Infection

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Perspective
Infection
Can we get a clue for the etiology of Kawasaki disease in the COVID-19 pandemic?
Jong-Woon Choi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(9):335-336.   Published online July 13, 2020
A new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been spreading globally since December 2019. Children with a Kawasaki disease (KD)-like illness related with COVID-19 have been reported in Europe and the United States. They presented with symptoms of KD with or without cardiac abnormalities or shock, showing manifestations of hyperactive proinflammatory cytokine reactions like KD. Such cases may provide the opportunity for us to learn more about the etiology and pathogenesis of KD.
Editorial
Infection
Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines: choice of schedule and product development
Jin Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(7):259-260.   Published online April 27, 2020
Perspective
Infection
COVID-19 in children: reasons for uneventful clinical course
Sweni Shah, Ramachandran Meenakshisundaram, Subramanian Senthilkumaran, Ponniah Thirumalaikolundusubramanian
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(7):237-238.   Published online June 18, 2020
Review Article
Infection
Epidemiology and clinical features of coronavirus disease 2019 in children
Soo-Han Choi, Han Wool Kim, Ji-Man Kang, Dong Hyun Kim, Eun Young Cho
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(4):125-132.   Published online April 6, 2020
Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), which started in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 and declared a worldwide pandemic on March 11, 2020, is a novel infectious disease that causes respiratory illness and death. Pediatric COVID-19 accounts for a small percentage of patients and is often milder than that in adults; however, it can progress to severe disease in some cases. Even neonates...
Epidemiology, virology, and clinical features of severe acute respiratory syndrome -coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2; Coronavirus Disease-19)
Su Eun Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(4):119-124.   Published online April 2, 2020
A cluster of severe pneumonia of unknown etiology in Wuhan City, Hubei province in China emerged in December 2019. A novel coronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) was isolated from lower respiratory tract sample as the causative agent. The current outbreak of infections with SARS-CoV-2 is termed Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) by the World Health Organization (WHO). COVID-19...
Central line-associated bloodstream infections in neonates
Hye Jung Cho, Hye-Kyung Cho
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2019;62(3):79-84.   Published online December 19, 2018
Newborn infants, including premature infants, are high-risk patients susceptible to various microorganisms. Catheter-related bloodstream infections are the most common type of nosocomial infections in this population. Regular education and training of medical staffs are most important as a preventive strategy for central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs). Bundle approaches and the use of checklists during the insertion and maintenance of central...
Case Report
Infection
Scabies mimicking graft versus host disease in a hematopoietic cell transplant recipient
Dongsub Kim, Soo-Han Choi, Dong Youn Lee, Juyoun Kim, Eunjoo Cho, Keon Hee Yoo, Hong Hoe Koo, Yae-Jean Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(11):371-373.   Published online November 9, 2018
Scabies is a highly contagious skin infestation caused by the mite, Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis. Complex responses to scabies mites in the innate, humoral, and cellular immune systems can cause skin inflammation and pruritus. Diagnosis can be challenging because scabies resembles other common skin conditions. We report the first Korean case of scabies in a hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipient,...
Original Article
Infection
A contact investigation after exposure to a child with disseminated tuberculosis mimicking inflammatory bowel disease
Dongsub Kim, Sodam Lee, Sang-Hee Kang, Mi-Sun Park, So-Young Yoo, Tae Yeon Jeon, Joon-Sik Choi, Bora Kim, Jong Rim Choi, Sun Young Cho, Doo Ryeon Chung, Yon Ho Choe, Yae-Jean Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(11):366-370.   Published online November 15, 2018

Purpose: Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most important diseases that cause significant mortality and morbidity in young children. Data on TB transmission from an infected child are limited. Herein, we report a case of disseminated TB in a child and conducted a contact investigation among exposed individuals. Methods: A 4-year-old child without Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccination was diagnosed as having culture-proven...
Usefulness of the procalcitonin test in young febrile infants between 1 and 3 months of age
In Sul Lee, Young Jin Park, Mi Hyeon Jin, Ji Young Park, Hae Jeong Lee, Sung Hoon Kim, Ju Suk Lee, Cheol Hong Kim, Young Don Kim, Jun Hwa Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(9):285-290.   Published online September 15, 2018

Purpose: To study the usefulness of the procalcitonin (PCT) test in young febrile infants between 1 and 3 months of age. Methods: We evaluated the medical records of 336 febrile infants between 1 and 3 months of age who visited the Emergency Department or outpatient department of Samsung Changwon Hospital from May 2015 to February 2017, and analyzed the clinical characteristics...
Clinical and laboratory profiles of hospitalized children with acute respiratory virus infection
Eunjin Choi, Kee-Soo Ha, Dae Jin Song, Jung Hwa Lee, Kwang Chul Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(6):180-186.   Published online June 25, 2018
Purpose

Despite the availability of molecular methods, identification of the causative virus in children with acute respiratory infections (ARIs) has proven difficult as the same viruses are often detected in asymptomatic children.

