age...
Effect of 2–6 weeks of systemic steroids on bone mineral density in children
Athira Kunyil, Somdipa Pal, Namrita Sachdev, Tribhuvan Pal Yadav
Received January 15, 2021  Accepted October 1, 2021  
Background: The use of systemic steroids for 6+ weeks in children is associated with decreased bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD). However, the effects of a shorter duration of use on BMD are unknown.
Purpose: To determine the effect of the use of systemic steroids for 2–6 weeks on BMD and BMC in pediatric patients. Methods: Twenty-five pediatric patients...
Original Article - Clinical trial
Effects of probiotics combined with dietary and lifestyle modification on clinical, biochemical, and radiological parameters in obese children with NASH/NAFLD: a randomized clinical trial
Thushara Rodrigo, Samaranayake Dulani, Sumudu Nimali Seneviratne, Arjuna P. De Silva, Jerad Fernando, H. Janaka De Silva, Jayasekera , V. Pujitha Wickramasinghe
Received June 4, 2021  Accepted October 23, 2021  
Background: Childhood obesity is a global problem associated with metabolic abnormalities. The gut-liver axis is thought to play a major role in its pathogenesis. Probiotics are known to alter the gut microbiota and, therefore, could be a therapeutic option in the management of childhood obesity-related complications.
Purpose: This double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial evaluated the effects of probiotics on metabolic derangement...
Review Article
Psychosocial aspects of children with chronic kidney disease and their families
Alemsungla Aier, Priya Pais, Vijaya Raman
Received July 21, 2021  Accepted October 13, 2021  
Pediatric chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a chronic illness that affects the overall quality of life of patients during childhood. This article highlights the psychological and social burden of CKD in patients and their families. Patients with CKD and their families require comprehensive treatment for psychosocial problems. Therefore, it is crucial for pediatricians to screen for these issues and refer...
Original Article
Risk factors and screening timing for developmental dysplasia of the hip in preterm infants
Ga Won Jeon, Hye Jung Choo, Yong Uk Kwon
Received July 31, 2021  Accepted October 12, 2021  
Background: The delayed diagnosis of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) requires complex treatment and sometimes progresses to hip osteoarthritis regardless.
Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the risk factors and screening time for DDH in preterm infants. Methods: A total of 155 preterm infants with a gestational age < 32 weeks screened for DDH with ultrasonography were enrolled in this...
Review Article
Four months of rifampicin monotherapy for latent tuberculosis infection in children
Chi Eun Oh, Dick Menzies
Received August 11, 2021  Accepted October 14, 2021  
Diagnosing and treating latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is an important part of efforts to combat TB. The Korean guidelines for TB published in 2020 recommend two LTBI regimens for children and adolescents: nine months of daily isoniazid (9H) and three months of daily isoniazid plus rifampicin. Isoniazid for 6–12 months has been used to effectively treat LTBI in children for...
Correspondence and reply
Importance of using the updated guidelines for screening pediatric high blood pressure
Amar Taksande
Received December 27, 2020  Accepted June 9, 2021  
Review Article
Pathophysiology, classification, and complications of common asymptomatic thrombocytosis in newborn infants
Ga Won Jeon
Received July 1, 2021  Accepted October 18, 2021  
We frequently encounter newborn infants with thrombocytosis in the neonatal intensive care unit. However, neonatal thrombocytosis is not yet fully understood. Thrombocytosis is more frequently identified in newborns and young infants, notably more often in those younger than two years than in older children or adults. The production of megakaryocytes (megakaryopoiesis) and platelets (thrombopoiesis) is mainly regulated by thrombopoietin (TPO)....
Genetic Factors in Precocious Puberty
Young Suk Shim, Hae Sang Lee, Jin Soon Hwang
Received April 21, 2021  Accepted October 1, 2021  
Pubertal onset is known to result from reactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, which is controlled by complex interactions of genetic and nongenetic factors. Most cases of precocious puberty (PP) are diagnosed as central PP (CPP), defined as premature activation of the HPG axis. The cause of CPP in most girls is not identifiable and, thus, referred to as idiopathic...
Original Article
Early initiation of breastfeeding and factors associated with its delay among mothers at discharge from a single hospital
J. Jenifer Florence Mary, R. Sindhuri, A. ArulKumaran, Amol R. Dongre
Received February 3, 2021  Accepted September 28, 2021  
Background: According to the National Family Health Survey – 4, in India, 78.9% of deliveries occur in institutions, although only 42.6% of new mothers initiate breastfeeding within one hour of delivery.
