Endocrinology

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Original Article
Endocrinology
Autoimmunity and intestinal colonization by Candida albicans in patients with type 1 diabetes at the time of the diagnosis
Semra Gürsoy, Tuba Koçkar, Sezen Ugan Atik, Zerrin Önal, Hasan Önal, Erdal Adal
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(7):217-220.   Published online July 15, 2018

Purpose: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a chronic and immune-mediated disease, which is characterized by the progressive destruction of pancreatic beta cells. T1DM precipitates in genetically susceptible individuals through environmental factors. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the impact of autoimmunity and intestinal colonization of Candida albicans on the development of T1DM. Methods: Forty-two patients newly diagnosed with T1DM...
The association of total blood mercury levels and overweight among Korean adolescents: analysis of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2010–2013
Yi-Yeon Shin, In-Kyung Ryu, Mi-Jung Park, Shin-Hye Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(4):121-128.   Published online April 23, 2018
Purpose

Obesity has been associated with higher total blood mercury levels, based on animal studies; however, studies that focus on children and adolescents are lacking. We aimed to assess the association between total blood mercury levels and the incidence of overweight and abdominal obesity in Korean adolescents.

Methods

The study population comprised 1,567 adolescents (793 boys and 774 girls; aged 10–19 years), who...

The effect of low-dose intravenous bisphosphonate treatment on osteoporosis in children with quadriplegic cerebral palsy
Soon Jeong Moon, Young Min An, Soon Ki Kim, Young Se Kwon, Ji Eun Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2017;60(12):403-407.   Published online December 22, 2017
Purpose

Quadriplegic children with cerebral palsy are more susceptible to osteoporosis because of various risk factors that interfere with bone metabolism. Pamidronate is effective for pediatric osteoporosis, but there are no guidelines for optimal dosage or duration of treatment in quadriplegic children with osteoporosis. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of low-dose pamidronate treatment in these patients.

Methods

Ten quadriplegic patients on antiepileptic...

The influence of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists on anthropometric change in girls with central precocious puberty
Jong Wan Yoon, Hyun A Park, Jieun Lee, Jae Hyun Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2017;60(12):395-402.   Published online December 22, 2017
Purpose

The potential effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) treatment on the weight of girls with central precocious puberty (CPP) remains a controversy. We investigated anthropometric changes during and after GnRHa treatment among girls with CPP.

Methods

This retrospective study evaluated data from 127 girls with CPP who received GnRHa treatment for ≥2 years. Height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) values were...

Screening of SHOX gene sequence variants in Saudi Arabian children with idiopathic short stature
Abdulla A. Alharthi, Ehab I. El-Hallous, Iman M. Talaat, Hamed A. Alghamdi, Matar I. Almalki, Ahmed Gaber
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2017;60(10):327-332.   Published online October 20, 2017
Purpose

Short stature affects approximately 2%–3% of children, representing one of the most frequent disorders for which clinical attention is sought during childhood. Despite assumed genetic heterogeneity, mutations or deletions in the short stature homeobox-containing gene (SHOX) are frequently detected in subjects with short stature. Idiopathic short stature (ISS) refers to patients with short stature for various unknown reasons. The goal...

The serum level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D for maximal suppression of parathyroid hormone in children: the relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone
Jung In Kang, Yoon Suk Lee, Ye Jin Han, Kyoung Ae Kong, Hae Soon Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2017;60(2):45-49.   Published online February 27, 2017
Purpose

Serum level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) is considered as the most appropriate marker of vitamin D status. However, only a few studies have investigated the relationship between 25-OHD and parathyroid hormone (PTH) in children. To this end, this study was aimed at evaluating the lowest 25-OHD level that suppresses the production of parathyroid hormone in children.

Methods

A retrospective record review was...

Review Article
Endocrinology
Management issues of congenital adrenal hyperplasia during the transition from pediatric to adult care
Jin-Ho Choi, Han-Wook Yoo
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2017;60(2):31-37.   Published online February 27, 2017

Steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency is the most prevalent form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), accounting for approximately 95% of cases. With the advent of newborn screening and hormone replacement therapy, most children with CAH survive into adulthood. Adolescents and adults with CAH experience a number of complications, including short stature, obesity, infertility, tumor, osteoporosis, and reduced quality of life. Transition from...

Waist-to-height ratio as a screening tool for obesity and cardiometabolic risk
Eun-Gyong Yoo
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2016;59(11):425-431.   Published online November 18, 2016

The waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), calculated by dividing the waist circumference (WC) by height, has recently gained attention as an anthropometric index for central adiposity. It is an easy-to-use and less age-dependent index to identify individuals with increased cardiometabolic risk. A WHtR cutoff of 0.5 can be used in different sex and ethnic groups and is generally accepted as a universal...

