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Articles in E-pub version are posted online ahead of regular printed publication.

Original Article
Viral load and rebound in children with coronavirus disease 2019 during the first outbreak in Daegu city
Mi Ae Chu, Yoon Young Jang, Dong Won Lee, Sung Hoon Kim, Namhee Ryoo, Sunggyun Park, Jae Hee Lee, Hai Lee Chung
Received December 13, 2020  Accepted September 28, 2021  
Question: What is the natural course of viral load in children with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?
Finding: A significant number of patients still had a relatively high viral load once clinically asymptomatic. Nearly half of the patients experienced viral rebound, which contributed to prolonged viral detection in their respiratory specimens.
Meaning: Further studies are needed to determine the clinical significance of viral rebound in asymptomatic or mild pediatric cases of COVID-19.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3345/cep.2020.02033    [Epub ahead of print]
Letter to the Editor
Environmental and dietary factors to be checked for treatment of atopic dermatitis in rural children
Sanghwa Youm, Eunjoo Lee, Jeongmin Lee
Received May 6, 2021  Accepted September 7, 2021  
Question: What are the distinctive features of rural children with atopic dermatitis?
Finding: Birch and dog dander were the second most sensitized aeroallergens (32.6%), followed by house dust mites. Doctors and guardians reported food allergy comorbidities differently (19.9% and 43.5%, respectively). Dietary restrictions without medical evaluation were observed in 39.7% of patients.
Meaning: Effects of pollen distribution and indirect animal exposure should be evaluated. Evidence-based dietary restrictions must be implemented.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3345/cep.2021.00605    [Epub ahead of print]
Editorial
Commentary on “Cognitive outcomes in late childhood and adolescence of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy”
Eun Sook Suh
Received June 14, 2021  Accepted July 29, 2021  
Neonatal encephalopathy is the most important reason for morbidity and mortality. The early detection of neonate with high risk for hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) and treatment are important for prevent long term complication. Hypothermia is currently standard treatment option for HIE. Several clinical studies have been performed due to improve the long term outcome. New therapeutic options including xenon, allopurinol, erythropoietin, topiramate will help to reduce neuropsychiatric disability.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3345/cep.2021.00822    [Epub ahead of print]
Review Article
Endocrine comorbidities of pediatric obesity
Jieun Lee, Jae Hyun Kim
Received February 23, 2021  Accepted August 19, 2021  
∙ Pediatric obesity can involve endocrine comorbidities such as prediabetes, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome, polycystic ovary syndrome, and central precocious puberty.
∙ Prediabetes and type 2 diabetes in youth aged 10–19 years had a prevalence of 25.9% and 0.6% in 2013–2014, respectively.
∙ Dyslipidemia in Korean adolescents aged 10–18 years had a prevalence of 7.64% (total cholesterol ≥200 mg/dL), 6.09% (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥130 mg/dL), 8.69% (triglyceride ≥150 mg/dL), and 12.52% (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≤40 mg/dL) in 2007–2018.
∙ Metabolic syndrome in Korean youth has a prevalence of 1.9%–14.7% in males and 1.7%–12.6% in females with wide variation in definitions.
∙ Appropriate comorbidity screening and management and/or specialist referral are necessary for obese children and adolescents.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3345/cep.2021.00213    [Epub ahead of print]
Editorial
Global trend and disparity of acute lower respiratory infection as cause of mortality in children under 5 years of age
Abdul Wahab
Received March 28, 2021  Accepted May 24, 2021  
Acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) is the leading cause of death among children under 5 years of age worldwide, especially in low- and middle-income countries. A spatial analysis explains the trends and severity based on the conditions of each country. Countries in Asia and Africa experience many cases of mortality caused by ALRI.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3345/cep.2021.00367    [Epub ahead of print]
Review Article
Recommendation for use of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis, inactivated poliovirus, Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate, and hepatitis B vaccine in infants
Hye-Kyung Cho, Su Eun Park, Yae-Jean Kim, Dae Sun Jo, Yun-Kyung Kim, Byung-Wook Eun, Taek-Jin Lee, Jina Lee, Hyunju Lee, Ki Hwan Kim, Eun Young Cho, Jong Gyun Ahn, Eun Hwa Choi; The Committee on Infectious Diseases of the Korean Pediatric Society
Received April 21, 2021  Accepted May 14, 2021  
∙ Diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus-Haemophilus influenzae type b-hepatitis B (DTaP-IPV-Hib-HepB) was licensed in Korea in April 2020.
∙ DTaP-IPV-Hib-HepB is indicated as a 3-dose primary series for infants aged 2, 4, and 6 months who received the standalone HepB vaccine at birth.
