Most cited

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Most-cited articles are from the articles published during the last two years (2020 ~ ).

Review Article
Infection
Epidemiology, virology, and clinical features of severe acute respiratory syndrome -coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2; Coronavirus Disease-19)
Su Eun Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(4):119-124.   Published online April 2, 2020
A cluster of severe pneumonia of unknown etiology in Wuhan City, Hubei province in China emerged in December 2019. A novel coronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) was isolated from lower respiratory tract sample as the causative agent. The current outbreak of infections with SARS-CoV-2 is termed Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) by the World Health Organization (WHO). COVID-19...
Epidemiology and clinical features of coronavirus disease 2019 in children
Soo-Han Choi, Han Wool Kim, Ji-Man Kang, Dong Hyun Kim, Eun Young Cho
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(4):125-132.   Published online April 6, 2020
Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), which started in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 and declared a worldwide pandemic on March 11, 2020, is a novel infectious disease that causes respiratory illness and death. Pediatric COVID-19 accounts for a small percentage of patients and is often milder than that in adults; however, it can progress to severe disease in some cases. Even neonates...
Original Article
Allergy
Ten-year trends and prevalence of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis among the Korean population, 2008–2017
Jihyun Ha, Seung Won Lee, Dong Keon Yon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(7):278-283.   Published online January 29, 2020
Background: Major questions remain regarding the agestratified trends of allergic diseases and asthma in Korea.
Purpose: To identify the estimated recent prevalence and 10- year trends in asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis among the Korean population from 2008 to 2017. Methods: This nationwide cross-sectional survey (Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) over 10 years (2008–2017) examined representative samples of the...
Review Article
Nutrition
Components of human breast milk: from macronutrient to microbiome and microRNA
Su Yeong Kim, Dae Yong Yi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(8):301-309.   Published online March 23, 2020
Human breast milk (HBM) is essential for the infant’s growth and development right after birth and is an irreplaceable source of nutrition for early human survival. Various infant formulas have many similarities to HBM in many components, but there is no perfect substitute for HBM. Recently, various breast milk components and their roles have been studied according to the development...
Pulmonology
High-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy in children: a clinical review
Ji-Won Kwon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(1):3-7.   Published online October 28, 2019
High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) is a relatively safe and effective noninvasive ventilation method that was recently accepted as a treatment option for acute respiratory support before endotracheal intubation or invasive ventilation. The action mechanism of HFNC includes a decrease in nasopharyngeal resistance, washout of dead space, reduction in inflow of ambient air, and an increase in airway pressure. In preterm...
General Pediatrics
Clinical features, diagnosis, and outcomes of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children associated with coronavirus disease 2019
Ji Hee Kwak, Soo-Young Lee, Jong-Woon Choi; the Korean Society of Kawasaki Disease
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(2):68-75.   Published online December 30, 2020
Hundreds of cases of children and adolescents with hyperinflammatory responses such as Kawasaki disease have been reported amid the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, leading to coining of the new term COVID-19–associated multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. In this review article, we introduce the illness and describe its case definitions, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, treatments, and outcomes.
Immunology
Immunopathogenesis of COVID-19 and early immunomodulators
Kyung-Yil Lee, Jung-Woo Rhim, Jin-Han Kang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(7):239-250.   Published online June 18, 2020
The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is spreading globally. Although its etiologic agent is discovered as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), there are many unsolved issues in COVID-19 and other infectious diseases. The causes of different clinical phenotypes and incubation periods among individuals, species specificity, and cytokine storm with lymphopenia as well as the mechanism of damage to organ...
Infection
The COVID-19 pandemic: an unprecedented tragedy in the battle against childhood obesity
Maximilian Andreas Storz
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(12):477-482.   Published online November 5, 2020
Large-scale quarantine and home confinement during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic will impose new and unfamiliar stressors on children, thereby worsening the childhood obesity epidemic. Physical, nutritional, and psychosocial factors that promote obesity in children during this special situation complementarily contribute to an unprecedented obesogenic environment. Involved stakeholders, including governments, schools, and families, must make all efforts to minimize the impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on childhood obesity.
Endocrinology
Air pollution and childhood obesity
Moon Young Seo, Shin-Hye Kim, Mi Jung Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(10):382-388.   Published online March 27, 2020
Questions: What are the possible effects of air pollution on the occurrence of childhood obesity and what are the mechanisms?
Finding: Epidemiologic studies suggest that air pollutants might act as obesogens in the pediatric population, and their possible mechanisms include oxidative stress, physical inactivity, and epigenetic modulation.
Meaning: This paper reviews updated information on air pollution, one of the modifiable environmental factors in childhood obesity.
