Cardiology

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Original Article
Cardiology
Assessment of cardiac function in syncopal children without organic causes
Heoungjin Kim, Lucy Youngmin Eun
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(11):582-587.   Published online March 10, 2021
Question: Does a subtle deterioration in cardiac function affect the severity of syncope in patients without underlying disease?
Finding: For syncope patients with reasonable cardiac function but without underlying disease, tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) measurements helped reveal subtle differences in cardiac function with syncope and predicted the severity of syncope or a potential recurrent event.
Meaning: TDI measurements might be a useful indicator for predicting the severity of syncope.
Review Article
Cardiology
Application of CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing for congenital heart disease
Heeyoung Seok, Rui Deng, Douglas B. Cowan, Da-Zhi Wang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(6):269-279.   Published online March 2, 2021
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats and CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR-Cas9) system has made a big step in the genome editing which still requires technical developments for the efficient applications in the many fields including congenital heart diseases (CHDs), closely related to the genomic abnormality. In this review, we tried to cover the most updated researches of CRISPR-Cas9 in the CHDs to understand the current technologies, eventually becoming therapeutic bases for the CHD patients.
Editorial
Cardiology
When should mechanical circulatory support be considered in pediatric patients with acute fulminant myocarditis?
Hye Won Kwon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(5):227-228.   Published online September 22, 2020
Acute fulminant myocarditis is an uncommon syndrome characterized by sudden and severe cardiac inflammation, which leads to cardiogenic shock, ventricular arrhythmia, heart blocks, or multiorgan failure. Despite aggressive clinical course, patients with acute fulminant myocarditis have better outcomes than those with the nonfulminant type when appropriately supported during the acute phase of the disease. Therefore, early recognition of deteriorating myocarditis and timely mechanical circulatory support are crucial to improve outcomes.
Where should we start to improve pediatric heart transplantation outcomes?
Jinyoung Song
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(2):76-77.   Published online November 25, 2020
· Pediatric heart transplantation is achieving better outcomes.
· The waitlist mortality is still high, especially in Korea, and should be reduced.
· The use of ventricular assist device is promising and might offer improved waitlist mortality rates.
Review Article
Cardiology
Pediatric heart transplantation: how to manage problems affecting long-term outcomes?
Young Hwue Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(2):49-59.   Published online April 8, 2020
Since the initial International Society of Heart Lung Transplantation registry was published in 1982, the number of pediatric heart transplantations has increased markedly, reaching a steady state of 500–550 transplantation annually and occupying up to 10% of total heart transplantations. Heart transplantation is considered an established therapeutic option for patients with end-stage heart disease. The long-term outcomes of pediatric heart...
Original Article
Cardiology
Age-, sex-, and height-based blood pressure reference charts, Yazd children 6–18 years, Iran
Nastaran ahmadi, Seyedeh Mahdieh Namayandeh, Seyed Mahmood Sadr Bafghi, Mohammad Reza Mohammadi, Masoud Mirzaei, Mohammadtaghi Sarebanhassanabadi, Amir Houshang Mehrparvar, Reza Faraji, Neda Nilforoshan, Ahmad Karimi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(8):321-328.   Published online July 21, 2020
Question: What is the 90th, 95th, 99th percentile of blood pressure based on height as the cut point for diagnosis of hypertension in children of our province?
Finding: We used blood pressure of 456 males and 579 females in 6–18 years old in “Iranian Children and Adolescents' Psychiatric Disorders survey.
Meaning: The 90th, 95th, 99th percentiles of systolic and diastolic blood pressure in both sex based on age and 10-cm height intervals were developed in Yazd.
Importance of pulmonary valve morphology for pulmonary valve preservation in tetralogy of Fallot surgery: comparison of the echocardiographic parameters
Su Jin Choi, Jung Eun Kwon, Da Eun Roh, Myung Chul Hyun, Hanna Jung, Young Ok Lee, Joon Yong Cho, Yeo Hyang Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(5):189-194.   Published online November 8, 2019
Question: Is echocardiographic examination is useful for surgical method decision in patients with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)?
Finding: Various echocardiographic parameters serve as predictors for determining surgical methods for TOF patients. However, the PV morphology and tissue characteristics should also be considered.
Meaning: A full dependence on the size of the pulmonary valve annulus (PVA), the z score, and the ratio of the size of PVA to aortic valve annulus or descending aorta surgery may result in inadequate surgical results during TOF total correction.
Letter to the Editor
Cardiology
Differences over 10 years in epidemiologic and clinical features of Kawasaki disease at a single tertiary center
Hyun Su Kim, Suk Won Shin, Bo Geum Choi, Hee Joung Choi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(4):157-158.   Published online February 5, 2020
Editorial
Cardiology
Can the accurate epidemiological study help to search the etiology of Kawasaki disease?
Ji Whan Han
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(3):96-97.   Published online August 7, 2019
Review Article
Cardiology
Understanding the importance of cerebrovascular involvement in Kawasaki disease
Jung Sook Yeom, Jae Young Cho, Hyang-Ok Woo
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2019;62(9):334-339.   Published online May 16, 2019
Kawasaki disease (KD) is a systemic vasculitis in infants and young children. However, its natural history has not been fully elucidated because the first case was reported in the late 1960s and patients who have recovered are just now entering middle age. Nevertheless, much evidence has raised concerns regarding the subclinical vascular changes that occur in post-KD patients. KD research...
Original Article
Cardiology
Iron deficiency anemia as a predictor of coronary artery abnormalities in Kawasaki disease
Sohyun Kim, Lucy Youngmin Eun
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2019;62(8):301-306.   Published online February 8, 2019

