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Association of prenatal and postnatal exposure to some endocrine-disrupting chemicals with birth and neurodevelopmental outcomes: an extensive review

Clin Exp Pediatr > Accepted Articles
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3345/cep.2023.00941    [Accepted]
Published online November 16, 2023.
Association of prenatal and postnatal exposure to some endocrine-disrupting chemicals with birth and neurodevelopmental outcomes: an extensive review
Ozge Yesildemir1  , Mensure Nur Celik2 
1Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Bursa Uludag University, Bursa, Turkey
2Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ondokuz Mayıs University, Samsun, Turkey
Correspondence: 
Ozge Yesildemir, Tel: +90 224 295 5336, Email: ozgeyesildemir@uludag.edu.tr
Received: 13 July 2023   • Revised: 13 July 2023   • Accepted: 14 August 2023
Abstract
Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are natural or human-made chemicals that can mimic, block, or interfere with the body's hormones. The most common and well-studied EDCs are bisphenol A, phthalate, and persistent organic pollutants, including polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances, other brominated flame retardants, organochlorine pesticides, dioxins, and furans. Humans are constantly exposed to EDCs through air, diet, skin, and water starting from embryonic life. Fetuses and newborns set up crucial developmental processes allowing adaptation to the environment throughout life. They are extremely sensitive to very low doses of EDCs because they are developing organisms. Many EDCs can cross the placental barrier and reach the developing internal organs of the fetus during the prenatal period. Also, newborn babies can be exposed to EDCs through breastfeeding or infant formula feeding during the postnatal period. Prenatal and postnatal exposures to EDCs may increase the risk of childhood diseases by disrupting hormone-mediated processes that are critical for growth and development during gestation and infancy. This review discusses evidence examining the relationship between prenatal and postnatal exposure to several EDCs with children's birth and neurodevelopmental outcomes. The available evidence suggests that prenatal and postnatal exposure to some EDCs cause fetal growth restriction, preterm birth, low birth weight, and neurodevelopmental problems by a variety of mechanisms of action. Given the adverse effects of EDCs on child development, further studies are needed to clarify the overall association.
Key Words: Endocrine-disrupting chemicals, Prenatal exposure, Postnatal exposure, Neurodevelopment, Birth outcomes


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