General Pediatrics

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Original Article
General Pediatrics
Risk factors for childhood pneumonia: a case-control study in a high prevalence area in Indonesia
Vivi Ninda Sutriana, Mei Neni Sitaresmi, Abdul Wahab
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(11):588-595.   Published online March 15, 2021
Question: Is the incidence of childhood pneumonia influenced by breastfeeding and basic immunization status?
Finding: Exclusive breastfeeding and complete basic immunization status have an effect in limiting the incidence of childhood pneumonia.
Meaning: While exclusive breastfeeding and complete basic immunization the Expanded Program on Immunization status are important factors for reducing the incidence of childhood pneumonia, indoor air pollution was also a significant risk factor.
Letter to the Editor
General Pediatrics
Skipping breakfast is associated with lifestyle habits among Japanese pupils
Jun Kohyama
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(8):433-435.   Published online November 4, 2020
Question: Breakfast is important; however, adolescents are increasingly skipping it.
Finding: Skipping breakfast is independently associated with sleepiness, physical inactivity, dinner irregularity, screen time on school days, poor academic performance, after-school activity, and decreased sleep duration before school day.
Meaning: Reducing screen time on school days, after-school activity, and irregular dinner habits might decrease breakfast skipping, resulting in decreased sleepiness and improved academic performance.
Hyperinflammatory syndrome in children during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic in sub-Himalayan region
Seema Sharma, Shikha Verma, Isha Bhatia, Ravinder Singh, Mohit Bajaj, Milap Sharma
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(7):370-372.   Published online May 11, 2021
Question: Is there an increase in patients with hyperinflammatory syndrome during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic?
Finding: We found 10 patients with hyperinflammatory syndrome with poor outcome during a period of 2 months in a single tertiary care centre.
Meaning: Pediatricians who come across patients with muco cutaneous manifestations and multiorgan involvement should consider hyperinflammatory syndrome. Early recognition and prompt treatment of such patients may result in promising outcome.
Original Article
General Pediatrics
Significance of the tethered maxillary frenulum: a questionnaire-based observational cohort study
Sody A. Naimer, Ariel Israel, Aviezer Gabbay
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(3):130-135.   Published online September 7, 2020
Question: Does a tethered maxillary frenulum in the newborn result in breastfeeding difficulty or other oral symptomatology?
Finding: The analysis of subjects with a tethered maxillary frenulum surveyed beyond a mean 5-year follow-up did not reveal an increase in oral issues versus those of a random agematched control group.
Meaning: These data demonstrate no need to intervene upon the diagnosis of a tethered maxillary frenulum.
Review Article
General Pediatrics
Association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and risk of bone fractures in offspring: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Erfan Ayubi, Saeid Safiri, Kamyar Mansori
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(3):96-102.   Published online February 5, 2020
Question: What is the effect of maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) on the risk of bone fractures in the offspring?
Finding: After the adjustment for misclassification, MSDP may be associated with a 27% increased risk of bone fracture in the offspring (pooled odds ratio, 1.27; 95% confidence interval, 1.00–1.62; I2=0%; P=0.537)
Meaning: Preventive measures and health education programs should be designed and implemented to encourage women to stop smoking, especially during.
Clinical features, diagnosis, and outcomes of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children associated with coronavirus disease 2019
Ji Hee Kwak, Soo-Young Lee, Jong-Woon Choi; the Korean Society of Kawasaki Disease
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(2):68-75.   Published online December 30, 2020
Hundreds of cases of children and adolescents with hyperinflammatory responses such as Kawasaki disease have been reported amid the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, leading to coining of the new term COVID-19–associated multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. In this review article, we introduce the illness and describe its case definitions, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, treatments, and outcomes.
Editorial
General Pediatrics
Why should we be concerned about early menarche?
Hae Sang Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(1):26-27.   Published online July 13, 2020
· Early menarche is associated with several health problems in later life.
· Early menarche can be caused by environmental factors such as increased subcutaneous fat, a high body mass index, and sugar-sweetened beverages as well as genetic factors.