∙ Infants born to HepB surface antigen-positive mothers are currently recommended to be immunized with HepB immunoglobulin at birth and then monovalent HepB vaccine at 0, 1, and 6 months.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3345/cep.2021.00507    [Epub ahead of print]
Original Article
Vasovagal syncope with mild versus moderate autonomic dysfunction: a 13-year single-center experience
Han Eoul Lee, Dong Won Lee
Received January 16, 2021  Accepted May 24, 2021  
Question: It is well known that autonomic dysfunction contributes to vasovagal syncope (VVS). Does the degree of autonomic dysfunction contribute to clinical manifestations, diagnostic methods, treatment, and prognosis?
Finding: The clinical manifestations, diagnostic methods, treatment, and prognosis differ between patients with mild and moderate degrees of autonomic dysfunction.
Meaning: VVS is caused by autonomic dysfunction, but autonomic dysfunction severity need not be classified.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3345/cep.2021.00052    [Epub ahead of print]
Review Article
Cognitive outcomes in late childhood and adolescence of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy
Bo Lyun Lee, Hannah C. Glass
Received February 9, 2021  Accepted May 18, 2021  
∙ Cognitive impairments occur in children with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) even without neuromotor deficits.
∙ Therapeutic hypothermia has improved neurodevelopmental outcomes of children with HIE; however, 40% of children remain at risk of death/disability or cognitive impairments necessitating the development of adjunctive neuroprotective therapies.
∙ Long-term follow-up until adolescence is required to identify cognitive dysfunction.
∙ A pattern of watershed injury on brain imaging is associated with poor cognitive outcomes.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3345/cep.2021.00164    [Epub ahead of print]
Editorial
Pediatricians must consider familial environment when diagnosing and managing childhood obesity
Young Suk Shim
Received March 17, 2021  Accepted March 31, 2021  
•The prevalence of childhood obesity is increasing worldwide, including in the Republic of Korea, creating a major public healthissue.
•Accumulated evidence indicates a strong relationship between parentalandchildobesity.
•A family-based approach is indicated to prevent and manage childhoodandadultobesity.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3345/cep.2021.00318    [Epub ahead of print]
Original Article
Association between polycystic ovary syndrome and risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in offspring: a meta-analysis
Azam Maleki, Saeid Bashirian, Ali Reza Soltanian, Ensiyeh Jenabi, Abdollah Farhadinasab
Received February 13, 2021  Accepted March 31, 2021  
Question: Have polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) increased risk of having an offspring with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?
Finding: Six articles (3 cohort and 3 case-control studies; 401,413 total ADHD cases) met the study criteria. Maternal PCOS was associated with an increased risk of ADHD in the offspring based on odds ratio (OR) and relative ratio (RR) (OR, 1.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.27–1.57) and (RR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.35–1.51), respectively.
Meaning: Our study showed that maternal PCOS is a risk factor for ADHD.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3345/cep.2021.00178    [Epub ahead of print]
Efficacy of probiotics for managing infantile colic due to their anti-inflammatory properties: a meta-analysis and systematic review
Reza Shirazinia, Ali Akbar Golabchifar, Mohammad Reza Fazeli
Received October 9, 2020  Accepted March 29, 2021  
Question: Do probiotics reduce colic symptoms?
Finding: Probiotics reduced colic symptoms in colicky infants probably due to the anti-inflammatory properties.
Meaning: Probiotics may be an effective and less noxious way to manage infantile colic.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3345/cep.2020.01676    [Epub ahead of print]
Global relationship between parent and child obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Ju Suk Lee, Mi Hyeon Jin, Hae Jeong Lee
Received September 23, 2020  Accepted March 16, 2021  
Question: Are parent and child obesity correlated worldwide?
Finding: Overweight and obese status of parents and children were significantly associated worldwide. The association between parent and child obesity was stronger in Asia than in Europe and the Middle East, and in high-income than in middle- and low-income countries.
Meaning: Childhood obesity is highly influenced by parental weight status, indicating that parents could play an important role in its prevention.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3345/cep.2020.01620    [Epub ahead of print]
Spatial modeling of mortality from acute lower respiratory infections in children under 5 years of age in 2000–2017: a global study
Ali Almasi, Sohyla Reshadat, Alireza Zangeneh, Mehdi Khezeli, Raziyeh Teimouri, Samira Rahimi Naderi, Shahram Saeidi
Received August 22, 2020  Accepted March 5, 2021  
Question: We assessed the spatial modeling of mortality from acute lower respiratory infections in children under 5 years old during 2000–2017 using a global data.
Finding: The total number of child deaths during the study period decreased, while the number of hot spots increased among countries.
Meaning: Hot spots were concentrated in Asia in 2000 but shifted toward African countries by 2017. A cold spot formed in Europe over the study period.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3345/cep.2020.01438    [Epub ahead of print]
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