Infection

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Letter to the Editor
Infection
Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children and Kawasaki disease in infants: 2 sides of the same coin?
Hing Cheong Kok, Dinesh Nair, Ke Juin Wong, Siew Moy Fong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(11):599-601.   Published online October 7, 2021
Question: Are multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) and Kawasaki disease (KD) in infants, 2 sides of the same coin?
Finding: Here we report on a 4-month-old girl with MIS-C and signs of KD with shock. Most (83%) infants with MIS-C had features of KD, especially KD shock syndrome.
Meaning: MIS-C is similar to KD, and likely is a consequence of dysregulated immune responses secondary to sudden acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection.
Clinical Note
Infection
A neonate infected with coronavirus disease 2019 with severe symptoms suggestive of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in childhood
Fatemeh Eghbalian, Ghazal Sami, Saeid Bashirian, Ensiyeh Jenabi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(11):596-598.   Published online September 10, 2021
Question: Can multisystem inflammatory syndrome in childhood (MIS-C) occur in the neonate associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?
Finding: A 9-day-old neonate infected with COVID-19 had fever, respiratory distress, and gastrointestinal symptoms suggestive of MIS-C. This neonate recovered after treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG).
Meaning: IVIG successfully treated a rare case of a 9-day-old neonate with COVID-19 and severe symptoms suggestive of MIS-C.
Original article
Infection
The global prevalence of Toxocara spp. in pediatrics: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Behnam Abedi, Mehran Akbari, Sahar KhodaShenas, Alireza Tabibzadeh, Ali Abedi, Reza Ghasemikhah, Marzieh Soheili, Shnoo Bayazidi, Yousef Moradi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(11):575-581.   Published online February 5, 2021
Is the global prevalence of toxocariasis high among children? The prevalence of toxocariasis is high in pediatric patients. Asian children are more susceptible to the disease than other children. Its virulence varies among different socioeconomic classes in various countries. Hand washing after soil contact, routine pet deworming, and appropriate disposal of pet feces in households with Asian pediatrics are needed to prevent toxocariasis.
Review Article
Infection
Effects of nasopharyngeal microbiota in respiratory infections and allergies
Hyun Mi Kang, Jin Han Kang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(11):543-551.   Published online April 15, 2021
· The nasal microbiota varies with age and is shaped by various factors in healthy individuals.
· The pathological condition of the respiratory tract appears to be associated with reduced nasal microbiota biodiversity, while dysbiosis is involved in the pathophysiology of many respiratory diseases, including otitis, sinusitis, allergic diseases, and lower respiratory infections.
Consideration in treatment decisions for refractory Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia
Hye-Kyung Cho
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(9):459-467.   Published online February 10, 2021
• To avoid unnecessary exposure to secondary antibiotics, it is needed to diagnose Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) pneumonia carefully, especially when unresponsiveness to macrolide is suspected.
• Serologic and molecular tests for MP infection and excluding respiratory infection caused by other pathogens might be considered.
• It is necessary to continuously monitor antibiotic susceptibility of MP, and efforts to lower antibiotic pressure are required.
Original Article
Infection
Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Iranian children: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Farhad Sarrafzadeh, Seyed Mojtaba Sohrevardi, Hamid Abousaidi, Hossein Mirzaei
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(8):415-421.   Published online November 20, 2020
The pooled prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was 42% among culture-positive cases of S. aureus, 51% in hospitalized children, and 14% in healthy children. The high prevalence of MRSA in Iranian children may be due to insufficient infection control measures in hospitals, inappropriate use of methicillin, inadequate staff training, and over-prescription of antibiotics in Iran.
Review Article
Infection
Updates on the coronavirus disease 2019 vaccine and consideration in children
Hyun Mi Kang, Eun Hwa Choi, Yae-Jean Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(7):328-338.   Published online June 21, 2021
· The number of coronavirus disease 2019 cases has exponentially increased worldwide, and children ≤19 years old account for 11.0% of all confirmed cases.
· mRNA vaccines, BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273, and adenoviral vector vaccines, AZD1222 and Ad26.COV2.S, authorized for emergency use in the Emergency Use Listing of the World Health Organization are reviewed.