Purpose: To estimate the proportion of early initiation of breastfeeding (EIBF) among new mothers at discharge from a tertiary care hospital and identify the determinants of delayed initiation of breastfeeding...
Is it time to add point-of-care ultrasound education to pediatric residency curriculum?
Shin Ae YOON
Received July 29, 2021  Accepted September 13, 2021  
Review Article
Retinopathy of prematurity: a review of epidemiology and current treatment strategies
Eun Hee Hong, Yong Un Shin, Heeyoon Cho
Received June 2, 2021  Accepted September 15, 2021  
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is among the most common causes of childhood blindness. Three phases of ROP epidemics have been observed worldwide since ROP was first described in the 1940s. Despite advances in neonatal care, the occurrence of ROP and associated visual impairment has been increasing somewhere on Earth and remains difficult to control. Conventional treatment options for preventing ROP...
Worldwide National Intervention of Developmental Screening Programs in infant and early childhood
Seunghyo Kim
Received February 28, 2021  Accepted July 26, 2021  
The prevalence of developmental disabilities is increasing worldwide over time. Developmental issues in infancy or early childhood may cause learning difficulties or behavioral problem in school age, further adversely affecting adolescent quality of life, which finally lead to low socioeconomic status in family, increase in medical expenses, and other relevant issues in various ways. Early childhood has brain plasticity, which...
Is fetal nuchal cord associated with autism spectrum disorder? A meta-analysis
Ensiyeh Jenabi, Maryam Ahmadi, Azam Maleki
Received April 21, 2021  Accepted September 13, 2021  
Purpose There is inconsistent evidence about the association between fetal nuchal cord and the risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We performed a meta-analysis to investigate whether fetal nuchal cord is associated with an increased risk of ASD in offspring. Methods Three main English databases were searched until January 2021. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used to assess study quality. Study heterogeneity was...
Changes in age-specific seroprevalence of Japanese encephalitis virus and impact of Japanese encephalitis vaccine in Korea
Byung Ok Kwak, Young Jin Hong, Dong Hyun Kim
Received December 7, 2020  Accepted September 11, 2021  
The Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus is the leading cause of vaccine-preventable encephalitis in Asia. Since the introduction of a universal JE vaccination program and urbanization of Korea, the incidence of JE has dramatically decreased in Korea. However, recent JE cases have occurred, predominantly among unvaccinated adults and with a shift in age distribution. Here we aimed to review the changes...
BP measurements and hypertension in infants, children, and adolescents: from the postmercury to mobile devices
Seon Hee Lim, Seong Heon Kim
Received February 4, 2021  Accepted August 19, 2021  
A mercury sphygmomanometer (MS) has been the gold standard for pediatric blood pressure (BP) measurements, and diagnosing hypertension is critical. However, because of environmental issues, other alternatives are needed. Non-invasive BP measurement devices are largely divided into auscultatory and oscillometric types. The aneroid sphygmomanometer, the currently used auscultatory method, is inferior to mercury sphygmomanometers in terms of limitations such as...
Upper gastrointestinal tract involvement of Crohn disease: clinical implications in children and adolescents
Eun Sil Kim, Mi Jin Kim
Received May 17, 2021  Accepted August 7, 2021  
Crohn’s disease (CD) is a multifactorial inflammatory disorder that can affect all segments of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract but typically involves the ileum and/or colon. To assess patient prognosis and choose appropriate treatment, it is necessary to accurately evaluate the factors influencing poor outcomes, including disease phenotype. Pediatric CD involving the upper GI (UGI) tract has become increasingly recognized with...
Original Article
Non-fatal injury in Korean children and adolescents from 2007 to 2018
Gyu Min Yeon, Yoo Rha Hong, Seom Gim Kong
Received April 29, 2021  Accepted August 30, 2021  
Background: Injury is the leading cause of death or disability in children and adolescents. Deaths from injuries have recently declined, but studies on the occurrence of non-fatal injuries are lacking.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the experience of non-fatal injury in children and adolescents younger than 20 years based on Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey data...
