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Most-cited articles are from the articles published during the last two years (2019 ~ ).

Review Article
Infection
Epidemiology, virology, and clinical features of severe acute respiratory syndrome -coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2; Coronavirus Disease-19)
Su Eun Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(4):119-124.   Published online April 2, 2020
A cluster of severe pneumonia of unknown etiology in Wuhan City, Hubei province in China emerged in December 2019. A novel coronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) was isolated from lower respiratory tract sample as the causative agent. The current outbreak of infections with SARS-CoV-2 is termed Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) by the World Health Organization (WHO). COVID-19...
Epidemiology and clinical features of coronavirus disease 2019 in children
Soo-Han Choi, Han Wool Kim, Ji-Man Kang, Dong Hyun Kim, Eun Young Cho
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(4):125-132.   Published online April 6, 2020
Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), which started in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 and declared a worldwide pandemic on March 11, 2020, is a novel infectious disease that causes respiratory illness and death. Pediatric COVID-19 accounts for a small percentage of patients and is often milder than that in adults; however, it can progress to severe disease in some cases. Even neonates...
Original Article
Allergy
Ten-year trends and prevalence of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis among the Korean population, 2008–2017
Jihyun Ha, Seung Won Lee, Dong Keon Yon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(7):278-283.   Published online January 29, 2020
Background: Major questions remain regarding the agestratified trends of allergic diseases and asthma in Korea.
Purpose: To identify the estimated recent prevalence and 10- year trends in asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis among the Korean population from 2008 to 2017. Methods: This nationwide cross-sectional survey (Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) over 10 years (2008–2017) examined representative samples of the...
Review Article
Cardiology
Reality of Kawasaki disease epidemiology
Gi Beom Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2019;62(8):292-296.   Published online July 9, 2019
Epidemiologic studies of Kawasaki disease (KD) have shown a new pattern or change of its occurrence suggestive of its pathophysiology or risk factors from the first patient with KD reported in 1961. The incidence of KD in Northeast Asian countries including Japan, South Korea, China, and Taiwan is 10–30 times higher than that in the United States and Europe. Knowing...
Immunology
Immunopathogenesis of COVID-19 and early immunomodulators
Kyung-Yil Lee, Jung-Woo Rhim, Jin-Han Kang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(7):239-250.   Published online June 18, 2020
The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is spreading globally. Although its etiologic agent is discovered as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), there are many unsolved issues in COVID-19 and other infectious diseases. The causes of different clinical phenotypes and incubation periods among individuals, species specificity, and cytokine storm with lymphopenia as well as the mechanism of damage to organ...
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Surfactant preparations for preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome: past, present, and future
Ga Won Jeon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2019;62(5):155-161.   Published online February 8, 2019
Following the first successful trial of surfactant replacement therapy for preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) by Fujiwara in 1980, several animal-derived natural surfactants and synthetic surfactants have been developed. Synthetic surfactants were designed to overcome limitations of natural surfactants such as cost, immune reactions, and infections elicited by animal proteins contained in natural surfactants. However, first-generation synthetic surfactants...
Pulmonology
High-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy in children: a clinical review
Ji-Won Kwon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(1):3-7.   Published online October 28, 2019
High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) is a relatively safe and effective noninvasive ventilation method that was recently accepted as a treatment option for acute respiratory support before endotracheal intubation or invasive ventilation. The action mechanism of HFNC includes a decrease in nasopharyngeal resistance, washout of dead space, reduction in inflow of ambient air, and an increase in airway pressure. In preterm...
Nutrition
Components of human breast milk: from macronutrient to microbiome and microRNA
Su Yeong Kim, Dae Yong Yi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(8):301-309.   Published online March 23, 2020
Human breast milk (HBM) is essential for the infant’s growth and development right after birth and is an irreplaceable source of nutrition for early human survival. Various infant formulas have many similarities to HBM in many components, but there is no perfect substitute for HBM. Recently, various breast milk components and their roles have been studied according to the development...
General Pediatrics
Clinical features, diagnosis, and outcomes of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children associated with coronavirus disease 2019
Ji Hee Kwak, Soo-Young Lee, Jong-Woon Choi; the Korean Society of Kawasaki Disease
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(2):68-75.   Published online December 30, 2020
Hundreds of cases of children and adolescents with hyperinflammatory responses such as Kawasaki disease have been reported amid the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, leading to coining of the new term COVID-19–associated multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. In this review article, we introduce the illness and describe its case definitions, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, treatments, and outcomes.
Original Article
The association between preeclampsia and autism spectrum disorders among children: a meta-analysis
Ensiyeh Jenabi, Manoochehr Karami, Salman Khazaei, Saeid Bashirian
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2019;62(4):126-130.   Published online December 24, 2018