· Clinical trials of these vaccines have shown that they are safe and serious adverse reactions are rarely observed.
School closures during the coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak
Eun Young Cho, Young June Choe
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(7):322-327.   Published online May 31, 2021
· Earlier modeling studies of the effects of school closures on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 were largely derived from the pandemic influenza model, resulting in conflicting implications.
· Observational findings suggest no clear effect of school closures on community transmission or overall mortality.
· School closures must be weighed against potential high social costs, which can also negatively affect children’s health.
Original Article
Infection
Febrile urinary tract infection in children: changes in epidemiology, etiology, and antibiotic resistance patterns over a decade
Woosuck Suh, Bi Na Kim, Hyun Mi Kang, Eun Ae Yang, Jung-Woo Rhim, Kyung-Yil Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(6):293-300.   Published online October 14, 2020
Question: How has the antibiotic susceptibility of urinary pathogens changed and what does it imply?
Finding: A yearly increase in multidrug-resistant and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)–producing pathogens was observed. A higher recurrence rate was observed in cases of febrile urinary tract infection caused by ESBL producers in patients with underlying vesicoureteral reflux (VUR).
Meaning: The initial empirical antibiotic should reflect the changing susceptibility patterns and underlying VUR status.
Editorial
Infection
Should we prescribe carbapenem for treating febrile urinary tract infection caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in children with vesicoureteral reflux?
Ji Young Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(6):284-285.   Published online January 5, 2021
Recent studies are focused on the noninferiority of noncarbapenem therapy for the treatment of extended-spectrum β-lactamases producing Enterobacteriaceae infections to reduce the utilization of carbapenem.
Babies born to mothers positive for SARS-CoV-2 – Are they in danger?
Joon Kee Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(6):280-281.   Published online May 4, 2021
Concerns have arisen in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic upon pregnancy and postnatal care starting from reproductive decision-making. To the utmost knowledge, reproductive decisions should not be based primarily on health-related COVID-19 concerns, as the possibility of vertical transmission is negligible and the perinatal outcome is generally not poor compared to pregnancies without COVID-19, as long as infection control measures are well kept.
Clinical note
Infection
Coronavirus disease 2019 in a 13-year-old patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia
Seyed Kamal Eshagh Hossaini, Zahra Movahedi, Ahmad Hormati, Hosein Heydari, Seyed Jalal Eshagh Hosseini, Fatemeh Khodadust, Mahboubeh Afifian, Sajjad Ahmadpour
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(5):247-250.   Published online March 8, 2021
Question: What should be considered in an immunocompromised child with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?
Finding: Due to the importance of appropriately managing COVID-19 in children with cancer, the possibility of a fatal outcome should be considered in immunocompromised patients who receive chemotherapy agents.
Meaning: In all kinds of infections including COVID-19, disuse management and the development of international guidelines for children with cancer is challenging but important.
Editorial
Infection
Catheter care bundle and feedback to prevent central line-associated bloodstream infections in pediatric patients
Hye-Kyung Cho
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(3):119-120.   Published online December 8, 2020
• Intravascular catheter-related infection is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children, and care bundles are effective and cost-saving in pediatric and neonatal patients.
• Providing regular feedbacks to critical care practitioners is helpful to maintain compliance to care bundle.
• Establishing a bundle policy (insertion and maintenance), monitoring compliance, and providing regular feedbacks are necessary for prevention of central line-associated bloodstream infections in pediatric patients.
Perspective
Infection
Addressing children’s health amid the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic
Young June Choe, Bilal Aurang Zeb Durrani, Stefan Swartling Peterson
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(2):46-48.   Published online December 15, 2020
In the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, children experience heightened barriers to health and protective services. Children may also be disproportionately affected due to their reliance on the education system for daily tasks and lack of access to remote learning options. Republic of Korea findings on how vaccination coverage could be sustained in children and schools could be reopened without aggravating COVID-19 underlie the need for coordinated efforts across sectors.
Clinical note
Infection
Coronavirus disease 2019 in a 2-month-old male infant: a case report from Iran
Hosein Heydari, Seyed Kamal Eshagh Hossaini, Ahmad Hormati, Mahboubeh Afifian, Sajjad Ahmadpour
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(12):499-502.   Published online September 21, 2020
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