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Review Article
Allergy
Drug Allergy in Children: What Should We Know?
Ji Soo Park, Dong In Suh
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(6):203-210.   Published online November 12, 2019
The drug allergy “label” may have a lifetime of consequences for a child. Many children with alleged drug allergies are proven to be tolerant to the culprit medication when challenged. The field of drug hypersensitivity is a recently evolving field of research, but studies on its epidemiology and diagnostic tools are lacking in children. Clinical history is significant in the...
Neurology
Genetic tests by next-generation sequencing in children with developmental delay and/or intellectual disability
Ji Yoon Han, In Goo Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(6):195-202.   Published online November 4, 2019
Developments in next-generation sequencing (NGS) techogies have assisted in clarifying the diagnosis and treatment of developmental delay/intellectual disability (DD/ID) via molecular genetic testing. Advances in DNA sequencing technology have not only allowed the evolution of targeted panels but also, and more currently enabled genome-wide analyses to progress from research era to clinical practice. Broad acceptance of accuracy- guided targeted gene...
Original Article
Cardiology
Importance of pulmonary valve morphology for pulmonary valve preservation in tetralogy of Fallot surgery: comparison of the echocardiographic parameters
Su Jin Choi, Jung Eun Kwon, Da Eun Roh, Myung Chul Hyun, Hanna Jung, Young Ok Lee, Joon Yong Cho, Yeo Hyang Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(5):189-194.   Published online November 8, 2019
Question: Is echocardiographic examination is useful for surgical method decision in patients with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)?
Finding: Various echocardiographic parameters serve as predictors for determining surgical methods for TOF patients. However, the PV morphology and tissue characteristics should also be considered.
Meaning: A full dependence on the size of the pulmonary valve annulus (PVA), the z score, and the ratio of the size of PVA to aortic valve annulus or descending aorta surgery may result in inadequate surgical results during TOF total correction.
Critical Care Medicine
Assessment of interhospital transport care for pediatric patients
Krittiya Chaichotjinda, Marut Chantra, Uthen Pandee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(5):184-188.   Published online August 29, 2019
Background: Many critically ill patients require transfer to a higher-level hospital for complex medical care. Despite the publication of the American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines for pediatric interhospital transportation services and the establishment of many pediatric transport programs, adverse events during pediatric transport still occur.
Purpose: To determine the incidence of adverse events occurring during pediatric transport and explore their complications...
Editorial
Emergency Medicine
Pediatric transport medicine: a yet unknown territory in Korea
Jeong-Min Ryu
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(5):182-183.   Published online May 15, 2020
Nephrology (Genitourinary)
Dapsone: a steroid-sparing drug for refractory immunoglobulin A vasculitis?
Jin-Soon Suh
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(5):178-179.   Published online April 14, 2020
Review Article
Neurology
Factors associated with seizure and cognitive outcomes after epilepsy surgery for low-grade epilepsy-associated neuroepithelial tumors in children
Ara Ko, Joon Soo Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(5):171-177.   Published online November 13, 2019
Low-grade epilepsy-associated neuroepithelial tumors (LEATs) are responsible for drug-resistant chronic focal epilepsy, and are the second-most common reason for epilepsy surgery in children. LEATs are extremely responsive to surgical treatment, and therefore epilepsy surgery should be considered as a treatment option for LEATs. However, the optimal time for surgery remains controversial, and surgeries are often delayed. In this review, we...
How can neurological outcomes be predicted in comatose pediatric patients after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest?
Hyo Jeong Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(5):164-170.   Published online October 10, 2019
The prognosis of patients who are comatose after resuscitation remains uncertain. The accurate prediction of neurological outcome is important for management decisions and counseling. A neurological examination is an important factor for prognostication, but widely used sedatives alter the neurological examination and delay the response recovery. Additional studies including electroencephalography, somatosensory-evoked potentials, brain imaging, and blood biomarkers are useful for...
Nephrology (Genitourinary)
Treatment of refractory IgA vasculitis with dapsone: a systematic review
Keum Hwa Lee, Sung Hwi Hong, Jinhae Jun, Youngheun Jo, Woogyeong Jo, Dayeon Choi, Jeongho Joo, Guhyun Jung, Sunghee Ahn, Andreas Kronbichler, Michael Eisenhut, Jae Il Shin
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(5):158-163.   Published online September 24, 2019
IgA vasculitis, formerly known as Henoch-Schönlein purpura, is a systemic IgA-mediated vasculitis of the small vessels commonly seen in children. The natural history of IgA vasculitis is generally self-limiting; however, one-third of patients experience symptom recurrence and a refractory course. This systematic review examined the use of dapsone in refractory IgA vasculitis cases. A literature search of PubMed databases retrieved...
