Most cited

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Most-cited articles are from the articles published during the last two years (2020 ~ ).

Review Article
Other
Behavioral insomnia in infants and young children
Eun Kyeong Kang, Seung Soo Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(3):111-116.   Published online July 15, 2020
• Behavioral insomnia is common and affects a child’s daytime functioning and emotions.
• Diagnosing insomnia using the child’s sleep history, a sleep diary/log, and sleep questionnaires is important.
• Behavioral intervention, the main treatment, involves creating positive associations with sleep, establishing a consistent sleep schedule and bedtime routines, and the development of selfsoothing skills.
Editorial
Infection
Catheter care bundle and feedback to prevent central line-associated bloodstream infections in pediatric patients
Hye-Kyung Cho
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(3):119-120.   Published online December 8, 2020
• Intravascular catheter-related infection is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children, and care bundles are effective and cost-saving in pediatric and neonatal patients.
• Providing regular feedbacks to critical care practitioners is helpful to maintain compliance to care bundle.
• Establishing a bundle policy (insertion and maintenance), monitoring compliance, and providing regular feedbacks are necessary for prevention of central line-associated bloodstream infections in pediatric patients.
Review Article
Cardiology
Pediatric heart transplantation: how to manage problems affecting long-term outcomes?
Young Hwue Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(2):49-59.   Published online April 8, 2020
Since the initial International Society of Heart Lung Transplantation registry was published in 1982, the number of pediatric heart transplantations has increased markedly, reaching a steady state of 500–550 transplantation annually and occupying up to 10% of total heart transplantations. Heart transplantation is considered an established therapeutic option for patients with end-stage heart disease. The long-term outcomes of pediatric heart...
Clinical Note
Infection
A neonate infected with coronavirus disease 2019 with severe symptoms suggestive of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in childhood
Fatemeh Eghbalian, Ghazal Sami, Saeid Bashirian, Ensiyeh Jenabi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(11):596-598.   Published online September 10, 2021
Question: Can multisystem inflammatory syndrome in childhood (MIS-C) occur in the neonate associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?
Finding: A 9-day-old neonate infected with COVID-19 had fever, respiratory distress, and gastrointestinal symptoms suggestive of MIS-C. This neonate recovered after treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG).
Meaning: IVIG successfully treated a rare case of a 9-day-old neonate with COVID-19 and severe symptoms suggestive of MIS-C.
Letter to the Editor
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Role of neutrophil CD11b expression in diagnosis of earlyonset neonatal sepsis in full-term infant
Safaa ELMeneza, Walaa Mohamed, Iman Elbagoury, Karima Bahagat
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(1):44-45.   Published online April 14, 2020
Question: Can CD11b detect sepsis in full-term infants with suspected sepsis?
Finding: The percentage of neutrophils expressing CD11b was significantly upregulated in the sepsis and suspected sepsis groups versus the control group.
Meaning: CD11b is a sensitive marker for sepsis and suspected sepsis in full-term neonates and it may be added to sepsis markers. This information would allow the neonatologist to confidently discontinue antibiotic use as long as the neonate is clinically stable.
Review Article
Endocrinology
Early menarche and its consequence in Korean female: reducing fructose intake could be one solution
Ji Hyun Kim, Jung Sub Lim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(1):12-20.   Published online May 14, 2020
In Korea, the average age of menarche has declined sharply. Early menarche is associated with psychosocial and behavioral problems and cardiometabolic disease. Excess fructose intake has been suggested as one cause of early menarche in recent studies, so reducing fructose intake may be one solution.
Perspective
Neurology
How can pediatricians treat neurodevelopmental disorders
Young-Hoon Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(1):1-2.   Published online July 27, 2020
∙ Recently neurodevelopmental therapy for preschool-aged children with neurodevelopmental disorders is paid for by health insurance in Korea.
∙ There are good evidences that parenting programs and neurodevelopmental therapy can work in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder.
∙ Pediatricians must be able to pass away important information to parents.
