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Original Article
Pulmonology
Modified high-flow nasal cannula for children with respiratory distress
Sarocha Itdhiamornkulchai, Aroonwan Preutthipan, Jarin Vaewpanich, Nattachai Anantasit
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(3):136-141.   Published online May 24, 2021
Question: Can the modified high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) provide alternative respiratory support for children with acute respiratory distress?
Finding: A total of 74 patients were assigned to the modified or commercial HFNC groups. The intubation rate, length of hospital stay, and adverse events did not differ between the 2 groups.
Meaning: The modified HFNC can provide alternative respiratory support for pediatric respiratory distress.
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Is fetal nuchal cord associated with autism spectrum disorder? A meta-analysis
Ensiyeh Jenabi, Maryam Ahmadi, Azam Maleki
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(3):131-135.   Published online September 24, 2021
Question: Is fetal nuchal cord a risk factor for autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?
Finding: Five articles (1 cohort, 4 case-control; total 3,088 children) were included in the present meta-analysis. Fetal nuchal cord was not a risk factor for ASD (odds ratio, 1.11; 95% confidence interval, 0.66–1.57). There was homogeneity among studies that reported a risk of ASD (I2=0.0).
Meaning: Fetal nuchal cord is not a risk factor for ASD.
Editorial
Endocrinology
Clinical and diagnostic importance of dyslipidemia in children and adolescents during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic
Eun Young Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(3):129-130.   Published online January 14, 2022
∙ Because childhood lipid concentrations continue into adulthood, early evaluation and treatment are needed, but dyslipidemia awareness is low.
∙ For the prevention and treatment of dyslipidemia in childhood and adolescence, a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease in adulthood, lifestyle modifications, appropriate exercise, and drug treatment are required.
∙ A large-scale study of the prevalence and therapeutic effects of dyslipidemia in children and adolescents in Korea is needed.
Infection
Importance of maintaining a high childhood vaccination rate and surveillance program against Japanese encephalitis in Korea
Su Eun Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(3):127-128.   Published online February 16, 2022
∙ Recent epidemiologic changes of Japanese encephalitis (JE) in Korea are area (rural to urban or suburban) and age shift (children to adult).
∙ Although the main factors contributing to recent epidemiologic changes of JE are not well identified, maintaining high vaccination rates of JE appear to be important in preventing of JE in all age groups.
∙ Continuous surveillance for epidemiology and seroprevalence should be carried out.
Review Article
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Retinopathy of prematurity: a review of epidemiology and current treatment strategies
Eun Hee Hong, Yong Un Shin, Heeyoon Cho
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(3):115-126.   Published online October 12, 2021
There have been global tri-phasic epidemic periods of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). In recent years, its incidence has reportedly been 10%–40% depending on country and study population. Current treatment strategies for ROP include laser photocoagulation, surgical treatment, and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment, the role of which has drawn attention in recent years.
Infection
Changes in age-specific seroprevalence of Japanese encephalitis virus and impact of Japanese encephalitis vaccine in Korea
Byung Ok Kwak, Young Jin Hong, Dong Hyun Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(3):108-114.   Published online September 24, 2021
Since the introduction of a universal Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccination program and urbanization, the incidence of JE has dramatically decreased in Korea. However, recent JE cases have occurred, predominantly among unvaccinated adults and with a shift in age distribution. Continuous surveillance of the seroprevalence of JE is required to establish a proper immunization policy in Korea.
Original Article
Developmental and Behavioral Medicine
Effectiveness of obesity interventions among South Korean children and adolescents and importance of the type of intervention component: a meta-analysis
Siyoung Choe, Jaesin Sa, Jean-Philippe Chaput, Deokjin Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(2):98-107.   Published online November 23, 2021
Question: What is the overall effect of obesity interventions among Korean children and what affects their effectiveness?
Finding: Interventions were strongly favored over controls. Interventions including at least one physical activity component were significantly better than those that did not. Sex, age, baseline weight category, intervention duration, and the number of intervention components were not significant.
Meaning: Future obesity interventions for Korean children must seek to include physical activity components.
General Pediatrics
Effect of maternal and child factors on stunting: partial least squares structural equation modeling
Agus Santosa, Essa Novanda Arif, Dinal Abdul Ghoni
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(2):90-97.   Published online May 4, 2021
Question: What effects do maternal and child factors have on stunting? Are there significant indicators of stunting?
Finding: Child and maternal factors had 49.8% and 30.3% effects on stunting, respectively. The primary child factor was infant formula dose, while the primary maternal factor was nutritional status.