Letter to the Editor
Cardiology
Differences over 10 years in epidemiologic and clinical features of Kawasaki disease at a single tertiary center
Hyun Su Kim, Suk Won Shin, Bo Geum Choi, Hee Joung Choi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(4):157-158.   Published online February 5, 2020
Original Article
Nephrology (Genitourinary)
Variation in clinical usefulness of biomarkers of acute kidney injury in young children undergoing cardiac surgery
Hee Sun Baek, Youngok Lee, Hea Min Jang, Joonyong Cho, Myung Chul Hyun, Yeo Hyang Kim, Su-Kyeong Hwang, Min Hyun Cho
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(4):151-156.   Published online February 5, 2020
Question: Can clinical usefulness of biomarkers of acute kidney injury vary on the clinical circumstances?
Finding: In young children undergoing cardiac surgery, urine KIM-1/Cr level peaked at 24 hours with significant difference from baseline level and was significantly higher at 6 hours in the AKI group. However, urine NGAL/Cr and IL-18/Cr levels showed no specific trend with time for 48 hours after cardiac surgery.
Meaning: Urine KIM-1/Cr concentration could be considered a good biomarker for early AKI prediction after open cardiac surgery in young children.
Endocrinology
Effect of agricultural pesticide on precocious puberty in urban children: an exploratory study
Junghwan Suh, Han Saem Choi, Ahreum Kwon, Hyun Wook Chae, Ho-Seong Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(4):146-150.   Published online December 6, 2019
Question: Does agricultural pesticide effect precocious puberty in girls?
Finding: Dinotefuran, an insecticide of neonicotinoid class, was detected in one of 30 patients with precocious puberty, and in 2 girls of the normal control group, which was not statistically significant.
Meaning: There was no close relationship between agricultural pesticides and development of precocious puberty.
Other
Korean parents’ perceptions of the challenges and needs on school re-entry during or after childhood and adolescent cancer: a multi-institutional survey by Korean Society of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology
Jun Ah Lee, Jae Min Lee, Hyeon Jin Park, Meerim Park, Byung Kiu Park, Hee Young Ju, Ji Yoon Kim, Sang Kyu Park, Young Ho Lee, Ye Jee Shim, Heung Sik Kim, Kyung Duk Park, Yeon-Jung Lim, Hee Won Chueh, Ji Kyoung Park, Soon Ki Kim, Hyoung Soo Choi, Hyo Seop Ahn, Jeong Ok Hah, Hyoung Jin Kang, Hee Young Shin, Mee Jeong Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(4):141-145.   Published online November 14, 2019
Question: What are the parental needs and challenges when their children return to school after cancer?
Finding: In addition to scholastic aptitude-oriented programs, emotional and psychosocial support is necessary for a successful return to school.
Meaning: Pediatric oncologists should actively engage in improving oncology practices to better integrate individualized school plans and educate peers and teachers to improve health literacy to make them understand the needs of children with cancer.
Nutrition
Positive association of breastfeeding on respiratory syncytial virus infection in hospitalized infants: a multicenter retrospective study
Min Jeong Jang, Yong Joo Kim, Shinhye Hong, Jaeyoon Na, Jong Hee Hwang, Son Moon Shin, Young Min Ahn
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(4):135-140.   Published online November 12, 2019
Question: Human milk has stronger antiviral, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory properties compared with formula milk. How dose breastfeeding affect respiratory syncytial virus infection in Korea?
Finding: Breastfed infants required less oxygen therapy and possible intensive care unit admission than artificial formulafed infants during respiratory syncytial virus infection.
Meaning: This protective role of breast milk on RSV severity can be a supporting evidence for promoting breastfeeding in Korea.
Editorial
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Epidermal growth factor as a reliable marker of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm neonates
Na Mi Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(4):133-134.   Published online September 18, 2019
Review Article
Infection
Epidemiology and clinical features of coronavirus disease 2019 in children
Soo-Han Choi, Han Wool Kim, Ji-Man Kang, Dong Hyun Kim, Eun Young Cho
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(4):125-132.   Published online April 6, 2020
Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), which started in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 and declared a worldwide pandemic on March 11, 2020, is a novel infectious disease that causes respiratory illness and death. Pediatric COVID-19 accounts for a small percentage of patients and is often milder than that in adults; however, it can progress to severe disease in some cases. Even neonates...
Epidemiology, virology, and clinical features of severe acute respiratory syndrome -coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2; Coronavirus Disease-19)
Su Eun Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(4):119-124.   Published online April 2, 2020
A cluster of severe pneumonia of unknown etiology in Wuhan City, Hubei province in China emerged in December 2019. A novel coronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) was isolated from lower respiratory tract sample as the causative agent. The current outbreak of infections with SARS-CoV-2 is termed Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) by the World Health Organization (WHO). COVID-19...
