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"Most downloaded" Articles are from the articles published in 2020 during the last six months.

Review Article
Oncology
Update on infantile hemangioma   (213 times)
Hye Lim Jung
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(11):559-572.   Published online May 26, 2021
· Infantile hemangiomas (IHs) are the most common benign vascular tumors, occurring in 5%–10% of infants.
· IHs are characteristically not present at birth but are usually diagnosed at 1–4 weeks of age, rapidly proliferate until 5 months of age, and then spontaneously involute.
· High-risk IHs (10%) require early treatment from 1 month of age.
· Oral propranolol, a nonselective beta-blocker, is the first-line treatment for IHs.
Nutrition
Components of human breast milk: from macronutrient to microbiome and microRNA   (180 times)
Su Yeong Kim, Dae Yong Yi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(8):301-309.   Published online March 23, 2020
Human breast milk (HBM) is essential for the infant’s growth and development right after birth and is an irreplaceable source of nutrition for early human survival. Various infant formulas have many similarities to HBM in many components, but there is no perfect substitute for HBM. Recently, various breast milk components and their roles have been studied according to the development...
Neurology
Neonatal seizures: diagnostic updates based on new definition and classification   (162 times)
Eun-Hee Kim, Jeongmin Shin, Byoung Kook Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(8):387-397.   Published online April 4, 2022
· Neonatal seizures are often electrographic-only seizures without clinical signs; therefore, the identification of electrical seizure activity on electroencephalography is the gold standard for diagnosis.
· Clinical signs of neonatal seizures are divided into motor or nonmotor seizures, and motor seizures are mostly focal or multifocal.
· Most neonatal seizures are caused by acute symptomatic etiologies, but in cases of intractable seizures, structural, genetic, or metabolic etiologies should be investigated.
Critical Care Medicine
The use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in children with acute fulminant myocarditis   (128 times)
Silver Heinsar, Sainath Raman, Jacky Y. Suen, Hwa Jin Cho, John F. Fraser
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(5):188-195.   Published online August 10, 2020
Acute fulminant myocarditis (AFM) occurs as an inflammatory response to an initial myocardial insult. Its rapid and deadly progression calls for prompt diagnosis with aggressive treatment measures. The demonstration of its excellent recovery potential has led to increasing use of mechanical circulatory support, especially extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Arrhythmias, organ failure, elevated cardiac biomarkers, and decreased ventricular function at presentation...
Allergy
Food allergies and food-induced anaphylaxis: role of cofactors   (126 times)
Meeyong shin
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(8):393-399.   Published online November 12, 2020
Question: What are the roles of cofactors in food allergies and food-induced anaphylaxis?
Finding: Cofactors reportedly play a role in approximately 14%–30% of anaphylactic reactions. Cofactors such as exercise, infection, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, dehydration, and alcohol can increase intestinal permeability and antigen uptake, thereby causing allergic symptoms.
Meaning: Routine assessment of the possible involvement of cofactors is essential for the management of patients with food-induced anaphylaxis.
Original Article
Oncology
Treatment outcomes of high-dose chemotherapy plus stem cell rescue in high-risk neuroblastoma patients in Thailand   (115 times)
Kunanya Suwannaying, Piti Techavichit, Patcharee Komvilaisak, Napat Laoaroon, Nattee Narkbunnam, Kleebsabai Sanpakit, Kanhatai Chiengthong, Thirachit Chotsampancharoen, Lalita Sathitsamitphong, Chalongpon Santong, Panya Seksarn, Suradej Hongeng, Surapon Wiangnon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(9):453-458.   Published online May 24, 2022
Question: This study aimed to elucidate the outcomes of high-risk neuroblastoma (HR-NB) patients treated with high-dose chemotherapy and stem cell rescue without immunotherapy.
Finding: The 5-year overall survival and event-free survival rates were 45.1% and 40.4%, respectively.
Meaning: High-dose chemotherapy plus stem cell rescue followed by cis-retinoic acid for 12 months is well tolerated and could improve survival in patients with HR-NB in limited resource settings.
Other
Risk factors and screening timing for developmental dysplasia of the hip in preterm infants   (106 times)
Ga Won Jeon, Hye Jung Choo, Yong Uk Kwon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(5):262-268.   Published online November 5, 2021
Question: When is the best screening timing and what is the risk factor for developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) in preterm infants?
Finding: Ultrasonography performed earlier than 38 weeks of postmenstrual age caused unnecessary subsequent ultrasonography. DDH did not occur predominantly on the left side or in breech infants.
Meaning: The screening timing, etiology, and risk factors for DDH in preterm infants are somewhat different from those in term infants.
Review Article
Infection
Therapeutics for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 in children and adolescents   (105 times)
Soo-Han Choi, Jae Hong Choi, Ki Wook Yun
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(8):377-386.   Published online June 27, 2022
· Children and adolescents with high risks for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) should be identified and proper treatment should be provided promptly according to the patient’s condition.
