Original article

  • HOME
  • ARTICLE CATEGORY
  • Original article
Original Article
Cardiology
Effect of face mask on pulmonary artery pressure during echocardiography in children and adolescents
Alireza Ahmadi, Mohammad Reza Sabri, Zohreh Sadat Navabi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2024;67(3):161-167.   Published online January 23, 2024
Question: Can face masks alter pulmonary pressure in children and adolescents with and without congenital heart disease?
Findings: Mask removal during echocardiography (ECHO) reduced pulmonary pressure.
Meaning: These findings suggest that face masks should be removed during ECHO in children and adolescents.
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Oral administration of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells attenuates intestinal injury in necrotizing enterocolitis
Yeong Seok Lee, Yong Hoon Jun, Juyoung Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2024;67(3):152-160.   Published online February 19, 2024
Question: What is the optimal dose of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) for treating necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), and is orally administered BM-MSC effective?
Findings: High (1×106 cells) or multiple BM-MSC doses showed similar effects as low (1×105 cells) doses of intraperitoneally administered BM-MSCs. Furthermore, orally administered BM-MSCs were as effective as intraperitoneally administered BM-MSCs.
Meaning: Orally administered low-dose BM-MSCs are a potential treatment for NEC.
Prevalence of anxiety, depression, and stress among parents of neonates admitted to neonatal intensive care unit: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Asha P. Shetty, Kurvatteppa Halemani, Alwin Issac, Latha Thimmappa, Sanjay Dhiraaj, Radha K, Prabhaker Mishra, Vijai Datta Upadhyaya
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2024;67(2):104-115.   Published online November 14, 2023
Question: What emotions do parents experience when their newborns are admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU)?
Finding: Mothers experienced more anxiety (51%), depression (31%), and stress (41%) symptoms than fathers (26%, 12%, and 22%, respectively).
Meaning: Parents often experience anxiety, stress, and depression following NICU admission. Healthcare workers are responsible for providing regular parental counseling.
Other
Virtual, augmented, and mixed reality: potential clinical and training applications in pediatrics
Suyoung Yoo, Meong Hi Son
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2024;67(2):92-103.   Published online May 24, 2023
· Review of articles that investigated the applications of virtual, augmented, or mixed reality in pediatric clinical settings and in the training of pediatric medical professionals was conducted.
· A total of 89 studies were retrieved, with 36 randomized controlled trials.
· In most studies, intervention using the novel technology was at least as effective or more effective than the traditional method.
· Use of virtual, augmented, and mixed reality has potential in pediatrics.
Neurology
Effectiveness of Helmet therapy for infants with moderate to severe positional plagiocephaly
Jeongho Kim, Jina Kim, Kyu Young Chae
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2024;67(1):46-53.   Published online December 5, 2023
Question: Is helmet therapy effective for positional plagiocephaly? What factors influence helmet therapy efficacy for positional plagiocephaly?
Finding: Helmet therapy is effective for infants with moderate to severe positional plagiocephaly, and its effectiveness is influenced by age at treatment initiation, severity of head asymmetry, and daily duration of helmet wear.
Meaning: Pediatricians should initiate helmet therapy for positional plagiocephaly sooner, ideally before 9 months of age, to maximize treatment efficacy.
Adolescence Medicine
Relationship between inflammatory biomarkers and insulin resistance in excess-weight Latin children
Mariano Nicolás Aleman, María Constanza Luciardi, Emilce Romina Albornoz, María Cristina Bazán, Adela Victoria Abregú
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2024;67(1):37-45.   Published online December 21, 2023
Question: What is the prevalence of insulin resistance (IR) in excess-weight Latin children, and can proinflammatory biomarkers predict it?
Finding: IR prevalence was elevated and tumor necrosis factor- α, interleukin-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein- 1, soluble CD40 ligand, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels were increased in excess-weight Latin children. However, none predicted IR status.
Meaning: These inflammatory biomarkers were unable to predict IR status. Therefore, further investigations are necessary.
Gastroenterology
Risk factors of prolonged diarrhea in children under 2 years old
Dedy Rahmat, Agus Firmansyah, Ina S. Timan, Saptawati Bardosono, Joedo Prihartono, Pramita Gayatri
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(12):538-544.   Published online November 16, 2023
Question: What are the risk factors for prolonged diarrhea in children under 2 years old?