Original Article
Allergy
Cohort profile: National Investigation of Birth Cohort in Korea study 2008 (NICKs-2008)
Ju Hee Kim, Jung Eun Lee, So Min Shim, Eun Kyo Ha, Dong Keon Yon, Ok Hyang Kim, Ji Hyeon Baek, Hyun Yong Koh, Kyu Young Chae, Seung Won Lee, Man Yong Han
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(9):480-488.   Published online January 5, 2021
This national cohort study included all Korean children born in 2008 and 2009 observed over a period of more than 10 years. Our findings demonstrate that it is possible to analyze disease onset prior to hospitalization based on information such as lifestyle, eating habits, and risk factors by integrating National Health Insurance System data with national health screening data.
Review Article
Neurology
Genetic tests by next-generation sequencing in children with developmental delay and/or intellectual disability
Ji Yoon Han, In Goo Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(6):195-202.   Published online November 4, 2019
Developments in next-generation sequencing (NGS) techogies have assisted in clarifying the diagnosis and treatment of developmental delay/intellectual disability (DD/ID) via molecular genetic testing. Advances in DNA sequencing technology have not only allowed the evolution of targeted panels but also, and more currently enabled genome-wide analyses to progress from research era to clinical practice. Broad acceptance of accuracy- guided targeted gene...
Systematic review and meta-analysis
Genetics and Metabolism
Global prevalence of classic phenylketonuria based on Neonatal Screening Program Data: systematic review and meta-analysis
Hamid Reza Shoraka, Ali Akbar Haghdoost, Mohammad Reza Baneshi, Zohre Bagherinezhad, Farzaneh Zolala
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(2):34-43.   Published online February 6, 2020
Question: What is the global prevalence of classic phenylketonuria based on Neonatal Screening Program Data?
Finding: The overall worldwide prevalence of the disease is 6.002 per 100,000 neonates. The highest prevalence (38.13) was reported in Turkey, while the lowest (0.3) in Thailand.
Meaning: This difference in the prevalence may be due to differences in the number of consanguineous marriages among the different regions, phenylalanine cutoff points, and sample sizes.
Review Article
Neurology
Health effects of electromagnetic fields on children
Jin-Hwa Moon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(11):422-428.   Published online May 26, 2020
· The nervous systems of children are more vulnerable to the effects of electromagnetic waves than adults.
· The exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) among children should be minimized.
· According to International Agency for Research on Cancer EMFs are possibly carcinogenic, it should not be overlooked or interpreted with bias.
Systematic review and meta-analysis
Psychiatric/Psychology
Association between neonatal jaundice and autism spectrum disorders among children: a meta-analysis
Ensiyeh Jenabi, Saeid Bashirian, Salman Khazaei
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(1):8-13.   Published online November 7, 2019
Autism spectrum disorder is a common neurodevelopmental disorder with an unknown etiology. The correlation between neonatal jaundice and the risk of developing autism spectrum disorder was investigated previously. Some studies showed significant associations, whereas others demonstrated no association. In this meta-analysis, we pooled the results of observational studies to examine the association between neonatal jaundice and the risk of autism...
Original Article
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Long-term cognitive, executive, and behavioral outcomes of moderate and late preterm at school age
Ju Hyun Jin, Shin Won Yoon, Jungeun Song, Seong Woo Kim, Hee Jung Chung
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(6):219-225.   Published online September 25, 2019
Question: Infants born at moderate to late preterm gestations are known to have little problem later on, but is that really true?
Finding: At school age, cognitive problem was observed in about a quarter of the children. In addition, more than half of the children was suspected of having attention problems.
Meaning: Moderate to late preterm infants are at risk of developing abnormal intelligence and attention problems at early school age, therefore they should not be neglected on longterm follow-up evaluation.
Perspective
Pulmonology
Early preemptive immunomodulators (corticosteroids) for severe pneumonia patients infected with SARS-CoV-2
Kyung-Yil Lee, Jung-Woo Rhim, Jin-Han Kang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(4):117-118.   Published online April 8, 2020
Review Article
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Short- and long-term outcomes of very low birth weight infants in Korea: Korean Neonatal Network update in 2019
Jang Hoon Lee, YoungAh Youn, Yun Sil Chang; Korean Neonatal Network
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(8):284-290.   Published online February 5, 2020
The Korean Neonatal Network (KNN) has collected population-based data for very low birth weight infants (VLBWIs) born in Korea since 2013. The survival rate of all VLBWIs was 86% in Korea. The overall prevalence of cerebral palsy was 6.2%–6.6%. Bilateral blindness and hearing loss were reported in 0.2%–0.3%, 0.8%–1.9%, respectively. The KNN has published annual reports and papers for facilitating the improvement of VLBWIs outcome in Korea.