· Remdesivir can be considered for pediatric patients of all ages with COVID-19 who have an emergent or increase in supplemental oxygen.
· The use of corticosteroids is not recommended for patients with nonsevere COVID-19. Corticosteroids are recommended in children and adolescents with severe and critical COVID-19.
Other
Comparison of diagnostic and treatment guidelines for undescended testis   (104 times)
Jaeho Shin, Ga Won Jeon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(11):415-421.   Published online March 23, 2020
Primary caregivers should consider surgical specialist referral of patients with undescended testis if no descent occurs by 6 months, undescended testis is newly diagnosed after 6 months of age, or testicular torsion is suspected. Orchiopexy is recommended between 6 and 18 months at the latest. The original location of the testes and the age at orchiopexy are predictive factors for infertility and malignancy later in life.
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Pathophysiology, classification, and complications of common asymptomatic thrombocytosis in newborn infants   (104 times)
Ga Won Jeon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(4):182-187.   Published online October 18, 2021
· Thrombocytosis, common in newborns and infants (<2 years) (3%–13%), is caused by elevated thrombopoietin (TPO) concentrations.
· Serum TPO levels are significantly higher immediately to 1 month postnatal and decrease with age.
· Platelet counts are positively correlated with gestational age at birth and postnatal age.
· Thrombocytosis is more common in preterm than in term infants.
· Thrombocytosis in newborns is reactive and resolves spontaneously without complications.
Pulmonology
High-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy in children: a clinical review   (102 times)
Ji-Won Kwon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(1):3-7.   Published online October 28, 2019
High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) is a relatively safe and effective noninvasive ventilation method that was recently accepted as a treatment option for acute respiratory support before endotracheal intubation or invasive ventilation. The action mechanism of HFNC includes a decrease in nasopharyngeal resistance, washout of dead space, reduction in inflow of ambient air, and an increase in airway pressure. In preterm...
Original Article
General Pediatrics
Risk factors for childhood pneumonia: a case-control study in a high prevalence area in Indonesia   (101 times)
Vivi Ninda Sutriana, Mei Neni Sitaresmi, Abdul Wahab
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(11):588-595.   Published online March 15, 2021
Question: Is the incidence of childhood pneumonia influenced by breastfeeding and basic immunization status?
Finding: Exclusive breastfeeding and complete basic immunization status have an effect in limiting the incidence of childhood pneumonia.
Meaning: While exclusive breastfeeding and complete basic immunization the Expanded Program on Immunization status are important factors for reducing the incidence of childhood pneumonia, indoor air pollution was also a significant risk factor.
Review Article
Nephrology (Genitourinary)
Neonatal hypertension: concerns within and beyond the neonatal intensive care unit   (101 times)
Kathleen Altemose, Janis M. Dionne
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(8):367-376.   Published online May 30, 2022
Some neonates, especially those who are premature, may experience hypertension while in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The most common causes are prematurity-related and the hypertension usually resolves over the first 1–2 years of life. Unfortunately, the increasing population of NICU graduates is at risk for later cardiovascular and kidney disease in childhood and adulthood. This population requires careful attention to blood pressure and weight throughout their life course.
Neurology
Update on benign convulsions with mild gastroenteritis   (98 times)
Yeong Seok Lee, Ga Hee Lee, Young Se Kwon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(10):469-475.   Published online December 27, 2021
∙ The main pathogen for benign convulsions with mild gastroenteritis (CwG) was previously rotavirus; however, cases associated with norovirus are increasing.
∙ CwG is characterized by clustered generalized seizures. Electroencephalography and magnetic resonance imaging show transiently abnormal findings in the acute phase that eventually normalize with progression. Its prognosis is good, and long-term treatment is unnecessary.
∙ There are many reports on the pathophysiological mechanism of CwG, which remains unclear.
Allergy
Montelukast use over the past 20 years: monitoring of its effects and safety issues   (79 times)
Yong Ju Lee, Chang-Keun Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(10):376-381.   Published online February 5, 2020
Although the efficacy of montelukast is inferior to that of ICS, both physicians and parents prefer montelukast to ICSs.
EDN may be a useful biomarker for the treatment and monitoring of preschool children with asthma.
The US FDA requires boxed warning about serious neuropsychiatric events of montelukast, therefore, physicians should consider the benefits and risks of montelukast before prescribing it.
Gastroenterology
Factors influencing development of the infant microbiota: from prenatal period to early infancy   (79 times)
Sujin Jeong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(9):439-447.   Published online December 23, 2021
∙ Microbial colonization primarily occurs after birth but there may be some colonization in utero, although this remains highly controversial.
∙ Maternal factors during pregnancy affect the infant microbiota: diet, weight, gestational weight gain, and antibiotic usage.