Finding: History of antibiotic use, zinc deficiency, and elevated fecal alpha-1 antitrypsin levels were the main risk factors of prolonged diarrhea in children under 2 years old with acute diarrhea.
Meaning: Rational antibiotic usage is necessary as well as thorough testing of serum zinc level and fecal alpha-1 antitrypsin levels.
General Pediatrics
Virtual reality for pain reduction during intravenous injection in pediatrics: a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials
Ensiyeh Jenabi, Saeid Bashirian, Amir Mohammad Salehi, Masoud Rafiee, Mozhdeh Bashirian
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(12):533-537.   Published online June 14, 2023
Question: This is the first meta-analysis to examine published evidence of the effectiveness of virtual reality at reducing pain during pediatric intravenous injections.
Finding: Our results suggest that virtual reality effectively reduces pain associated with intravenous injections in pediatric patients.
Meaning: These findings suggest the importance of virtual reality in decreasing the pain of intravenous injections among children.
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Association between maternal coronavirus disease 2019 and transient tachypnea of the newborn: a single-center study
Sung Hee Lee, Ju Hyun Jin, Jong Ha Yoo, Shin Won Yoon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(11):493-500.   Published online October 24, 2023
Question: What are the adverse clinical outcomes of neonates of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)–infected mothers?
Finding: Infants of mothers with COVID-19 were at significantly increased risk of transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTN), use of noninvasive ventilation, and need for supplemental oxygen (P<0.05).
Meaning: Neonates of mothers with COVID-19 are at risk of TTN and require respiratory support. Close monitoring is essential to ensuring timely intervention if required.
Developmental and Behavioral Medicine
Attention-deficit/hyperactive-impulsive disorder symptoms among grade 1 students with reading disorder in Thailand
Patcharapun Sarisuta, Issarapa Chunsuwan, Tippawan Hansakunachai, Paskorn Sritipsukho
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(11):485-492.   Published online October 24, 2023
Question: Would students with reading disorder have a significantly higher prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactiveimpulsive disorder (ADHD) symptoms than neurotypical students?
Finding: Students at risk of reading disorder exhibited significant ADHD symptoms compared with those not at risk of reading disorder according to all presentations of teacher assessments versus only for predominantly inattentive presentations of the parental assessments.
Meaning: Students with reading disorder have a significantly higher prevalence of ADHD symptoms than neurotypical students. Sex, parental education level, average family income, and children’s school affiliation significantly influenced reading disorder prevalence.
Gastroenterology
Inferior vena cava to aorta ratio in dehydrated pediatric patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Gilbert Sterling Octavius, Michelle Imanuelly, Johan Wibowo, Nadia Khoirunnisa Heryadi, Melanie Widjaja
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(11):477-484.   Published online June 14, 2023
Question: The inferior vena cava to aorta (IVC/Ao) ratio measured via ultrasound has been touted as a promising noninvasive technique to assess clinically significant dehydration in pediatric patients.
Finding: Our meta-analysis found that IVC/Ao ratio had a positive likelihood ratio of 3.2 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.1–5.1) and negative likelihood ratio of 0.18 (95% CI, 0.12–0.28).
Meaning: Hence, IVC/Ao ratio is insufficient to exclude or confirm significant dehydration in pediatric patients.
Developmental and Behavioral Medicine
Impact of short and intensive art-based intervention on symptomatology and social interactions among children with autism spectrum disorder
Deldar Morad Abdulah, Bayar Mohammed Omar Abdulla, Pranee Liamputtong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(10):447-454.   Published online September 14, 2023
Question: Does a short and intensive art-based intervention affect symptoms and social interactions among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?
Finding: The short and intensive art-based intervention did not affect symptoms in children with ASD level 2 or 3, including social awareness, social cognition, social communication, social motivation, and autistic mannerisms.
Meaning: The short and intensive art-based intervention did not improve the symptoms of patients with ASD.
