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Volume 66(1); Jan 2023
Review Article
Cardiology
Research trends on causes of Kawasaki disease in the COVID-19 era: focus on viral infections
Young Hwan Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(1):1-11.   Published online June 22, 2022
· The etiology of Kawasaki disease (KD) is unclear, but its clinical, epidemiological, and pathophysiological characteristics are strongly associated with infectious diseases.
· In the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic era, viruses are attracting the most attention. Sudden acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection causes various hyperinflammation in children that require differentiation from KD.
· Immune responses in patients with KD may be induced by host cell damage. To effectively prevent and treat KD, the genetic background and immune responses of KD patients and triggering pathogens require identification.
Gastroenterology
Current diagnosis and image-guided reduction for intussusception in children
Jisun Hwang, Hee Mang Yoon, Pyeong Hwa Kim, Ah Young Jung, Jin Seong Lee, Young Ah Cho
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(1):12-21.   Published online July 4, 2022
· Intussusception, the most common cause of small bowel obstruction in young children, has an overall incidence in Korea of 28.3 cases per 100,000 person-years.
· Its cause is idiopathic inmost cases, although viral or bacterial gastroenteritis has beenpostulated as a cause. Approximately 4% of children have pathological lead points for intussusception, and Meckel’s diverticulum is the most common cause.
· Intussusception in preterm infants is extremely rare. Older children (>5 years of age) are at increased risk of pathological lead points.
Editorial
Pulmonology
Community-acquired pneumonia in Korean children: time to read between the lines
Dong In Suh
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(1):22-23.   Published online November 10, 2022
· Various studies have reported the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in Korean children
· Factors other than etiology are equally important to a compre hensive understanding of CAP
· Knowledge from archived reports is no longer directly applicable to the current CAP and requires careful modification
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Does cord blood cortisol have a mediating effect on maternal prepregnancy body mass index and birth weight?
Gyu Hong Shim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(1):24-25.   Published online November 30, 2022
· A high prepregnancy body mass index (pre-BMI) is associated with large for gestational age (LGA) and macrosomia, whereas a low pre-BMI is associated with small for gestational age (SGA) and low birth weight (LBW).
· The identification of the role of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in the effect of pre-BMI and maternal gestational weight gain on birth weight could reduce the frequency of LGA, macrosomia, SGA, or LBW through maternal diet optimization.
Pulmonology
Wheezing in infants and preschoolers: phenotypes and treatment options
Jung Yeon Shim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(1):26-27.   Published online December 6, 2022
· Knowing who will develop into asthma or who will not is important to impose proper treatment and early intervention in a child with the first episode of wheezing.
· Phenotypes of severe bronchiolitis in less than 2-year-old children with first episode of wheezing were suggested for different treatment options
· RV-induced and/or atopy-associated severe wheezing in preschool children may benefit from early intervention of asthma treatment.
Original Article
Nutrition
Not breastfeeding and risk of autism spectrum disorders among children: a meta-analysis
Ensiyeh Jenabi, Saeid Bashirian, Amir Mohammad Salehi, Salman Khazaei
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(1):28-31.   Published online July 19, 2022
This study aimed to determine whether there is an association between not breastfeeding (versus breastfeeding) and the risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) among children. We found that the risk of ASD associated with not breastfeeding had an odds ratio of 1.81 (95% confidence interval, 1.35–2.27; I2=0 %). These findings suggest the importance of breastfeeding in decreasing the risk of ASD among children.
Neonatology (Perinatology)
A thickened formula reduces feeding-associated oxygen desaturation and bradycardia in preterm infants
Gayoung Lee, Juyoung Lee, Ga Won Jeon, Yong Hoon Jun
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(1):32-37.   Published online December 15, 2022
Question: Is a commercial thickened formula able to alleviate oral feeding-associated desaturation and bradycardia in preterm infants?
Finding: Thickened formula feeding significantly reduced oral feeding-associated desaturation and bradycardia in preterm infants.
Meaning: Thickened formula feeding stabilizes oxygen saturation and heart rate during oral feeding among preterm infants with feeding difficulties.
Neurology
Long-term neurological cognitive, behavioral, functional, and quality of life outcomes after fetal myelomeningocele closure: a systematic review
Andre Marolop Pangihutan Siahaan, Martin Susanto, Sarma Nursani Lumbanraja, Dwi Herawati Ritonga
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(1):38-45.   Published online November 30, 2022
· Fetal myelomeningocele closure significantly improved long-term neurological cognitive, behavioral, functional, and quality of life outcomes, most likely by reducing hydrocephalus rates.
· However, fetal myelomeningocele closure is associated with a significant risk of pregnancy complications, especially premature rupture of membranes and preterm delivery.
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