∙ Microbes are passed from mother-to-infant during and after birth. Delivery mode, breastfeeding, early life antibiotic, and proton pump inhibitor treatment have the largest effects on microbial composition in early life.
∙ The early life gut microbiome plays an important role in the development of the immune system and metabolism.
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Breastfeeding and vitamin D   (78 times)
Ju Sun Heo, Young Min Ahn, Ai-Rhan Ellen Kim, Son Moon Shin; for the Korean Society of Breastfeeding Medicine
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(9):418-429.   Published online December 14, 2021
∙ Exclusively breastfed infants are at risk of developing vitamin D deficiency associated with hypocalcemia, rickets, and various health outcomes.
∙ The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in breastfed infants differs vastly between studies and nations at 0.6%–91.1%.
∙ The vitamin D content of breast milk does not meet the requirements of exclusively breastfed infants.
∙ Most international guidelines recommend that breastfed infants be supplemented with 400 IU/day of vitamin D during the first year of life.
∙ Vitamin D intake (milk+supplements) of 800 IU/day can be considered in preterm infants along with biochemical monitoring.
Allergy
Prevalence, comorbidities, diagnosis, and treatment of nonallergic rhinitis: real-world comparison with allergic rhinitis   (76 times)
Hye Yung Yum, Eun Kyo Ha, Yoon Ho Shin, Man Yong Han
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(8):373-383.   Published online August 10, 2020
Rhinitis is among the most common respiratory diseases in children. Nonallergic rhinitis, which involves nasal symptoms without evidence of systemic allergic inflammation or infection, is a heterogeneous entity with diverse manifestations and intensities. Nonallergic rhinitis accounts for 16%–89% of the chronic rhinitis cases, affecting 1%–50% (median 10%) of the total pediatric population. The clinical course of nonallergic rhinitis is generally...
Nephrology (Genitourinary)
Obesity and chronic kidney disease: prevalence, mechanism, and management   (74 times)
Hyung Eun Yim, Kee Hwan Yoo
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(10):511-518.   Published online April 6, 2021
· Obesity is strongly associated with the development and progression of chronic kidney disease.
· Altered renal hemodynamics, metabolic effects, and lipid nephrotoxicity may play a key role in the development of obesity-related kidney disease.
· Children born to obese mothers are at increased risk of developing obesity and chronic kidney disease later in life.
· A multilevel approach is needed to prevent obesity and related chronic diseases.
Original Article
Endocrinology
Effects of probiotics combined with dietary and lifestyle modification on clinical, biochemical, and radiological parameters in obese children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: a randomized clinical trial   (74 times)
Thushara Rodrigo, Samaranayake Dulani, Sumudu Nimali Seneviratne, Arjuna P. De Silva, Jerad Fernando, H. Janaka De Silva, Jayasekera , V. Pujitha Wickramasinghe
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(6):304-311.   Published online November 11, 2021
Question: Could probiotics be used as a therapeutic modality in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis?
Finding: There seem no added advantages over lifestyle modifications compared to Probiotics.
Meaning: There does not seem to be an advantage of probiotics over lifestyle modifications in improving obesity-associated metabolic derangement in children.
Editorial
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Prevention and management of pain in the neonatal intensive care unit   (73 times)
Sung Shin Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(1):16-17.   Published online January 15, 2020
Nutrition
Human milk oligosaccharides as immunonutrition key in early life   (70 times)
Jung Ok Shim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(7):344-345.   Published online May 3, 2022
· Human milk is a major source of immunonutrients for neonates and infants. Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) act as prebiotics and promote the growth of commensal bacteria.
· HMOs inhibit microorganism adhesion to the gut mucosa through interactions with the commensal microbiome and improve gut barrier function by increasing short-chain fatty acid mediated by bifidobacteria and immunomodulation.
· Several randomized controlled trials recently reported on HMOs.
Original Article
Infection
Role of lung ultrasound patterns in monitoring coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome in children   (67 times)
Satyabrata Roychowdhoury, Subhajit Bhakta, Manas Kumar Mahapatra, Saptarshi Ghosh, Sayantika Saha, Mithun Chandra Konar, Mihir Sarkar, Mousumi Nandi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(7):358-366.   Published online May 13, 2022
Question: Potential role of patterns of lung ultrasonography (US) in monitoring changes in mechanically ventilated patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia.
Finding: Interstitial syndrome, an irregular pleural line, and peripheral microconsolidation were the most prevalent findings. Changes in lung aeration after mechanical ventilation corelated with improved oxygenation. A fall in lung ultrasound reaeration score ≤ 5 may predict successful weaning.
Meaning: Lung US is gaining wider utility for monitoring COVID-19 pneumonia.
