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Original Article
Developmental and Behavioral Medicine
Development of the Korean Developmental Screening Test for Infants and Children (K-DST)
Hee Jung Chung, Donghwa Yang, Gun-Ha Kim, Sung Koo Kim, Seoung Woo Kim, Young Key Kim, Young Ah Kim, Joon Sik Kim, Jin Kyung Kim, Cheongtag Kim, In-Kyung Sung, Son Moon Shin, Kyung Ja Oh, Hee-Jeong Yoo, Hee Joon Yu, Seoung-Joon Lim, Jeehun Lee, Hae-Ik Jeong, Jieun Choi, Jeong-Yi Kwon, Baik-Lin Eun
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(11):438-446.   Published online May 14, 2020
Question: Can the Korean Developmental Screening Test for Infants and Children (K-DST) be a useful screening tool for infants and children in Korea?
Finding: The K-DST has high reliability (internal consistency of 0.73–0.93, test-retest reliability of 0.77–0.88) and a high discriminatory ability with a sensitivity of 0.833 and specificity of 0.979.
Meaning: The K-DST is an effective and reliable screening tool for infants and children with neurodevelopmental disorders in Korea.
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Knowledge and perceptions of kangaroo mother care among health providers: a qualitative study
Hadi Pratomo, Tiara Amelia, Fatmawati Nurlin, Asri C. Adisasmita
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(11):433-437.   Published online July 21, 2020
Question: What are health providers’ knowledge and perceptions of Kangaroo mother care (KMC)?
Finding: Health providers’ knowledge of KMC was sufficient; however, some of their perceptions about it could create barriers to the successful implementation of hospital KMC programs.
Meaning: Health providers’ perceptions about KMC should be considered to ensure successful KMC implementation. Locally designed on-site training programs could overcome the challenges.
Editorial
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Barriers to and enablers of kangaroo mother care
Soon Min Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(11):431-432.   Published online October 10, 2019
Nephrology (Genitourinary)
Undescended testis: importance of a timely referral to a surgical specialist
Su Jin Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(11):429-430.   Published online March 23, 2020
Undescended testes (UDT) is the most common congenital genitourinary abnormality in male infants and associated with decreased fertility and a higher future malignancy risk, especially in cases of delayed orchiopexy after puberty. It is important to timely referral to a surgical specialist and timely surgical correction of UDT to improve fertility and decrease the risk of malignancy.
Review Article
Neurology
Health effects of electromagnetic fields on children
Jin-Hwa Moon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(11):422-428.   Published online May 26, 2020
· The nervous systems of children are more vulnerable to the effects of electromagnetic waves than adults.
· The exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) among children should be minimized.
· According to International Agency for Research on Cancer EMFs are possibly carcinogenic, it should not be overlooked or interpreted with bias.
Other
Comparison of diagnostic and treatment guidelines for undescended testis
Jaeho Shin, Ga Won Jeon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(11):415-421.   Published online March 23, 2020
Primary caregivers should consider surgical specialist referral of patients with undescended testis if no descent occurs by 6 months, undescended testis is newly diagnosed after 6 months of age, or testicular torsion is suspected. Orchiopexy is recommended between 6 and 18 months at the latest. The original location of the testes and the age at orchiopexy are predictive factors for infertility and malignancy later in life.
Clinical Note
Nephrology (Genitourinary)
First episode of nephrotic syndrome with acute abdominal pain
Samridhi Goyal, Rachita Singh Dhull, Bobbity Deepthi, Abhijeet Saha
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(10):411-414.   Published online July 21, 2020
Question: What are the likely causes of pain abdomen in Nephrotic syndrome?
Finding: Severe hypovolemia leading to mesenteric ischemia, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, gastroenteritis, adverse effect of corticosteroids leading to gastritis, mesenteric ischemia due to thromboembolism, acute appendicitis, intussusception due to severe gut wall oedema and rarely Psoas abscess.
Meaning: Clinical suspicion and careful investigation is warranted to diagnose rare cause of pain abdomen like Psoas abscess.