Purpose: In this meta-analysis, relevant case-control and cohort studies were pooled to evaluate the association between preeclampsia and the risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in children. Methods: A search for relevant studies in major databases, including Web of Science, PubMed, and Scopus, was performed up to May 2018. The odds ratios (ORs) or rate ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals...
Systematic review and meta-analysis
Genetics and Metabolism
Global prevalence of classic phenylketonuria based on Neonatal Screening Program Data: systematic review and meta-analysis
Hamid Reza Shoraka, Ali Akbar Haghdoost, Mohammad Reza Baneshi, Zohre Bagherinezhad, Farzaneh Zolala
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(2):34-43.   Published online February 6, 2020
Question: What is the global prevalence of classic phenylketonuria based on Neonatal Screening Program Data?
Finding: The overall worldwide prevalence of the disease is 6.002 per 100,000 neonates. The highest prevalence (38.13) was reported in Turkey, while the lowest (0.3) in Thailand.
Meaning: This difference in the prevalence may be due to differences in the number of consanguineous marriages among the different regions, phenylalanine cutoff points, and sample sizes.
Perspective
Pulmonology
Early preemptive immunomodulators (corticosteroids) for severe pneumonia patients infected with SARS-CoV-2
Kyung-Yil Lee, Jung-Woo Rhim, Jin-Han Kang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(4):117-118.   Published online April 8, 2020
Review Article
Infection
The COVID-19 pandemic: an unprecedented tragedy in the battle against childhood obesity
Maximilian Andreas Storz
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(12):477-482.   Published online November 5, 2020
Large-scale quarantine and home confinement during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic will impose new and unfamiliar stressors on children, thereby worsening the childhood obesity epidemic. Physical, nutritional, and psychosocial factors that promote obesity in children during this special situation complementarily contribute to an unprecedented obesogenic environment. Involved stakeholders, including governments, schools, and families, must make all efforts to minimize the impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on childhood obesity.
Original Article
General Pediatrics
Prevalence of hyperuricemia and its association with metabolic syndrome and cardiometabolic risk factors in Korean children and adolescents: analysis based on the 2016–2017 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Jung Hyun Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2019;62(8):317-323.   Published online June 24, 2019

Purpose: Investigating the prevalence of hyperuricemia and its association with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiometabolic risk factors (CMRFs) in Korean children and adolescents. Methods: This cross-sectional survey used data from the 7th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2016–2017); 1,256 males and females aged 10–18 years were included. Hyperuricemia was defined as serum uric acid levels were >6.6 mg/dL at...
Systematic review and meta-analysis
General Pediatrics
The maternal prepregnancy body mass index and the risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder among children and adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Ensiyeh Jenabi, Saied Bashirian, Salman Khazaei, Zohreh Basiri
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2019;62(10):374-379.   Published online June 14, 2019
Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms have a major impact on individuals, families, and society. Therefore identification risk factors of ADHD are a public health priority.
Purpose: This is meta-analysis evaluated the association between maternal prepregnancy body mass index and the risk of ADHD among the resulting offspring. Methods: The search identified studies published through December 2018 in the PubMed, Web...
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