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Knowledge-guided artificial intelligence technologies for decoding complex multiomics interactions in cells
Dohoon Lee, Sun Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(5):239-249.   Published online November 26, 2021
· The need for data-driven modeling of multiomics interactions was recently highlighted.
· Many artificial intelligence-driven models have been developed, but only a few have incorporated biological domain knowledge within model architectures or training procedures.
· Here we provide a comprehensive review of deep learning models to decipher complex multiomics interactions regarding the biological guidance imposed upon them to facilitate further development of biological knowledge-guided deep learning models.
Cardiology
Implication of microRNA as a potential biomarker of myocarditis
Jin-Hee Oh, Gi Beom Kim, Heeyoung Seok
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(5):230-238.   Published online March 2, 2022
· Myocarditis was recently examined quantitatively as inflammation of the heart muscle based on endomyocardial biopsy, and its noninvasive diagnosis remains unsatisfactory.
· Additionally, numerous miRNAs (miR-155, miR-146b, miR-590, miR-221, miR-222, etc.) coupled with inflammation or viral activation have been examined in myocarditis patients or mouse models.
· The recent identification of mmu-miR-721 (has-miR-Chr8: 96), a myocarditis-specific microRNA, demonstrated its potential as an acute myocarditis biomarker.
Psychiatric/Psychology
Psychological aspects in children and parents of children with chronic kidney disease and their families
Alemsungla Aier, Priya Pais, Vijaya Raman
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(5):222-229.   Published online November 10, 2021
· Childhood chronic kidney disease (CKD) is complex and requires lifetime medical treatment.
· Children with CKD are at risk for emotional, behavioral, social, and academic difficulties that significantly affect their quality of life.
· Caring for children with CKD is stressful for families.
· These unique challenges are crucial and can negatively impact treatment outcomes.
· Awareness of and addressing these evolving psychosocial issues can foster their developing needs.
Infection
Four months of rifampicin monotherapy for latent tuberculosis infection in children
Chi Eun Oh, Dick Menzies
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(5):214-221.   Published online October 29, 2021
· Recently, the importance of a short-term treatment regimen including rifamycin has been highlighted in the treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI).
· Four prospective or retrospective studies in children consistently reported that a 4-month daily rifampicin regimen (4R) had a higher completion rate than and comparable safety to a nine-month daily isoniazid regimen.
· We suggest rifampicin 20–30 mg/kg/day for children aged 0–2 years and 15–20 mg/kg/day for children aged 2–10 years in 4R to treat LTBI.
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Pathophysiology, classification, and complications of common asymptomatic thrombocytosis in newborn infants
Ga Won Jeon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(4):182-187.   Published online October 18, 2021
· Thrombocytosis, common in newborns and infants (<2 years) (3%–13%), is caused by elevated thrombopoietin (TPO) concentrations.
· Serum TPO levels are significantly higher immediately to 1 month postnatal and decrease with age.
· Platelet counts are positively correlated with gestational age at birth and postnatal age.
· Thrombocytosis is more common in preterm than in term infants.
· Thrombocytosis in newborns is reactive and resolves spontaneously without complications.
Endocrinology
Genetic factors in precocious puberty
Young Suk Shim, Hae Sang Lee, Jin Soon Hwang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(4):172-181.   Published online October 18, 2021
· Mutations in the kisspeptin (KISS1), kisspeptin receptor (KISS1R), makorin ring finger protein 3 (MKRN3), and delta-like homolog 1 (DLK1) genes are associated with idiopathic central precocious puberty (ICPP).
· A few genes related to pubertal onset have been implicated in ICPP.
· Epigenetic factors such as DNA methylation, histone posttranslational modifications, and noncoding ribonucleic acids may be related to ICPP
Infection
Epidemiological changes in infectious diseases during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic in Korea: a systematic review
Jong Gyun Ahn
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(4):167-171.   Published online November 30, 2021
· Nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) have had a major impact on the epidemiology of various infectious diseases in Korea.
· Respiratory diseases and gastrointestinal viral diseases were significantly reduced during the NPI period.
· The decrease in Kawasaki disease after the introduction of NPI is an unintended result.
· Infectious diseases that decreased during NPI use may re-emerge.
· We must continuously monitor the epidemiology of various infectious diseases during the coronavirus era
Etiological and pathophysiological enigmas of severe coronavirus disease 2019, multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, and Kawasaki disease
Jung-Woo Rhim, Jin-Han Kang, Kyung-Yil Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(4):153-166.   Published online November 23, 2021
· Severe cases of coronavirus disease, Kawasaki disease (KD), and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) share similar findings: a protracted clinical course, multiorgan involvement, and similar activated biomarkers.