Original Article
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Risk-based maternal group B Streptococcus screening strategy is compatible with the implementation of neonatal early-onset sepsis calculator
Niek B. Achten, J. Wendelien Dorigo-Zetsma, Annemarie M.C. van Rossum, Rianne Oostenbrink, Frans B. Plötz
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(10):406-410.   Published online April 16, 2020
Question: To what extent does risk-based Group B Streptococcus (GBS) screening influence management recommendations by the early-onset sepsis (EOS) calculator?
Finding: In 97% of the newborn infants, the EOS calculator recommendation remained unchanged after the GBS status at birth was updated to the definitive GBS status.
Meaning: Risk-based GBS screening results are compatible with EOS calculator recommendations.
Endocrinology
Zinc transporter 8 autoantibody in the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes in children
Nur Rochmah, Muhammad Faizi, Siti Wahyu Windarti
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(10):402-405.   Published online October 6, 2020
Question: Can zinc transporter 8 autoantibody (ZnT8A) be used for diagnosing type 1 diabetes (T1D)?
Finding: Twenty-two of 30 subjects with type 1 diabetes (73.3 %) were positive for ZnT8A compared to 5 of 18 controls (27.8%).
Meaning: ZnT8A has potential for clinical applications in the diagnosis of T1D.
Neonatology (Perinatology)
New modified version of the Risk Adjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery category and mortality in premature infants with critical congenital heart disease
Young Mi Yoon, Seong Phil Bae, Yoon-Joo Kim, Jae Gun Kwak, Woong-Han Kim, Mi Kyoung Song, Seung Han Shin, Ee-Kyung Kim, Han-Suk Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(10):395-401.   Published online July 15, 2020
Questions: This study aimed to describe the survival of premature infants with critical congenital heart disease (CHD) and to identify the risk factors including the new modified version of the Risk Adjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery (M-RACHS) associated with mortality.
Finding: For premature infants with critical CHD, survival rate was 76.9% and very low birth weight (VLBW), persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), and M-RACHS 5 or more were associated with in-hospital mortality.
Meaning: VLBW, PPHN and BPD, as well as M-RACHS≥5, were risk factors for mortality among premature infants with critical CHD.
Editorial
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Utility of neonatal early-onset sepsis calculator in risk-based group B Streptococcus screening approach
Myo-Jing Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(10):393-394.   Published online May 22, 2020
· Evaluation of the risk factors for early-onset sepsis (EOS) is important to optimal prevention and treatment.
· The EOS calculator is still valid as part of the risk-based group B Streptococcus (GBS) screening approach.
· The risk factor assessment using the EOS calculator is worth use before the introduction of universal GBS screening.
Risk factors for in-hospital mortality in premature infants with critical congenital heart disease
Jeonghee Shin
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(10):391-392.   Published online October 6, 2020
The incidence and mortality rates of critical congenital heart disease (CHD) are higher in preterm than in term infants. The risk factors for in-hospital mortality in premature infants with critical CHD are unclear. However, the mortality of preterm infants with critical CHD may be related to CHD complexity as well as gestational age, birth weight, the presence of prematurity-associated comorbidities, and the treatment itself.
Allergy
Should we prescribe montelukast to allergic pediatric patients?
Yong Mean Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(10):389-390.   Published online August 24, 2020
Review Article
Endocrinology
Air pollution and childhood obesity
Moon Young Seo, Shin-Hye Kim, Mi Jung Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(10):382-388.   Published online March 27, 2020
Questions: What are the possible effects of air pollution on the occurrence of childhood obesity and what are the mechanisms?
Finding: Epidemiologic studies suggest that air pollutants might act as obesogens in the pediatric population, and their possible mechanisms include oxidative stress, physical inactivity, and epigenetic modulation.
Meaning: This paper reviews updated information on air pollution, one of the modifiable environmental factors in childhood obesity.
Allergy
Montelukast use over the past 20 years: monitoring of its effects and safety issues
Yong Ju Lee, Chang-Keun Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(10):376-381.   Published online February 5, 2020
Although the efficacy of montelukast is inferior to that of ICS, both physicians and parents prefer montelukast to ICSs.
EDN may be a useful biomarker for the treatment and monitoring of preschool children with asthma.
The US FDA requires boxed warning about serious neuropsychiatric events of montelukast, therefore, physicians should consider the benefits and risks of montelukast before prescribing it.
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