Original Article
Hematology
Effects of α-tocopherol on hemolysis and oxidative stress markers on red blood cells in β-thalassemia major
Nora Sovira, Munar Lubis, Pustika Amalia Wahidiyat, Franciscus D. Suyatna, Djajadiman Gatot, Saptawati Bardosono, Mohammad Sadikin
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(8):314-320.   Published online August 15, 2020
Question: Is the α-tocopherol as an exogenous antioxidant supplementation effective in improving hemolysis and oxidative stress on β-thalassemia major?
Finding: We found significant enhancements in plasma haptoglobin were noted in the α-tocopherol group (3.01 mg/dL; range, 0.60–42.42 mg/dL; P=0.021).
Meaning: The α-tocopherol can improve hemolysis by increasing the haptoglobin level as hemolysis marker.
Editorial
Gastroenterology
Management of perianal abscess and fistula-in-ano in infants and children
Jinyoung Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(7):261-262.   Published online March 23, 2020
Allergy
Trends in prevalence of allergic diseases in Korean children: how and why?
Kyung Suk Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(7):263-264.   Published online April 13, 2020
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Should we regularly evaluate the neurodevelopmental status of moderate and late preterm infants?
Son Moon Shin
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(6):217-218.   Published online June 11, 2020
Review Article
Neurology
How can neurological outcomes be predicted in comatose pediatric patients after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest?
Hyo Jeong Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(5):164-170.   Published online October 10, 2019
The prognosis of patients who are comatose after resuscitation remains uncertain. The accurate prediction of neurological outcome is important for management decisions and counseling. A neurological examination is an important factor for prognostication, but widely used sedatives alter the neurological examination and delay the response recovery. Additional studies including electroencephalography, somatosensory-evoked potentials, brain imaging, and blood biomarkers are useful for...
Original Article
Endocrinology
Influence of subclinical hypothyroidism on metabolic parameters in obese children and adolescents
Ozlem Kara
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(3):110-114.   Published online March 6, 2020
Question: Does subclinical hypothyroidism in obese children and adolescents affect metabolic parameters?
Finding: Insulin, HOMA-IR, and TG levels were higher and the HDL-C level was lower in patients with SH.
Meaning: A clear association is observed between SH, and insulin resistance and dyslipidemia in obese children. It can be said that the TSH may be evaluated as a metabolic risk factor in obese patients.
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Placental histopathology in late preterm infants: clinical implications
Kristina Ericksen, Joshua Fogel, Rita P. Verma
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(2):48-51.   Published online August 19, 2019
Question: Placental histopathology and its clinical implications in late preterm infants.
Finding: Placental vascular anomalies are more, and placental inflammation less common in late preterm infants compared to term. Higher maternal age, magnesium sulfate therapy and hypertension are clinical risk factors associated with late preterm delivery.
Meaning: Prevention and aggressive management of hypertension, and conception before 30 years of age might be effective in preventing late preterm births.
Gastroenterology
Thyroid disturbances in children treated with combined pegylated interferon-alpha and ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C
Yasser K. Rashed, Fatma A. Khalaf, Sobhy E. Kotb
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(2):52-55.   Published online September 27, 2019
Background: Immunomodulatory properties of interferon (IFN) have been documented. It may induce autoimmune diseases such as autoimmune thyroiditis with hypo- or hyperthyroidism. In addition, it may impair thyroid hormone synthesis through affecting iodide organification in thyroid gland.
Purpose: The aim of this study was to describe thyroid function tests disturbances in children with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) receiving pegylated interferon-alpha (PEG...
Editorial
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Prevention and management of pain in the neonatal intensive care unit
Sung Shin Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(1):16-17.   Published online January 15, 2020
Original Article
Other
Plastic bottle feeding produces changes in biochemical parameters in human infants – A pilot study
Mahendra K. Pant, Abul. H. Ahmad, Manisha Naithani, Jayanti Pant
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(9):459-465.   Published online May 19, 2022
Question: Plastic feeding bottles are used commonly to feed infants who cannot be breastfeed. Does plastic bottle feeding produce biochemical changes in infants?