Perspective
Pulmonology
Early preemptive immunomodulators (corticosteroids) for severe pneumonia patients infected with SARS-CoV-2
Kyung-Yil Lee, Jung-Woo Rhim, Jin-Han Kang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(4):117-118.   Published online April 8, 2020
Letter to the Editor
General Pediatrics
Effectiveness of comprehensive hand hygiene module on preschool children in Klang Valley, Malaysia
Mohd Dzulkhairi Mohd Rani, Nurul Azmawati Mohamed, Tengku Zetty Maztura Tengku Jamaluddin, Zarini Ismail, Shalinawati Ramli, Habibah Faroque, Farishah Nur Abd Samad, Abdul Rasyid Ariffien, Aisyah Ar Redha Che Amir Farid, Ilina Isahak
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(3):115-116.   Published online February 5, 2020
Original Article
Endocrinology
Influence of subclinical hypothyroidism on metabolic parameters in obese children and adolescents
Ozlem Kara
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(3):110-114.   Published online March 6, 2020
Question: Does subclinical hypothyroidism in obese children and adolescents affect metabolic parameters?
Finding: Insulin, HOMA-IR, and TG levels were higher and the HDL-C level was lower in patients with SH.
Meaning: A clear association is observed between SH, and insulin resistance and dyslipidemia in obese children. It can be said that the TSH may be evaluated as a metabolic risk factor in obese patients.
Allergy
Asthma predictive index as a useful diagnostic tool in preschool children: a cross-sectional study in Korea
Dong Hyeon Lee, Ji-Won Kwon, Hyung Young Kim, Ju-Hee Seo, Hyo-Bin Kim, So-Yeon Lee, Gwang-Cheon Jang, Dae-Jin Song, Woo Kyung Kim, Young-Ho Jung, Soo-Jong Hong, Jung Yeon Shim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(3):104-109.   Published online November 8, 2019
Question: Is physician-diagnosed current asthma in preschool children associated with the asthma predictive index, atopic sensitization, or pulmonary function test?
Finding: Physician-diagnosed current asthma in preschool children was associated with the asthma predictive index, but not with spirometry, methacholine provocation test, fractional expiratory nitric oxide level, and atopic sensitization.
Meaning: Physician-diagnosed asthma in preschool children may be different from classic atopic asthma in school children or adolescents.
Editorial
Allergy
Is the predictive model for asthma development useful as a tool for diagnosing pediatric asthma?
Bong-Seong Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(3):102-103.   Published online February 5, 2020
Neurology
Guideline for advanced neuroimaging in pediatric epilepsy
Yun Jung Hur
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(3):100-101.   Published online March 6, 2020
Hematology
When to suspect inherited platelet disorders and how to diagnose them
Eun Sil Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(3):98-99.   Published online February 5, 2020
Cardiology
Can the accurate epidemiological study help to search the etiology of Kawasaki disease?
Ji Whan Han
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(3):96-97.   Published online August 7, 2019
Review Article
Neurology
Advanced neuroimaging techniques for evaluating pediatric epilepsy
Yun Jeong Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(3):88-95.   Published online February 6, 2020
Accurate localization of the seizure onset zone is important for better seizure outcomes and preventing deficits following epilepsy surgery. Recent advances in neuroimaging techniques have increased our understanding of the underlying etiology and improved our ability to noninvasively identify the seizure onset zone. Using epilepsy-specific magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocols, structural MRI allows better detection of the seizure onset zone,...
Hematology
Genetic classification and confirmation of inherited platelet disorders: current status in Korea
Ye Jee Shim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(3):79-87.   Published online February 6, 2020
Inherited platelet disorders (IPDs), which manifest as primary hemostasis defects, often underlie abnormal bleeding and a family history of thrombocytopenia, bone marrow failure, hematologic malignancies, undefined mucocutaneous bleeding disorder, or congenital bony defects. Wide heterogeneity in IPD types with regard to the presence or absence of thrombocytopenia, platelet dysfunction, bone marrow failure, and dysmegakaryopoiesis is observed in patients. The individual...
Letter to the Editor
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Risk factors for BiPAP failure as an initial management approach in moderate to late preterm infants with respiratory distress
Heekwon Son, Eui Kyung Choi, Kyu Hee Park, Jeong Hee Shin, Byung Min Choi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(2):63-65.   Published online February 15, 2020
Question: Which factors can predict BiPAP failure as the initial management approach for moderate to late preterm infants with respiratory distress?
Finding: RDS aggravation and increased oxygen and frequency requirements during BiPAP support were associated with BiPAP failure.
Meaning: Early changes to invasive ventilator care should be considered for moderate to late preterm infants showing RDS aggravation and increased oxygen and frequency requirements during BiPAP support.
Original Article
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Effect of red blood cell transfusion on short-term outcomes in very low birth weight infants
Eui Young Lee, Sung Shin Kim, Ga Young Park, Sun Hyang Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(2):56-62.   Published online February 6, 2020
Question: Does RBC transfusion affect the short-term outcomes of VLBW infants?
Finding: The results showed that RBC transfusion was significantly related to the incidence of BPD (OR, 5.42; P<0.001) and NEC (OR, 3.40; P=0.009).
Meaning: Careful consideration of the patient’s clinical condition and appropriate guidelines is required before administering RBC transfusions.
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