Neonatal risk factors associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: an umbrella review
Ensiyeh Jenabi, Erfan Ayubi, Sajjad Farashi, Saeid Bashirian, Fereshteh Mehri
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(10):441-446.   Published online July 14, 2023
Question: The risk factors for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), such as breastfeeding, congenital heart disease, and low birth weight, in neonates are not well understood.
Finding: This umbrella review obtained significant effect sizes for ADHD for congenital heart disease (odds ratio [OR], 3.04), low birth weight (OR, 2.25), never breastfed (OR, 1.55), and Apgar score (OR, 1.30).
Meaning: Congenital heart disease, low birth weight, lack of breastfeeding, and Apgar scores were significant factors for ADHD.
Critical Care Medicine
Timing of parenteral nutrition initiation in critically ill children: a randomized clinical trial
Nagwan Y. Saleh, Hesham M. Aboelghar, Nehad B. Abdelaty, Mohamed I. Garib, Asmaa A. Mahmoud
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(9):403-411.   Published online June 14, 2023
Question: What is the ideal initiation timing of parenteral nutrition for critically ill children?
Finding: This randomized clinical trial of 140 children examined the effects of an early or late start of parenteral nutrition on mechanical ventilation need (primary outcome) and length of stay and mortality (secondary outcomes).
Meaning: Children who received early versus late parenteral nutrition had lower mechanical ventilation need and duration.
Gastroenterology
Relationship between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and hyperandrogenemia in adolescents with polycystic ovary syndrome
Ozlem Kara, Hanife Aysegul Arsoy, Murat Keskin
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(9):395-402.   Published online June 14, 2023
Question: Is polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) a risk factor for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in adolescents?
Finding: The frequency of NAFLD did not increase in adolescents with PCOS. However, hyperandrogenemia was a risk factor for NAFLD.
Meaning: Adolescents with PCOS and hyperandrogenemia should be closely monitored for hepatic steatosis.
Allergy
Association between dyslipidemia and asthma in children: a systematic review and multicenter cohort study using a common data model
Ji Eun Lim, Hye Min Kim, Ju Hee Kim, Hey Sung Baek, Man Yong Han
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(8):357-365.   Published online June 14, 2023
Question: Is dyslipidemia a risk factor for asthma in children?
Finding: This was a comprehensive systematic review and retrospective multicenter study of the association between dyslipidemia and asthma in children. In a multicenter cohort analysis using the Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership Common Data Model, elevated total cholesterol levels were associated with increased risk of asthma development.
Meaning: These findings suggest an association between dyslipidemia and asthma in children.
Neurology
Need for palliative care from birth to infancy in pediatric patients with neurological diseases
Raffaele Falsaperla, Silvia Marino, Carla Moscheo, Lucia Giovanna Tardino, Simona Domenica Marino, Concetta Sciuto, Piero Pavone, Giovanna Vitaliti, Federica Sullo, Martino Ruggieri
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(8):350-356.   Published online June 14, 2023
Question: What are the current palliative care protocols, palliative course, and implementable palliative care programs for hospitalized pediatric patients with neurological diseases in Italy?
Finding: We studied 34 newborns with nervous system diseases, all of whom had a poor prognosis.
Meaning: Despite current legislation in Italy, no palliative care network has been implemented. Given the vast number of patients with neurological conditions, standardized palliative care guidelines and protocols are required.
Infection
Seroprevalence of maternal peripartum human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-1 infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the Nigerian literature
Abdulrasheed Usman, Muhammad Hamis Musa, Bukhari Isah Shuaib, Olayemi Balogun, Mukhtar Adeiza
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(7):307-316.   Published online December 22, 2022
The peripartum period is an important transmission time for human T-cell lymphotropic virus-1 (HTLV-1) infection, mainly via breastfeeding and partly through the placental tissues of carrier mothers. Although most HTLV-1–infected individuals are asymptomatic, fetal and childhood infections often result in several diseases with disappointing treatment outcomes. An estimated HTLV-1 burden in Nigeria among perinatal women must be determined to enable rational planning of a comprehensive health care intervention.