Meaning: More attention to nutritional status during pregnancy and ensuring the appropriate dose of infant formula at ages 6–24 months can prevent stunting.
Endocrinology
Association between polycystic ovary syndrome and risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in offspring: a meta-analysis
Azam Maleki, Saeid Bashirian, Ali Reza Soltanian, Ensiyeh Jenabi, Abdollah Farhadinasab
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(2):85-89.   Published online April 15, 2021
Question: Have polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) increased risk of having an offspring with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?
Finding: Six articles (3 cohort and 3 case-control studies; 401,413 total ADHD cases) met the study criteria. Maternal PCOS was associated with an increased risk of ADHD in the offspring based on odds ratio (OR) and relative ratio (RR) (OR, 1.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.27–1.57) and (RR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.35–1.51), respectively.
Meaning: Our study showed that maternal PCOS is a risk factor for ADHD.
Editorial
Allergy
Dietary restriction misconceptions and food allergy education in children with atopic dermatitis
You Hoon Jeon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(2):83-84.   Published online January 27, 2022
∙ Food intake strategies for preventing food allergies have undergone major changes over the past 20 years.
∙ In children with atopic dermatitis, indiscriminate food restrictions without diagnostic testing leads to nutritional imbalance and poor growth.
∙ When determining food restrictions for pediatric patients with atopic dermatitis, an accurate food allergy diagnosis must be preceded, and continuous parental education about food intake is required.
Neurology
Cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers in various pediatric neurologic diseases
Jeongho Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(2):81-82.   Published online January 6, 2022
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has many important biomarkers that are commonly analyzed in pediatric neurologic diseases, including central nervous system infection and inflammation. Neurologic disease in pediatrics is difficult to diagnosis, there are challenges in developing CSF profiles. Some biomarkers are expected to help differential diagnosis.
Review Article
Nephrology (Genitourinary)
Blood pressure measurements and hypertension in infants, children, and adolescents: from the postmercury to mobile devices
Seon Hee Lim, Seong Heon Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(2):73-80.   Published online September 15, 2021
· Hypertension is defined as a blood pressure (BP) >90th (elevated) or 95th (hypertension) percentile in children by height, age, and sex and >95th percentile in neonates by age, birth weight, and sex.
· Although the oscillometric method can be used for screenings, the auscultatory method remains the gold standard. The hybrid method employs the auscultatory and electronic methods and can reduce bias.
· BP measurement mobile device applications have a potential for development.
General Pediatrics
A new perspective on cholesterol in pediatric health: association of vitamin D metabolism, respiratory diseases, and mental health problems
Jeana Hong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(2):65-72.   Published online December 9, 2021
∙ Pediatric dyslipidemia is associated with several health problems besides cardiovascular diseases.
∙ There is a direct association between pediatric dyslipidemia and low serum vitamin D levels, asthma, and mental health problems regardless of body mass index.
∙ More large-scale nationally representative studies are needed to establish the appropriate cutoff points for the definition of dyslipidemia that is a prerequisite for further epidemiological studies in the Korean pediatric population.
Neurology
Promising candidate cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers of seizure disorder, infection, inflammation, tumor, and traumatic brain injury in pediatric patients
Seh Hyun Kim, Soo Ahn Chae
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(2):56-64.   Published online August 23, 2021
· Pediatric cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) components have been extensively evaluated as biomarkers of various neurologic diseases.
· Several promising candidate CSF biomarkers, including Tau, glial fibrillary acidic protein, neuron-specific enolase, S100β, and interleukins, have been studied in pediatric patients with seizure disorders, central nervous system infections, inflammation, tumors, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, traumatic brain injuries, intraventricular hemorrhage, and congenital hydrocephalus.
· Circulating microRNAs in the CSF are a promising class of biomarkers for various neurological diseases.
Letter to the Editor
Other
Evaluation of simulation-based ultrasound course for pediatricians: a starting point for future training curriculum
Chon In Kuok, Avis Siu Ha Leung, Jonan Chun Yin Lee, Winnie Kwai Yu Chan
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(1):53-55.   Published online July 28, 2021
Question: Simulation-based ultrasound training is becoming more popular. Is there a role for pediatricians in such training programs?
Finding: Our program received promising feedback from its participants. Self-rated confidence in image interpretation and ultrasound-guided catheter insertion improved after the simulation. Participants reported a higher preference for performing ultrasound scans before radiologist assessment.
Meaning: Ultrasound training can be considered as part of the pediatric training curriculum in the future.
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