· Health education can prevent early menarche by aiming to reduce the consumption of fructose, high concentrations of which are present in sugar-sweetened beverages.
Original Article
General Pediatrics
Efficacy of conservative treatment of perianal abscesses in children and predictors for therapeutic failure
Lars Boenicke, Johannes Doerner, Stefan Wirth, Hubert Zirngibl, Mike Ralf Langenbach
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(7):272-277.   Published online May 15, 2020
Background: The optimal management of perianal abscess in children is controversial.
Purpose: To evaluate the efficiency of conservative treatment of perianal abscess in children and identify parameters that predict therapy failure. Methods: All cases of children younger than 14 years of age with perianal abscesses between 2001–2016 were evaluated. Results: Of the 113 enrolled patients, 64 underwent subsequent surgery for advanced disease (primary...
Ability of children to perform touchscreen gestures and follow prompting techniques when using mobile apps
Savita Yadav, Pinaki Chakraborty, Arshia Kaul, Pooja, Bhavya Gupta, Anchal Garg
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(6):232-236.   Published online February 5, 2020
Background: Children today get access to smartphones at an early age. However, their ability to use mobile apps has not yet been studied in detail.
Purpose: This study aimed to assess the ability of children aged 2–8 years to perform touchscreen gestures and follow prompting techniques, i.e., ways apps provide instructions on how to use them. Methods: We developed one mobile app...
Letter to the Editor
General Pediatrics
Effectiveness of comprehensive hand hygiene module on preschool children in Klang Valley, Malaysia
Mohd Dzulkhairi Mohd Rani, Nurul Azmawati Mohamed, Tengku Zetty Maztura Tengku Jamaluddin, Zarini Ismail, Shalinawati Ramli, Habibah Faroque, Farishah Nur Abd Samad, Abdul Rasyid Ariffien, Aisyah Ar Redha Che Amir Farid, Ilina Isahak
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(3):115-116.   Published online February 5, 2020
Perspective
General Pediatrics
Integrative care for children with medical complexity
Jung Lee, Min Sun Kim, Hee Young Shin
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(2):32-33.   Published online November 14, 2019
Systematic review and meta-analysis
General Pediatrics
The maternal prepregnancy body mass index and the risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder among children and adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Ensiyeh Jenabi, Saied Bashirian, Salman Khazaei, Zohreh Basiri
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2019;62(10):374-379.   Published online June 14, 2019
Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms have a major impact on individuals, families, and society. Therefore identification risk factors of ADHD are a public health priority.
Purpose: This is meta-analysis evaluated the association between maternal prepregnancy body mass index and the risk of ADHD among the resulting offspring. Methods: The search identified studies published through December 2018 in the PubMed, Web...
Original Article
General Pediatrics
Prevalence of hyperuricemia and its association with metabolic syndrome and cardiometabolic risk factors in Korean children and adolescents: analysis based on the 2016–2017 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Jung Hyun Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2019;62(8):317-323.   Published online June 24, 2019

Purpose: Investigating the prevalence of hyperuricemia and its association with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiometabolic risk factors (CMRFs) in Korean children and adolescents. Methods: This cross-sectional survey used data from the 7th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2016–2017); 1,256 males and females aged 10–18 years were included. Hyperuricemia was defined as serum uric acid levels were >6.6 mg/dL at...
Current use of safety restraint systems and front seats in Korean children based on the 2008–2015 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Seom Gim Kong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(12):381-386.   Published online September 19, 2018

Purpose: The use of proper safety restraint systems by children is vital for the reduction of traffic accident-related injury and death. This study evaluated the rates of use of safety restraint systems and front seats by Korean children. Methods: Based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2008 to 2015, I investigated the frequencies of safety restraint...
Use of child safety seats during transportation of newborns
Seon Hyuk Kim, Sung Won Park, Yeon Kyung Lee, Sun Young Ko, Son Moon Shin
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(8):253-257.   Published online August 15, 2018

Purpose: Child safety seats (CSS) are critical for the protection of children, in case of motor vehicle accidents. Although the national legislation mandates that all newborns must be placed in an appropriately installed CSS during transportation, people often do not perceive the importance of CSS and do not use it as recommended. The purpose of this survey was to understand...
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