Methods

Multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays were performed to detect 15 common respiratory viruses in children under 15 years of age who were hospitalized with ARI between January 2013...

Association between vitamin D and urinary tract infection in children
Abolfazl Mahyar, Parviz Ayazi, Sara Safari, Reza Dalirani, Amir Javadi, Shiva Esmaeily
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(3):90-94.   Published online March 19, 2018
Purpose

The present study aimed to determine the relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) level and Urinary tract infections (UTIs) in children.

Methods

In this case-control study, 70 children with UTI (case group) were compared with 70 healthy children (control group) in terms of serum 25(OH)D levels. The children were between 1 month and 12 years of age. Serum 25(OH)D levels were measured...

Treatment-failure tularemia in children
Arzu Karlı, Gülnar Şensoy, Şule Paksu, Muhammet Furkan Korkmaz, Ömer Ertuğrul, Rıfat Karlı
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(2):49-52.   Published online February 28, 2018
Purpose

Tularemia is an infection caused by Francisella tularensis. Its diagnosis and treatment may be difficult in many cases. The aim of this study was to evaluate treatment modalities for pediatric tularemia patients who do not respond to medical treatment.

Methods

A single-center, retrospective study was performed. A total of 19 children with oropharyngeal tularemia were included.

Results

Before diagnosis, the duration of symptoms in...

Case Report
Infection
Acute pancreatitis in hand, foot and mouth disease caused by Coxsackievirus A16: case report
Byungsung Park, Hyuckjin Kwon, Kwanseop Lee, Minjae Kang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2017;60(10):333-336.   Published online October 20, 2017

Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16), which primarily causes hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), is associated with complications, such as encephalitis, acute flaccid paralysis, myocarditis, pericarditis, and shock. However, no case of pancreatitis associated with CA16 has been reported in children. We report a case of CA16-associated acute pancreatitis in a 3-year-old girl with HFMD. She was admitted because of poor oral...

Original Article
Infection
The impact of an educational intervention on parents' decisions to vaccinate their <60-month-old children against influenza
Aery Choi, Dong Ho Kim, Yun Kyung Kim, Byung Wook Eun, Dae Sun Jo
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2017;60(8):254-260.   Published online August 14, 2017
Purpose

Seasonal influenza can be prevented by vaccination. Disease prevention in children aged <60 months is of particular importance because of the associated familial and societal burden. Considering that caretakers make the decision to vaccinate their children, the identification of drivers and barriers to vaccination is essential to increase influenza vaccination coverage.

Methods

A total of 639 parents participated in the pre- and...

Original Article
Infection
Uropathogenic Escherichia coli ST131 in urinary tract infections in children
Ki Wook Yun, Mi-Kyung Lee, Wonyong Kim, In Seok Lim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2017;60(7):221-226.   Published online July 31, 2017
Purpose

Escherichia coli sequence type (ST) 131, a multidrug-resistant clone causing extraintestinal infections, has rapidly become prevalent worldwide. However, the epidemiological and clinical features of pediatric infections are poorly understood. We aimed to explore the characteristics of ST131 Escherichia coli isolated from Korean children with urinary tract infections.

Methods

We examined 114 uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) isolates from children hospitalized at Chung-Ang University...

Effects of clarithromycin treatment in scrub typhus in children: comparison with chloramphenicol and azithromycin
Min Lee, June Kim, Dae Sun Jo
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2017;60(4):124-127.   Published online April 25, 2017
Purpose

Chloramphenicol and tetracycline are not recommended for treating scrub typhus in pediatric patients because of potential side effects, such as aplastic anemia or tooth discoloration. While clarithromycin has recently been used in adults, few reports have been published on its effects in pediatric patients. We report the clinical profiles of pediatric scrub typhus and the effects of clarithromycin on scrub...