Finding: The plastic bottles leach out endocrine disruptors and affects bodily functions in terms of biochemical alterations like increased blood urea, raised creatine-kinase–MB levels, and altered lipid profile in infants exposed to bottle feeding.
Meaning: Plastic bottles feeding alters bodily functions in infants.
Cardiology
Early myocardial functional abnormalities in primary dyslipidemia: clinical and echocardiographic observations in young children from a highly consanguineous population
Nehal M. El-koofy, Aya M. Fattouh, Areef Ramadan, Mohamed A. Elmonem, Dina H. Hamed
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(8):410-416.   Published online December 8, 2021
In children with primary dyslipidemia, functional myocardial abnormalities can occur at young age, including diastolic functional impairment of both ventricles and narrowing of the aortic valve and the sinus of Valsalva. Echocardiographic evaluations of high-risk children may be as important as biochemical evaluations.
Review Article
Neurology
Neonatal seizures: diagnostic updates based on new definition and classification
Eun-Hee Kim, Jeongmin Shin, Byoung Kook Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(8):387-397.   Published online April 4, 2022
· Neonatal seizures are often electrographic-only seizures without clinical signs; therefore, the identification of electrical seizure activity on electroencephalography is the gold standard for diagnosis.
· Clinical signs of neonatal seizures are divided into motor or nonmotor seizures, and motor seizures are mostly focal or multifocal.
· Most neonatal seizures are caused by acute symptomatic etiologies, but in cases of intractable seizures, structural, genetic, or metabolic etiologies should be investigated.
Original Article
Infection
Role of lung ultrasound patterns in monitoring coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome in children
Satyabrata Roychowdhoury, Subhajit Bhakta, Manas Kumar Mahapatra, Saptarshi Ghosh, Sayantika Saha, Mithun Chandra Konar, Mihir Sarkar, Mousumi Nandi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(7):358-366.   Published online May 13, 2022
Question: Potential role of patterns of lung ultrasonography (US) in monitoring changes in mechanically ventilated patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia.
Finding: Interstitial syndrome, an irregular pleural line, and peripheral microconsolidation were the most prevalent findings. Changes in lung aeration after mechanical ventilation corelated with improved oxygenation. A fall in lung ultrasound reaeration score ≤ 5 may predict successful weaning.
Meaning: Lung US is gaining wider utility for monitoring COVID-19 pneumonia.
Review Article
Neurology
Big data analysis and artificial intelligence in epilepsy – common data model analysis and machine learning-based seizure detection and forecasting
Yoon Gi Chung, Yonghoon Jeon, Sooyoung Yoo, Hunmin Kim, Hee Hwang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(6):272-282.   Published online November 26, 2021
· Big data analysis, such as common data model and artificial intelligence, can solve relevant questions and improve clinical care.
· Recent deep learning studies achieved 0.887–0.996 areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve for automated interictal epileptiform discharge detection.
· Recent deep learning studies achieved 62.3%–99.0% accuracy for interictal-ictal classification in seizure detection and 75.0%– 87.8% sensitivity with a 0.06–0.21/hr false positive rate in seizure forecasting.
Original Article
General Pediatrics
Effect of 2–6 weeks of systemic steroids on bone mineral density in children
Athira Kuniyil, Somdipa Pal, Namrita Sachdev, Tribhuvan Pal Yadav
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(5):254-261.   Published online November 18, 2021
Question: Does steroid use for 2–6 weeks in children affect bone mineral content (BMC) or density (BMD)?
Finding: Steroid use for 2–6 weeks significantly decreased BMC and BMD of the whole body, total body less the head, lumbar spine, and distal radius. A significant negative correlation was observed among BMD, duration, and cumulative dose.
Meaning: Steroid use for 2–6 weeks in children negatively affected BMC and BMD.