Case Report
Endocrinology
Hashimoto thyroiditis with an unusual presentation of cardiac tamponade in Noonan syndrome
Mi Ji Lee, Byung Young Kim, Jae Sook Ma, Young Earl Choi, Young Ok Kim, Hwa Jin Cho, Chan Jong Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2016;59(Suppl 1):S112-S115.   Published online November 30, 2016

Noonan syndrome is an autosomal dominant, multisystem disorder. Autoimmune thyroiditis with hypothyroidism is an infrequent feature in patients with Noonan syndrome. A 16-year-old boy was admitted because of chest discomfort and dyspnea; an echocardiogram revealed pericardial effusion. Additional investigations led to a diagnosis of severe hypothyroidism due to Hashimoto thyroiditis. The patient was treated with L-thyroxine at 0.15 mg daily....

Concomitant occurrence of Turner syndrome and growth hormone deficiency
Jung Yu, Ha Young Shin, Chong Guk Lee, Jae Hyun Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2016;59(Suppl 1):S121-S124.   Published online November 30, 2016

Turner syndrome (TS) is a genetic disorder in phenotypic females that has characteristic physical features and presents as partial or complete absence of the second sex chromosome. Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is a condition caused by insufficient release of growth hormone from the pituitary gland. The concomitant occurrence of TS and GHD is rare and has not yet been reported...

A novel mutation of ABCC8 gene in a patient with diazoxide-unresponsive congenital hyperinsulinism
Ji Sook Park, Hong-Jun Lee, Chan-Hoo Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2016;59(Suppl 1):S116-S120.   Published online November 30, 2016

Congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) is a rare condition that can cause irreversible brain damage during the neonatal period owing to the associated hypoglycemia. Hypoglycemia in CHI occurs secondary to the dysregulation of insulin secretion. CHI has been established as a genetic disorder of islet-cell hyperplasia, associated with a mutation of the ABCC8 or KCNJ11 genes, which encode the sulfonylurea receptor 1...

Phelan-McDermid syndrome presenting with developmental delays and facial dysmorphisms
Yoon-Myung Kim, In-Hee Choi, Jun Suk Kim, Ja Hye Kim, Ja Hyang Cho, Beom Hee Lee, Gu-Hwan Kim, Jin-Ho Choi, Eul-Ju Seo, Han-Wook Yoo
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2016;59(Suppl 1):S25-S28.   Published online November 30, 2016

Phelan-McDermid syndrome is a rare genetic disorder caused by the terminal or interstitial deletion of the chromosome 22q13.3. Patients with this syndrome usually have global developmental delay, hypotonia, and speech delays. Several putative genes such as the SHANK3, RAB, RABL2B, and IB2 are responsible for the neurological features. This study describes the clinical features and outcomes of Korean patients with...

Review Article
Endocrinology
Effects of early menarche on physical and psychosocial health problems in adolescent girls and adult women
Jae-Ho Yoo
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2016;59(9):355-361.   Published online September 21, 2016

The menarcheal age of Korean women has been rapidly decreasing for the last 50 years, and the average menarcheal age of women born in the 1990s is approaching 12.6 years. In addition, interest in early puberty has been increasing recently owing to the rapid increase in precocious puberty. Generally, out of concern for short stature and early menarche, idiopathic central...

Original Article
Endocrinology
Lipopolysaccharide-binding protein plasma levels as a biomarker of obesity-related insulin resistance in adolescents
Ki Eun Kim, Young Sun Cho, Kyung Suk Baek, Lan Li, Kwang-Hyun Baek, Jung Hyun Kim, Ho-Seong Kim, Youn Ho Sheen
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2016;59(5):231-238.   Published online May 31, 2016
Purpose

Lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) is a 65-kDa acute phase protein, derived from the liver, which is present in high concentrations in plasma. Data regarding the association between circulating plasma LBP levels and obesity-related biomarkers in the pediatric population are scarce. We aimed to determine whether there was a difference in plasma LBP levels between overweight/obese and normal-weight adolescents and to assess...

Impact of lifestyle factors on trends in lipid profiles among Korean adolescents: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys study, 1998 and 2010
Shin-Hye Kim, Young-Hwan Song, Sangshin Park, Mi-Jung Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2016;59(2):65-73.   Published online February 29, 2016
Purpose

Only a few studies have explored nationwide trends in lipid profiles among Asian adolescents. We aimed to assess trends in lipid profiles and the associated lifestyle factors among Korean children.

Methods

We analyzed data for 2,094 adolescents who were aged 10–18 years and had participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys in 1998 and 2010.

Results

During 1998–2010, the prevalence of...

Review Article
Endocrinology
Catch-up growth and catch-up fat in children born small for gestational age
Won Kyoung Cho, Byung-Kyu Suh
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2016;59(1):1-7.   Published online January 22, 2016

Infants born small for gestational age (SGA) are at increased risk of perinatal morbidity, persistent short stature, and metabolic alterations in later life. Recent studies have focused on the association between birth weight (BW) and later body composition. Some reports suggest that fetal nutrition, as reflected by BW, may have an inverse programing effect on abdominal adiposity later in life....

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