Review Article
Endocrinology
Genetic factors in precocious puberty   (65 times)
Young Suk Shim, Hae Sang Lee, Jin Soon Hwang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(4):172-181.   Published online October 18, 2021
· Mutations in the kisspeptin (KISS1), kisspeptin receptor (KISS1R), makorin ring finger protein 3 (MKRN3), and delta-like homolog 1 (DLK1) genes are associated with idiopathic central precocious puberty (ICPP).
· A few genes related to pubertal onset have been implicated in ICPP.
· Epigenetic factors such as DNA methylation, histone posttranslational modifications, and noncoding ribonucleic acids may be related to ICPP
Original Article
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Neonatal sepsis-causing bacterial pathogens and outcome of trends of their antimicrobial susceptibility a 20-year period at a neonatal intensive care unit   (65 times)
Woo Sun Song, Hye Won Park, Moon Youn Oh, Jae Young Jo, Chae Young Kim, Jung Ju Lee, Euiseok Jung, Byong Sop Lee, Ki-Soo Kim, Ellen Ai-Rhan Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(7):350-357.   Published online December 9, 2021
Question: What is prevalence of bacterial pathogens causing sepsis and their antimicrobial susceptibility over 20 years?
Finding: Coagulase-negative remains most common causative organism. The most common gram-negative organism was Klebsiella pneumonia. The susceptibility of staphylococcus aureus and K. pneumonia showed increased susceptability to oxacillin, cefotaxime and amikacin, gentamicin, respectively.
Meaning: Answers to the question asked is important in choosing antimicrobials and to monitor emergence of multidrug-resistant organisms.
Hematology
Effect of cyclic pamidronate administration on osteoporosis in children with β-thalassemia major: a single-center study   (65 times)
Mahmoud A. El-Hawy, Nagwan Y. Saleh
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(8):405-409.   Published online June 7, 2022
Question: What is the effect of cyclic pamidronate administration on osteoporosis in children with β-thalassemia major?
Finding: The dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan findings of children with β-thalassemia major and osteoporosis were improved after pamidronate administration.
Meaning: Cyclic pamidronate effectively treated osteoporosis in children with β-thalassemia major.
Review Article
Endocrinology
Endocrine comorbidities of pediatric obesity   (64 times)
Jieun Lee, Jae Hyun Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(12):619-627.   Published online August 26, 2021
∙ Pediatric obesity can involve endocrine comorbidities such as prediabetes, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome, polycystic ovary syndrome, and central precocious puberty.
∙ Prediabetes and type 2 diabetes in youth aged 10–19 years had a prevalence of 25.9% and 0.6% in 2013–2014, respectively.
∙ Dyslipidemia in Korean adolescents aged 10–18 years had a prevalence of 7.64% (total cholesterol ≥200 mg/dL), 6.09% (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥130 mg/dL), 8.69% (triglyceride ≥150 mg/dL), and 12.52% (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≤40 mg/dL) in 2007–2018.
∙ Metabolic syndrome in Korean youth has a prevalence of 1.9%–14.7% in males and 1.7%–12.6% in females with wide variation in definitions.
∙ Appropriate comorbidity screening and management and/or specialist referral are necessary for obese children and adolescents.
Infection
Four months of rifampicin monotherapy for latent tuberculosis infection in children   (64 times)
Chi Eun Oh, Dick Menzies
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(5):214-221.   Published online October 29, 2021
· Recently, the importance of a short-term treatment regimen including rifamycin has been highlighted in the treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI).
· Four prospective or retrospective studies in children consistently reported that a 4-month daily rifampicin regimen (4R) had a higher completion rate than and comparable safety to a nine-month daily isoniazid regimen.
· We suggest rifampicin 20–30 mg/kg/day for children aged 0–2 years and 15–20 mg/kg/day for children aged 2–10 years in 4R to treat LTBI.
Gastroenterology
Clinical importance of immunonutrition in infants: a review of the recent literature   (64 times)
Ji Sook Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(7):337-343.   Published online February 17, 2022
Nutrients are important in the developing immune system. Human milk supplies diverse bioactives to prevent acute infection or chronic inflammation. Immunoglobulins, lactoferrin, and glutamine in human milk decrease gastrointestinal and respiratory infection. Human milk oligosaccharides promote the growth of intestinal microbiota, the gut barrier, and antimicrobial or antiviral activity. Micronutrients act as anti-inflammatory immunonutrients, too. However, the toxicity of some nutrients from an overdose should be considered.
Perspective
Neurology
How can pediatricians treat neurodevelopmental disorders   (63 times)
Young-Hoon Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(1):1-2.   Published online July 27, 2020
∙ Recently neurodevelopmental therapy for preschool-aged children with neurodevelopmental disorders is paid for by health insurance in Korea.
∙ There are good evidences that parenting programs and neurodevelopmental therapy can work in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder.
∙ Pediatricians must be able to pass away important information to parents.
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