Letter to the Editor
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Telemedicine as progressive treatment approach for neonatal jaundice due to the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic
Sukanya Sudhir Joshi, Bithiah Roy Benroy, Isabell Nelson Lawrence, Thanuja Jayasri Suresh
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(5):269-271.   Published online February 7, 2022
Question: How can the management of neonatal jaundice (NJ) be enhanced through telemedicine?
Finding: Teleconsultations, drive-through testing, and the use of an application to assess neonatal jaundice at home are being successfully used, but they must be further researched before being implemented on a larger scale.
Meaning: Recent technology allows for the treatment of NJ at home with an application that helps reduce hospital burden.
Clinical note
General Pediatrics
Diabetic ketoacidosis in children induced by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) diabetic ketoacidosis post-COVID-19 in children
Neha Thakur, Narendra Rai
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(4):209-210.   Published online November 30, 2021
Letter to the Editor
Other
Changes in air pollution and childhood respiratory viral infections in Korea post-COVID-19 outbreak
Hyung Kyu Park, Jung Yeon Shim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(4):211-213.   Published online February 17, 2022
Editorial
Infection
Importance of maintaining a high childhood vaccination rate and surveillance program against Japanese encephalitis in Korea
Su Eun Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(3):127-128.   Published online February 16, 2022
∙ Recent epidemiologic changes of Japanese encephalitis (JE) in Korea are area (rural to urban or suburban) and age shift (children to adult).
∙ Although the main factors contributing to recent epidemiologic changes of JE are not well identified, maintaining high vaccination rates of JE appear to be important in preventing of JE in all age groups.
∙ Continuous surveillance for epidemiology and seroprevalence should be carried out.
Review Article
Nephrology (Genitourinary)
Blood pressure measurements and hypertension in infants, children, and adolescents: from the postmercury to mobile devices
Seon Hee Lim, Seong Heon Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(2):73-80.   Published online September 15, 2021
· Hypertension is defined as a blood pressure (BP) >90th (elevated) or 95th (hypertension) percentile in children by height, age, and sex and >95th percentile in neonates by age, birth weight, and sex.
· Although the oscillometric method can be used for screenings, the auscultatory method remains the gold standard. The hybrid method employs the auscultatory and electronic methods and can reduce bias.
· BP measurement mobile device applications have a potential for development.
General Pediatrics
A new perspective on cholesterol in pediatric health: association of vitamin D metabolism, respiratory diseases, and mental health problems
Jeana Hong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(2):65-72.   Published online December 9, 2021
∙ Pediatric dyslipidemia is associated with several health problems besides cardiovascular diseases.
∙ There is a direct association between pediatric dyslipidemia and low serum vitamin D levels, asthma, and mental health problems regardless of body mass index.
∙ More large-scale nationally representative studies are needed to establish the appropriate cutoff points for the definition of dyslipidemia that is a prerequisite for further epidemiological studies in the Korean pediatric population.
Editorial
Allergy
Dietary restriction misconceptions and food allergy education in children with atopic dermatitis
You Hoon Jeon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(2):83-84.   Published online January 27, 2022
∙ Food intake strategies for preventing food allergies have undergone major changes over the past 20 years.
∙ In children with atopic dermatitis, indiscriminate food restrictions without diagnostic testing leads to nutritional imbalance and poor growth.
∙ When determining food restrictions for pediatric patients with atopic dermatitis, an accurate food allergy diagnosis must be preceded, and continuous parental education about food intake is required.
Review Article
Allergy
Diagnosis and management of asthma in infants and preschoolers
Hai Lee Chung
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(12):574-584.   Published online April 19, 2022
· Asthma in infants and preschoolers involves heterogeneous phenotypes.
· Asthma diagnosis is based on symptom patterns, therapeutic responses, and the presence of risk factors with careful consideration of differential diagnosis.
· Daily inhaled corticosteroid therapy remains the most effective strategy for managing persistent asthma symptoms irrespective of phenotype.
· Future research, including genetic and molecular studies, is needed to develop a clear definition of asthma and personalized therapeutic approaches.
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