Original Article
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Synbiotics use for preventing sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis in very low birth weight neonates: a randomized controlled trial
Ozge Serce Pehlevan, Derya Benzer, Tugba Gursoy, Guner Karatekin, Fahri Ovali
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(6):226-231.   Published online February 5, 2020
Background: Probiotics and prebiotics have strain-specific effects on the host. Synbiotics, a mixture of probiotics and prebiotics, are proposed to have more beneficial effects on the host than either agent has alone.
Purpose: We performed a randomized controlled trial to investigate the effect of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium together with oligosaccharides and lactoferrin on the development of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) or sepsis...
Perinatal outcome and possible vertical transmission of coronavirus disease 2019: experience from North India
Ritu Sharma, Shikha Seth, Rakhee Sharma, Sanju Yadav, Pinky Mishra, Sujaya Mukhopadhyay
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(5):239-246.   Published online February 16, 2021
Question: Is there any risk of vertical transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and what is its neonatal profile?
Finding: Biological samples for vertical transmission were negative in all deliveries; however, 2 neonates tested positive for nasopharyngeal COVID-19 reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. No significant neonatal morbidity was observed.
Meaning: COVID-19 does not increase adverse neonatal outcomes and shows a negligible risk of vertical transmission; however, horizontal transmission cannot be underestimated.
Developmental and Behavioral Medicine
Development of the Korean Developmental Screening Test for Infants and Children (K-DST)
Hee Jung Chung, Donghwa Yang, Gun-Ha Kim, Sung Koo Kim, Seoung Woo Kim, Young Key Kim, Young Ah Kim, Joon Sik Kim, Jin Kyung Kim, Cheongtag Kim, In-Kyung Sung, Son Moon Shin, Kyung Ja Oh, Hee-Jeong Yoo, Hee Joon Yu, Seoung-Joon Lim, Jeehun Lee, Hae-Ik Jeong, Jieun Choi, Jeong-Yi Kwon, Baik-Lin Eun
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(11):438-446.   Published online May 14, 2020
Question: Can the Korean Developmental Screening Test for Infants and Children (K-DST) be a useful screening tool for infants and children in Korea?
Finding: The K-DST has high reliability (internal consistency of 0.73–0.93, test-retest reliability of 0.77–0.88) and a high discriminatory ability with a sensitivity of 0.833 and specificity of 0.979.
Meaning: The K-DST is an effective and reliable screening tool for infants and children with neurodevelopmental disorders in Korea.
Psychiatric/Psychology
Association between assisted reproductive technology and autism spectrum disorders in Iran: a case-control study
Ensiyeh Jenabi, Mahdieh Seyedi, Ronak Hamzehei, Saeid Bashirian, Mohammad Rezaei, Katayoon Razjouyan, Salman Khazaei
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(9):368-372.   Published online March 27, 2020
Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder defined by impairments in social interaction and verbal and nonverbal communication.
Purpose: Determine the association between use of assisted reproduction technology (ART) and the risk of ASD among children. Methods: This case-control study included 300 participants (100 cases, 200 controls). The control group included women with a child aged 2–10 years without ASD,...
Review Article
Pulmonology
The past, present, and future of humidifier disinfectant-associated interstitial lung diseases in children
Eun Lee, So-Yeon Lee, Soo-Jong Hong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(7):251-258.   Published online December 9, 2019
Exposure to environmental factors can cause interstitial lung diseases (ILDs); however, such types of ILDs are rare. From 2007 to 2011, an ILD epidemic occurred in South Korea owing to inhalational exposure to toxic chemicals in humidifier disinfectants (HDs). HD-associated ILDs (HD-ILDs) are characterized by rapidly progressing respiratory failure with pulmonary fibrosis and a high mortality rate of 43.8%−58.0%. Although...
Nephrology (Genitourinary)
Treatment of refractory IgA vasculitis with dapsone: a systematic review
Keum Hwa Lee, Sung Hwi Hong, Jinhae Jun, Youngheun Jo, Woogyeong Jo, Dayeon Choi, Jeongho Joo, Guhyun Jung, Sunghee Ahn, Andreas Kronbichler, Michael Eisenhut, Jae Il Shin
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(5):158-163.   Published online September 24, 2019
IgA vasculitis, formerly known as Henoch-Schönlein purpura, is a systemic IgA-mediated vasculitis of the small vessels commonly seen in children. The natural history of IgA vasculitis is generally self-limiting; however, one-third of patients experience symptom recurrence and a refractory course. This systematic review examined the use of dapsone in refractory IgA vasculitis cases. A literature search of PubMed databases retrieved...