Gastroenterology
Assessing indicators and clinical differences between functional and organic childhood constipation: a retrospective study in pediatric gastroenterology clinics
Hasan M. Isa, Fatema A. Alkharsi, Fatema A. Salman, Maryam S. Ali, Zahra K. Abdulnabibi, Afaf M. Mohamed
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(7):296-306.   Published online June 14, 2023
Question: What causes childhood constipation, and what can predict organic constipation?
Finding: Constipation represents 14.7% of gastroenterology visits. Functional constipation is more common among constipation types, while organic constipation is more common in young children and those with a low body weight, stunted growth, mucus in the stool, and associated diseases.
Meaning: Younger children and those with lower growth or mucus in the stool should be assessed for underlying organic causes of constipation.
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Efficacy of body position on gastric residual in preterm infant: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Kurvatteppa Halemani, Alwin Issac, Sanjay Dhiraaj, Prabhaker Mishra
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(6):262-270.   Published online November 30, 2022
Breastfeeding and it's tolerance are the positive indicators for preterm babies. Placing the preterm infant in the right lateral or prone position after feed had lesser gastric residual volume compared to placing them in left lateral or supine positions. The post-feed position is a vital element in enhancing feeding tolerance, mechanical functions of the gastrointestinal tract and the overall development of preterm infants.
Developmental and Behavioral Medicine
Parenting stress and interactive engagement behaviors in children with developmental delay
Jung Sook Yeom, Rock Bum Kim, Jae Young Cho, Ji Sook Park, Eun Sil Park, Ji-Hyun Seo, Jae-Young Lim, Hyang-Ok Woo
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(6):252-261.   Published online May 19, 2023
· Question: What level of parenting stress is experienced by parents of children with developmental delays (DDs) without autism spectrum disorder, and what factors contribute to it?
· Findings: Parents of children with DDs experienced high parenting stress that were significantly mediated by their children’s low interactive behaviors.
· Meaning: The interactive behaviors of children with DDs mediate parenting stress.
Cardiology
Echocardiographic reference z scores of right ventricular dimension and systolic function of children aged 5–12 years
Alaba Busola Oladimeji, Moriam Omolola Lamina, Peter Odion Ubuane, Motunrayo Oluwabukola Adekunle, Omolara Adeolu Kehinde, Barakat Adeola Animasahun, Olisamedua FidelisNjokanma
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(5):215-222.   Published online April 18, 2023
Question: Z score reference values for right ventricular size and systolic function in children using echocardiography are available in several countries. Despite the high burden of diseases involving the right ventricle in Nigeria, these reference values have limited applicability.
Finding: The right ventricular sizes of Nigerian children differed from those published elsewhere.
Meaning: These reference values will aid the treatment, monitoring, and pre- and postintervention for Nigerian children.
Infection
Predicting COVID-19 transmission in a student population in Seoul, South Korea, 2020–2021
Young Hwa Lee, Han Ho Kim, Young June Choe
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(4):173-178.   Published online December 22, 2022
Question: What is the spatial distribution and determinants of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection among students in Korea?
Finding: The community population was closely associated with the risk of COVID-19, and the number of students per school class were inversely associated with COVID-19 rates in students.
Meaning: Our finding suggests that controlling the community-level burden of COVID-19 can help prevent sudden acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection in school-aged children.
Clinical characteristics of pediatric patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 versus common human coronaviruses: a national multicenter study
In Suk Sol, Eun Lee, Hyeon-Jong Yang, Yong Ju Lee, Hye Yung Yum, Mi-Hee Lee, Mi Ae Chu, Hui Jeong Moon, Hyo-Bin Kim, Ju Hee Seo, Jung Yeon Shim, Ji Young Ahn, Yoon Young Jang, Hai Lee Chung, Eun Hee Chung, Kyunghoon Kim, Bong-Seong Kim, Cheol Hong Kim, Yang Park, Meeyong Shin, Kyung Suk Lee, Man Yong Han, Soo-Jong Hong, Eun Kyeong Kang, Chang Keun Kim; on behalf of The Pneumonia & Respiratory Disease Study Group of Korean Academy of Pediatric Allergy and Respiratory Disease
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(3):134-141.   Published online December 22, 2022
Question: The clinical differences between severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and human coronaviruses (HCoV) in children remain unknown.
