Clin Exp Pediatr > Accepted Articles
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3345/cep.2021.00773    [Accepted]
Published online October 12, 2021.
Retinopathy of prematurity: a review of epidemiology and current treatment strategies
Eun Hee Hong  , Yong Un Shin  , Heeyoon Cho 
Department of Ophthalmology, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
Correspondence: 
Heeyoon Cho, Email: hycho@hanyang.ac.kr
Received: 2 June 2021   • Revised: 6 September 2021   • Accepted: 15 September 2021
Abstract
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is among the most common causes of childhood blindness. Three phases of ROP epidemics have been observed worldwide since ROP was first described in the 1940s. Despite advances in neonatal care, the occurrence of ROP and associated visual impairment has been increasing somewhere on Earth and remains difficult to control. Conventional treatment options for preventing ROP progression include retinal ablation using cryotherapy or laser therapy. With the emergence of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) treatment for ocular diseases, the efficacy and safety of anti-VEGF therapy for ROP have recently been actively discussed. In the advanced stage of ROP with retinal detachment, surgical treatment including scleral buckling or vitrectomy is needed to maintain or induce retinal attachment. At this stage, the visual outcome is usually poor despite successful anatomical retinal attachment. Therefore, preventing ROP progression by timely screening examinations and treatment remains the most important part of ROP management.
Key Words: Retinopathy of prematurity, Epidemics, Cryotherapy, Laser, Vascular endothelial growth factor, Scleral buckling, Vitrectomy


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