Original Article
Nutrition
Positive association of breastfeeding on respiratory syncytial virus infection in hospitalized infants: a multicenter retrospective study
Min Jeong Jang, Yong Joo Kim, Shinhye Hong, Jaeyoon Na, Jong Hee Hwang, Son Moon Shin, Young Min Ahn
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(4):135-140.   Published online November 12, 2019
Question: Human milk has stronger antiviral, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory properties compared with formula milk. How dose breastfeeding affect respiratory syncytial virus infection in Korea?
Finding: Breastfed infants required less oxygen therapy and possible intensive care unit admission than artificial formulafed infants during respiratory syncytial virus infection.
Meaning: This protective role of breast milk on RSV severity can be a supporting evidence for promoting breastfeeding in Korea.
Review Article
Neurology
Cognitive outcomes in late childhood and adolescence of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy
Bo Lyun Lee, Hannah C. Glass
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(12):608-618.   Published online May 24, 2021
∙ Cognitive impairments occur in children with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) even without neuromotor deficits.
∙ Therapeutic hypothermia has improved neurodevelopmental outcomes of children with HIE; however, 40% of children remain at risk of death/disability or cognitive impairments necessitating the development of adjunctive neuroprotective therapies.
∙ Long-term follow-up until adolescence is required to identify cognitive dysfunction.
∙ A pattern of watershed injury on brain imaging is associated with poor cognitive outcomes.
Original Article
Gastroenterology
Evaluating the effects of probiotics in pediatrics with recurrent abdominal pain
Parisa Rahmani, Azin Ghouran-orimi, Farzaneh Motamed, Alireza Moradzadeh
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(12):485-490.   Published online July 21, 2020
Question: ecurrent abdominal pain (RAP) is a chief complaint among pediatrics and is associated with reduced quality of life, for both parent and child, and economic burden. Does probiotics reduce the frequency of RAP among children?
Finding: This study reported the effects of Lactobacillus reuteri probiotics among children with RAP as a result of multiple etiologies.
Meaning: The administration of probiotic supplements is significantly associated with pain relief among RAP children presented with functional abdominal pain, irritable bowel syndrome, and functional dyspepsia.
Review Article
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Neurodevelopmental outcomes of very low birth weight infants in the Neonatal Research Network of Japan: importance of neonatal intensive care unit graduate follow-up
Yumi Kono; on behalf of the Neonatal Research Network of Japan
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(7):313-321.   Published online November 9, 2020
· Very low birth weight infants remain at high risk of developing neurodevelopmental impairments in early childhood.
· It is important to establish a network follow-up protocol and complete assessments with fewer dropouts to enable clarification of the outcomes of registered infants.
· All possible strategies should be employed to maintain good compliance after neonatal intensive care unit discharge.
Infection
Updates on the coronavirus disease 2019 vaccine and consideration in children
Hyun Mi Kang, Eun Hwa Choi, Yae-Jean Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(7):328-338.   Published online June 21, 2021
· The number of coronavirus disease 2019 cases has exponentially increased worldwide, and children ≤19 years old account for 11.0% of all confirmed cases.
· mRNA vaccines, BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273, and adenoviral vector vaccines, AZD1222 and Ad26.COV2.S, authorized for emergency use in the Emergency Use Listing of the World Health Organization are reviewed.
· Clinical trials of these vaccines have shown that they are safe and serious adverse reactions are rarely observed.
Clinical note
Neurology
Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody encephalitis following severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in a pediatric patient
Nusrat Ahsan, Saba Jafarpour, Jonathan D. Santoro
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(6):310-312.   Published online February 1, 2021
Question: Although neurologic complications have been reported during the acute phase of infection in children, less is known about the postinfectious phenomenon associated with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV-2) virus.
Finding: We present a case of a 7-year-old female with a prior asymptomatic infection with SARS-CoV-2 who subsequently developed encephalopathy and status epilepticus in association with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibody positivity.
Meaning: Here we present the first case of postinfectious of a MOG spectrum disorder associated with prior SARS-CoV-2 infection in a pediatric patient.
Review Article
General Pediatrics
Association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and risk of bone fractures in offspring: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Erfan Ayubi, Saeid Safiri, Kamyar Mansori
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(3):96-102.   Published online February 5, 2020
Question: What is the effect of maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) on the risk of bone fractures in the offspring?
Finding: After the adjustment for misclassification, MSDP may be associated with a 27% increased risk of bone fracture in the offspring (pooled odds ratio, 1.27; 95% confidence interval, 1.00–1.62; I2=0%; P=0.537)
Meaning: Preventive measures and health education programs should be designed and implemented to encourage women to stop smoking, especially during.
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