Finding: This study compared the clinical findings of children infected with SARS-CoV-2 versus HCoV. Its findings suggest that children and adolescents with SARS-CoV-2 have a milder clinical course than those with HCoV.
Meaning: The clinical course of children and adolescents with SARS-CoV-2 should be closely monitored during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic.
Hematology
Changes and correlations of T-cell coinhibitory molecule programmed death-1 and interferon-γ in pediatric immune thrombocytopenia
Fady Mohamed El-Gendy, Amira M.F. Shehata, Esam Awad Abd El-Kawy, Mahmoud Ahmed El-Hawy
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(3):127-133.   Published online February 24, 2023
Question: What are the PD-1+ CD4+ T cells percentages and serum interferon gamma (IFN-γ) levels of pediatric patients with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP)?
Finding: Compared with healthy controls, the PD-1+ CD4+ T cells percentages and IFN-γ levels were significantly higher in ITP patients before and 1 month after therapy.
Meaning: Our findings suggest that PD-1+ CD4+ T cells and IFN-γ are involved in the pathophysiological process of ITP.
Gastroenterology
Association between maternal weight gain during pregnancy and child’s body mass index at preschool age
Jeewon Shin, Yoowon Kwon, Ju Hee Kim, Su Jin Jeong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(2):76-81.   Published online November 30, 2022
Question: What are the risk factors of newborn birth weight? Does gestational weight gain and prepregnancy body mass index affect childhood weight?
Finding: Excess maternal weight gain increases the risk of overweight/obesity, newborn birth weight, and child body mass index at 4–6 years.
Meaning: Maternal weight control before and during pregnancy should be well controlled.
Neurobehavior
Association between previous abortion history and risk of autism spectrum disorders among offspring: a meta-analysis
Ensiyeh Jenabi, Erfan Ayubi, Saeid Bashirian, Mahdieh Seyedi, Mohammad Rezaei
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(2):70-75.   Published online August 17, 2022
Question: This study aimed to determine whether there is an association between previous abortion history and the risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) among children.
Finding: We found that the risk of ASD associated with previous abortion history had an odds ratio of 1.64 (95% confidence interval, 1.28–2.0; I2=61.7%).
Meaning: These findings suggest a positive and significant association between history of previous abortion and risk of ASD in children.
Neurology
Long-term neurological cognitive, behavioral, functional, and quality of life outcomes after fetal myelomeningocele closure: a systematic review
Andre Marolop Pangihutan Siahaan, Martin Susanto, Sarma Nursani Lumbanraja, Dwi Herawati Ritonga
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(1):38-45.   Published online November 30, 2022
· Fetal myelomeningocele closure significantly improved long-term neurological cognitive, behavioral, functional, and quality of life outcomes, most likely by reducing hydrocephalus rates.
· However, fetal myelomeningocele closure is associated with a significant risk of pregnancy complications, especially premature rupture of membranes and preterm delivery.
Neonatology (Perinatology)
A thickened formula reduces feeding-associated oxygen desaturation and bradycardia in preterm infants
Gayoung Lee, Juyoung Lee, Ga Won Jeon, Yong Hoon Jun
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(1):32-37.   Published online December 15, 2022
Question: Is a commercial thickened formula able to alleviate oral feeding-associated desaturation and bradycardia in preterm infants?
Finding: Thickened formula feeding significantly reduced oral feeding-associated desaturation and bradycardia in preterm infants.
Meaning: Thickened formula feeding stabilizes oxygen saturation and heart rate during oral feeding among preterm infants with feeding difficulties.
Nutrition
Not breastfeeding and risk of autism spectrum disorders among children: a meta-analysis
Ensiyeh Jenabi, Saeid Bashirian, Amir Mohammad Salehi, Salman Khazaei
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(1):28-31.   Published online July 19, 2022
This study aimed to determine whether there is an association between not breastfeeding (versus breastfeeding) and the risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) among children. We found that the risk of ASD associated with not breastfeeding had an odds ratio of 1.81 (95% confidence interval, 1.35–2.27; I2=0 %). These findings suggest the importance of breastfeeding in decreasing the risk of ASD among children.
  • PubMed Central
  • PubMed
  • Scopus
  • Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)