Review Article
Promising candidate cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers of seizure disorder, infection, inflammation, tumor, and traumatic brain injury in pediatric patients
Seh Hyun Kim, Soo Ahn Chae
Received February 28, 2021  Accepted July 11, 2021  
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a dynamic metabolically active body fluid that has many important roles and is commonly analyzed in pediatric patients, mainly to diagnose central nervous system infection and inflammation disorders. CSF components have been extensively evaluated as biomarkers of neurological disorders in adult patients. Circulating microRNAs in CSF are a promising class of biomarkers for various neurological diseases....
Letters to the Editor
Evaluation of simulation-based ultrasound course for pediatricians: a starting point for future training curriculum
Chon In KUOK, Avis Siu Ha LEUNG, Jonan Chun Yin LEE, Winnie Kwai Yu CHAN
Received June 11, 2021  Accepted July 11, 2021  
Original Article
Comparison of minimally invasive surfactant therapy with intubation surfactant administration and extubation for treating preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome: a randomized clinical trial
Mohammad Kazem Sabzehei, Behnaz Basiri, Maryam Shokouhi, Sajad Ghremani, Ali Moradi
Received March 17, 2021  Accepted July 7, 2021  
Background: Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is a common cause of hospitalization and death in preterm infants who require surfactant treatment and respiratory support.
Purpose: This study aimed to compare the clinical outcomes of minimally invasive surfactant therapy (MIST) and the INtubation, SURfactant administration, and Extubation (INSURE) technique in preterm infants with RDS. Methods: In this clinical trial, 112 preterm infants born...
Review Article
Growth patterns of preterm infants in Korea
Joo Hee Lim, So Jin Yoon, Soon Min Lee
Received February 28, 2021  Accepted June 11, 2021  
With advancements in neonatal care and nutrition, the postnatal growth of preterm infants has improved; however, it remains an issue. Accurate assessments of growth using a standardized reference is needed to interpret the intrauterine and postnatal growth patterns of preterm infants. Growth in the earlier periods of life can contribute to later outcomes, and the refinement of postnatal growth failure...
Original Article
Gross motor dysfunction and balance impairments in children and adolescents with Down syndrome: a systematic review
Preyal D. Jain, Akshatha Nayak, Shreekanth D. Karnad, Kaiorisa N. Doctor
Received April 16, 2021  Accepted May 30, 2021  
Background: Individuals with Down syndrome present with several impairments such as hypotonia, ligament laxity, decreased muscle strength, insufficient muscular co-contraction, inadequate postural control, and disturbed proprioception. These factors are responsible for the developmental challenges faced by children with Down syndrome. These individuals also present with balance dysfunctions.
Purpose: This systematic review aims to describe the motor dysfunction and balance impairments...
Modified high-flow nasal cannula for children with respiratory distress
Sarocha Itdhiamornkulchai, Aroonwan Preutthipan, Jarin Vaewpanich, Nattachai Anantasit
Received August 14, 2020  Accepted May 13, 2021  
Background: High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) is a non-invasive respiratory support that provides the optimum flow of an air–oxygen mixture. Several studies demonstrated its usefulness and good safety profile for treating pediatric respiratory distress patients. However, the cost of the commercial HFNC is high; therefore, the modified high-flow nasal cannula was developed.
Purpose: This study aimed to compare the effectiveness, safety,...
Effect of maternal and child factors on stunting: partial least squares structural equation modeling
Agus Santosa, Essa Novanda Arif, Dinal Abdul Ghoni
Received January 27, 2021  Accepted April 27, 2021  
Background: Stunting is affected by various factors from mother and child. Previous studies assessed only one or more influencing variables. Unfortunately, nor the significant influence of maternal and child factors nor the indicators contributing to maternal and child factors that affect the stunting incidence have ever been analyzed.
Purpose: This study analyzed the effect of maternal and child factors on...
Original Article - Clinical trial
Randomized controlled trial of effect of N-acetylcysteine as an antioxidant on iron overload in children with thalassemia major
Yasmen A Mohamed, Mohamed H Meabed, Amany Ashraf, Dalia S Morgan, Mostafa G Abdul Latif, Rehab M Abd-Elkareem, Heba M Ahmed
Received February 15, 2020  Accepted October 16, 2020  
Background: β-Thalassemias are characterized by the presence of mutations in the globin gene that result in the absence or reduced synthesis of β-globin chains of the hemoglobin tetramer. Several studies have reported increased oxidative stress in β-thalassemia major (β-TM) patients. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a derivative of L-cysteine amino acid, is commonly used as a mucolytic drug. Numerous studies have reported efficient...
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