General Pediatrics

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Original Article
General Pediatrics
Effect of 2–6 weeks of systemic steroids on bone mineral density in children
Athira Kuniyil, Somdipa Pal, Namrita Sachdev, Tribhuvan Pal Yadav
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(5):254-261.   Published online November 18, 2021
Question: Does steroid use for 2–6 weeks in children affect bone mineral content (BMC) or density (BMD)?
Finding: Steroid use for 2–6 weeks significantly decreased BMC and BMD of the whole body, total body less the head, lumbar spine, and distal radius. A significant negative correlation was observed among BMD, duration, and cumulative dose.
Meaning: Steroid use for 2–6 weeks in children negatively affected BMC and BMD.
Clinical note
General Pediatrics
Diabetic ketoacidosis in children induced by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) diabetic ketoacidosis post-COVID-19 in children
Neha Thakur, Narendra Rai
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(4):209-210.   Published online November 30, 2021
Original Article
General Pediatrics
Early initiation of breastfeeding and factors associated with its delay among mothers at discharge from a single hospital
J. Jenifer Florence Mary, R. Sindhuri, A. Arul Kumaran, Amol R. Dongre
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(4):201-208.   Published online October 18, 2021
Background: According to the National Family Health Survey– 4, in India, 78.9% of deliveries occur in institutions, although only 42.6% of new mothers initiate breastfeeding within 1 hour of delivery.
Purpose: To estimate the proportion of early initiation of breastfeeding (EIBF) among new mothers at discharge from a tertiary care hospital and identify the determinants of delayed initiation of breastfeeding among...
Gross motor dysfunction and balance impairments in children and adolescents with Down syndrome: a systematic review
Preyal D. Jain, Akshatha Nayak, Shreekanth D. Karnad, Kaiorisa N. Doctor
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(3):142-149.   Published online June 11, 2021
Question: What are the primary motor and balance dysfunctions in children with Down syndrome?
Finding: These individuals have gross delays, altered balance, and inefficient compensatory mechanisms.
Meaning: Neuromuscular and musculoskeletal impairments due to the chromosomal abnormality lead to developmental delay. These children also exhibit poor balance with greater instability and inefficient compensatory mechanisms including altered center of pressure displacement and trunk stiffening that predisposes them to falls.
Effect of maternal and child factors on stunting: partial least squares structural equation modeling
Agus Santosa, Essa Novanda Arif, Dinal Abdul Ghoni
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(2):90-97.   Published online May 4, 2021
Question: What effects do maternal and child factors have on stunting? Are there significant indicators of stunting?
Finding: Child and maternal factors had 49.8% and 30.3% effects on stunting, respectively. The primary child factor was infant formula dose, while the primary maternal factor was nutritional status.
Meaning: More attention to nutritional status during pregnancy and ensuring the appropriate dose of infant formula at ages 6–24 months can prevent stunting.
Review Article
General Pediatrics
A new perspective on cholesterol in pediatric health: association of vitamin D metabolism, respiratory diseases, and mental health problems
Jeana Hong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(2):65-72.   Published online December 9, 2021
∙ Pediatric dyslipidemia is associated with several health problems besides cardiovascular diseases.
∙ There is a direct association between pediatric dyslipidemia and low serum vitamin D levels, asthma, and mental health problems regardless of body mass index.
∙ More large-scale nationally representative studies are needed to establish the appropriate cutoff points for the definition of dyslipidemia that is a prerequisite for further epidemiological studies in the Korean pediatric population.
Original Article
General Pediatrics
Global relationship between parent and child obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Ju Suk Lee, Mi Hyeon Jin, Hae Jeong Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(1):35-46.   Published online March 29, 2021
Question: Are parent and child obesity correlated worldwide?
Finding: Overweight and obese status of parents and children were significantly associated worldwide. The association between parent and child obesity was stronger in Asia than in Europe and the Middle East, and in high-income than in middle- and low-income countries.
Meaning: Childhood obesity is highly influenced by parental weight status, indicating that parents could play an important role in its prevention.
Editorial
General Pediatrics
Is it time to add point-of-care ultrasound education to pediatric residency curriculum?
Shin Ae Yoon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(1):33-34.   Published online October 12, 2021
Growing point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) use in pediatric patients has led to the need for POCUS education for pediatric residents. Recent experimental studies have suggested that POCUS education improves self-rated POCUS confidence and comfort in pediatric resident training. Considering the effective and sustainable POCUS education curriculum in pediatric resident training, simulation-based education would be a solution.