· Here we propose etiological agents in KD and MIS-C as species in the microbiota and introduce a common pathogenesis through the protein-homeostasis-system hypothesis.
· Early proper dose of corticosteroids and/or intravenous immunoglobulin may help to reduce morbidity and mortality in these diseases.
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Retinopathy of prematurity: a review of epidemiology and current treatment strategies
Eun Hee Hong, Yong Un Shin, Heeyoon Cho
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(3):115-126.   Published online October 12, 2021
There have been global tri-phasic epidemic periods of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). In recent years, its incidence has reportedly been 10%–40% depending on country and study population. Current treatment strategies for ROP include laser photocoagulation, surgical treatment, and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment, the role of which has drawn attention in recent years.
Infection
Changes in age-specific seroprevalence of Japanese encephalitis virus and impact of Japanese encephalitis vaccine in Korea
Byung Ok Kwak, Young Jin Hong, Dong Hyun Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(3):108-114.   Published online September 24, 2021
Since the introduction of a universal Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccination program and urbanization, the incidence of JE has dramatically decreased in Korea. However, recent JE cases have occurred, predominantly among unvaccinated adults and with a shift in age distribution. Continuous surveillance of the seroprevalence of JE is required to establish a proper immunization policy in Korea.
Nephrology (Genitourinary)
Blood pressure measurements and hypertension in infants, children, and adolescents: from the postmercury to mobile devices
Seon Hee Lim, Seong Heon Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(2):73-80.   Published online September 15, 2021
· Hypertension is defined as a blood pressure (BP) >90th (elevated) or 95th (hypertension) percentile in children by height, age, and sex and >95th percentile in neonates by age, birth weight, and sex.
· Although the oscillometric method can be used for screenings, the auscultatory method remains the gold standard. The hybrid method employs the auscultatory and electronic methods and can reduce bias.
· BP measurement mobile device applications have a potential for development.
General Pediatrics
A new perspective on cholesterol in pediatric health: association of vitamin D metabolism, respiratory diseases, and mental health problems
Jeana Hong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(2):65-72.   Published online December 9, 2021
∙ Pediatric dyslipidemia is associated with several health problems besides cardiovascular diseases.
∙ There is a direct association between pediatric dyslipidemia and low serum vitamin D levels, asthma, and mental health problems regardless of body mass index.
∙ More large-scale nationally representative studies are needed to establish the appropriate cutoff points for the definition of dyslipidemia that is a prerequisite for further epidemiological studies in the Korean pediatric population.
Neurology
Promising candidate cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers of seizure disorder, infection, inflammation, tumor, and traumatic brain injury in pediatric patients
Seh Hyun Kim, Soo Ahn Chae
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(2):56-64.   Published online August 23, 2021
· Pediatric cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) components have been extensively evaluated as biomarkers of various neurologic diseases.
· Several promising candidate CSF biomarkers, including Tau, glial fibrillary acidic protein, neuron-specific enolase, S100β, and interleukins, have been studied in pediatric patients with seizure disorders, central nervous system infections, inflammation, tumors, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, traumatic brain injuries, intraventricular hemorrhage, and congenital hydrocephalus.
· Circulating microRNAs in the CSF are a promising class of biomarkers for various neurological diseases.
Gastroenterology
Upper gastrointestinal tract involvement of Crohn disease: clinical implications in children and adolescents
Eun Sil Kim, Mi Jin Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(1):21-28.   Published online September 10, 2021
· Clinical manifestations of upper gastrointestinal (UGI) tract involvement in Crohn's disease (CD) are common but often clinically underestimated.
· Diagnosing CD by confirming inflammation of the UGI tract histologically is challenging because macroscopic and microscopic findings overlap with those of other diseases.
· Ongoing efforts are needed to enable a standardized assessment of UGI CD in the future.
Neurology
Worldwide national intervention of developmental screening programs in infant and early childhood
Seunghyo Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(1):10-20.   Published online September 30, 2021
∙ Prevalence rate of developmental disabilities has been reported from 8% to 15% and its rate is increasing worldwide.
∙ The critical period of intervention for developmental delay is before the child reaches 3 years of age.
∙ All primary care pediatricians should conduct developmental surveillance and screening tests to infants and children at scheduled visits. Through this, they are liable for providing early identification and timely intervention.
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