Etiology and clinical characteristics of fever of unknown origin in children: a 15-year experience in a single center
Yi-Seul Kim, Kyung-Ran Kim, Ji-Man Kang, Jong-Min Kim, Yae-Jean Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2017;60(3):77-85.   Published online March 27, 2017
Purpose

Fever is one of the most common symptoms in children. In previous studies, infectious disease was the most common cause of pediatric fever of unknown origin (FUO). The aim of this study is to investigate the etiology, clinical characteristics and prognosis of pediatric FUO in 21 century with more diagnostics available and to analyze the factors for certain disease categories.

Methods

Among...

Review Article
Infection
Recommended immunization schedule for children and adolescents: Immunization Guideline (8th edition) released by the Korean Pediatric Society in 2015
Jong-Hyun Kim, Eun Hwa Choi, Su Eun Park, Yae-Jean Kim, Dae Sun Jo, Yun-Kyung Kim, Byung-Wook Eun, Jina Lee, Soo-Young Lee, Hyunju Lee, Ki Hwan Kim, Kyung-Hyo Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2016;59(12):461-465.   Published online December 31, 2016

This report includes the recommended immunization schedule table for children and adolescents based on the 8th (2015) and revised 7th (2012) Immunization Guidelines released by the Committee on Infectious Diseases of the Korean Pediatric Society (KPS). Notable revised recommendations include: reorganization of the immunization table with a list of vaccines on the vertical axis and the corresponding age on the...

Erratum
Infection
Erratum: Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in pediatric patients: an analysis of 15 confirmed consecutive cases during 14 years
Kyung-Ran Kim, Jong Min Kim, Ji-Man Kang, Yae-Jean Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2016;59(9):387-387.   Published online September 21, 2016
Case Report
Infection
Distinctive clinical features of HPeV-3 infection in 2 neonates with a sepsis-like illness
Jung Sook Yeom, Ji Sook Park, Ji-Hyun Seo, Eun Sil Park, Jae-Young Lim, Chan-Hoo Park, Hyang-Ok Woo, Hee-Shang Youn, Ok Jeong Lee, Tae-Hee Han, Ju-Young Chung
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2016;59(7):308-311.   Published online July 31, 2016

We report a human parechovirus-3 (HPeV-3) infection in 2 neonates who had prolonged fever (>5 days) with palmar-plantar erythema. This distinctive rash was observed 4–5 days after fever onset, just before defervescence. Elevated aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and ferritin levels were characteristic laboratory findings in the 2 cases, suggesting tissue damage caused by hypercytokinemia. Case 1 was treated with intravenous...

Original Article
Infection
Usefulness of interferon-γ release assay for the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection in young children
Ki Wook Yun, Young Kwang Kim, Hae Ryun Kim, Mi Kyung Lee, In Seok Lim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2016;59(6):256-261.   Published online June 30, 2016
Purpose

Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in young children may progress to severe active tuberculosis (TB) disease and serve as a reservoir for future transmission of TB disease. There are limited data on interferon-γ release assay (IGRA) performance in young children, which our research aims to address by investigating the usefulness of IGRA for the diagnosis of LTBI.

Methods

We performed a tuberculin skin...

Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in pediatric patients: an analysis of 15 confirmed consecutive cases during 14 years
Kyung-Ran Kim, Jong Min Kim, Ji-Man Kang, Yae-Jean Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2016;59(6):252-255.   Published online June 30, 2016
Purpose

Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia occurs in various immunocompromised patients. Despite the prophylaxis strategies in clinical practice, certain patients develop P. jirovecii pneumonia. This study was performed to investigate pediatric cases with P. jirovecii pneumonia in a single center.

Methods

We identified pediatric patients younger than 19 years with microbiologically confirmed P. jirovecii pneumonia from January 2000 to February 2014. A retrospective chart review...

Case Report
Infection
Tuberculosis-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in adolescent diagnosed by polymerase chain reaction
Ju-Hee Seo, Jun Ah Lee, Dong Ho Kim, Joongbum Cho, Jung Sub Lim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2016;59(1):43-46.   Published online January 22, 2016

We present a case of tuberculosis-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in a 14-year-old girl. The patient presented with weight loss, malaise, fatigue, prolonged fever, and generalized lymphadenopathy. Laboratory investigation revealed pancytopenia (white blood cells, 2,020 cells/µL; hemoglobin, 10.2 g/dL; platelets, 52,000 cells/µL), hypertriglyceridemia (229 mg/dL), and hyperferritinemia (1,420 ng/mL). Bone marrow biopsy showed a hypocellular bone marrow with a large numbers of...

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