Purpose: Coronary artery abnormalities (CAA) are the most important complications of Kawasaki disease (KD). Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is a prevalent micronutrient deficiency and its association with KD remains unknown. We hypothesized that presence of IDA could be a predictor of CAA. Methods: This retrospective study included 173 KD patients, divided into 2 groups according to absence (group 1) and presence...
Editorial
Cardiology
Can iron be a risk factor for coronary lesions in Kawasaki disease?
Kyung Lim Yoon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2019;62(8):297-298.   Published online June 7, 2019
Review Article
Cardiology
Reality of Kawasaki disease epidemiology
Gi Beom Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2019;62(8):292-296.   Published online July 9, 2019
Epidemiologic studies of Kawasaki disease (KD) have shown a new pattern or change of its occurrence suggestive of its pathophysiology or risk factors from the first patient with KD reported in 1961. The incidence of KD in Northeast Asian countries including Japan, South Korea, China, and Taiwan is 10–30 times higher than that in the United States and Europe. Knowing...
Original Article
Cardiology
Change of coronary artery indices according to coronary dominance pattern in early childhood
Yoon jin Lee, Kyoung Soo Park, Hong Ryang Kil
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2019;62(6):240-243.   Published online November 22, 2018

Purpose: Coronary arterial lesion assessment in children can be difficult, depending on the coronary dominance pattern. Although it is easier to determine coronary dominance with echocardiography in children than in adults, it is still difficult. This study aimed to examine the coronary dominance pattern according to the objective coronary artery (CA) indices. Methods: The CA diameter, aortic valve annulus, and abdominal...
High antistreptolysin O titer is associated with coronary artery lesions in patients with Kawasaki disease
Dong Eun Min, Do Hee Kim, Mi Young Han, Sung Ho Cha, Kyung Lim Yoon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2019;62(6):235-239.   Published online November 7, 2018

Purpose: In Kawasaki disease (KD) patients, coronary artery complications, incomplete and refractory types occur more frequently in patients with streptococcal or other bacterial/viral infections. Recently, we observed a higher incidence of coronary lesions in KD patients with high anti-streptolysin O (ASO) titer. Therefore, we hypothesized that KD patients diagnosed with concurrent streptococcal infection have poor prognosis, with respect to treatment...
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