Original Article
General Pediatrics
Efficacy of probiotics for managing infantile colic due to their anti-inflammatory properties: a meta-analysis and systematic review
Reza Shirazinia, Ali Akbar Golabchifar, Mohammad Reza Fazeli
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(12):642-651.   Published online April 12, 2021
Question: Do probiotics reduce colic symptoms?
Finding: Probiotics reduced colic symptoms in colicky infants probably due to the anti-inflammatory properties.
Meaning: Probiotics may be an effective and less noxious way to manage infantile colic.
Risk factors for childhood pneumonia: a case-control study in a high prevalence area in Indonesia
Vivi Ninda Sutriana, Mei Neni Sitaresmi, Abdul Wahab
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(11):588-595.   Published online March 15, 2021
Question: Is the incidence of childhood pneumonia influenced by breastfeeding and basic immunization status?
Finding: Exclusive breastfeeding and complete basic immunization status have an effect in limiting the incidence of childhood pneumonia.
Meaning: While exclusive breastfeeding and complete basic immunization the Expanded Program on Immunization status are important factors for reducing the incidence of childhood pneumonia, indoor air pollution was also a significant risk factor.
Letter to the Editor
General Pediatrics
Skipping breakfast is associated with lifestyle habits among Japanese pupils
Jun Kohyama
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(8):433-435.   Published online November 4, 2020
Question: Breakfast is important; however, adolescents are increasingly skipping it.
Finding: Skipping breakfast is independently associated with sleepiness, physical inactivity, dinner irregularity, screen time on school days, poor academic performance, after-school activity, and decreased sleep duration before school day.
Meaning: Reducing screen time on school days, after-school activity, and irregular dinner habits might decrease breakfast skipping, resulting in decreased sleepiness and improved academic performance.
Hyperinflammatory syndrome in children during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic in sub-Himalayan region
Seema Sharma, Shikha Verma, Isha Bhatia, Ravinder Singh, Mohit Bajaj, Milap Sharma
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(7):370-372.   Published online May 11, 2021
Question: Is there an increase in patients with hyperinflammatory syndrome during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic?
Finding: We found 10 patients with hyperinflammatory syndrome with poor outcome during a period of 2 months in a single tertiary care centre.
Meaning: Pediatricians who come across patients with muco cutaneous manifestations and multiorgan involvement should consider hyperinflammatory syndrome. Early recognition and prompt treatment of such patients may result in promising outcome.
Original Article
General Pediatrics
Significance of the tethered maxillary frenulum: a questionnaire-based observational cohort study
Sody A. Naimer, Ariel Israel, Aviezer Gabbay
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(3):130-135.   Published online September 7, 2020
Question: Does a tethered maxillary frenulum in the newborn result in breastfeeding difficulty or other oral symptomatology?
Finding: The analysis of subjects with a tethered maxillary frenulum surveyed beyond a mean 5-year follow-up did not reveal an increase in oral issues versus those of a random agematched control group.
Meaning: These data demonstrate no need to intervene upon the diagnosis of a tethered maxillary frenulum.
Review Article
General Pediatrics
Association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and risk of bone fractures in offspring: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Erfan Ayubi, Saeid Safiri, Kamyar Mansori
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(3):96-102.   Published online February 5, 2020
Question: What is the effect of maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) on the risk of bone fractures in the offspring?
Finding: After the adjustment for misclassification, MSDP may be associated with a 27% increased risk of bone fracture in the offspring (pooled odds ratio, 1.27; 95% confidence interval, 1.00–1.62; I2=0%; P=0.537)
Meaning: Preventive measures and health education programs should be designed and implemented to encourage women to stop smoking, especially during.
Clinical features, diagnosis, and outcomes of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children associated with coronavirus disease 2019
Ji Hee Kwak, Soo-Young Lee, Jong-Woon Choi; the Korean Society of Kawasaki Disease
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(2):68-75.   Published online December 30, 2020
Hundreds of cases of children and adolescents with hyperinflammatory responses such as Kawasaki disease have been reported amid the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, leading to coining of the new term COVID-19–associated multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. In this review article, we introduce the illness and describe its case definitions, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, treatments, and outcomes.
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