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Systematic review and meta-analysis
Genetics and Metabolism
Global prevalence of classic phenylketonuria based on Neonatal Screening Program Data: systematic review and meta-analysis
Hamid Reza Shoraka, Ali Akbar Haghdoost, Mohammad Reza Baneshi, Zohre Bagherinezhad, Farzaneh Zolala
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(2):34-43.   Published online February 6, 2020
Question: What is the global prevalence of classic phenylketonuria based on Neonatal Screening Program Data?
Finding: The overall worldwide prevalence of the disease is 6.002 per 100,000 neonates. The highest prevalence (38.13) was reported in Turkey, while the lowest (0.3) in Thailand.
Meaning: This difference in the prevalence may be due to differences in the number of consanguineous marriages among the different regions, phenylalanine cutoff points, and sample sizes.
Original Article
Neonatology (Perinatology)
The relation between serum levels of epidermal growth factor and necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm neonates
Heba Mostafa Ahmed, Nsreen Mostafa Kamel
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2019;62(8):307-311.   Published online March 15, 2019

Purpose: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is one of the most serious complications of prematurity. Many risk factors can contribute to the development of NEC. The epidermal growth factor (EGF) plays a major role in intestinal barrier function, increases intestinal enzyme activity, and improves nutrient transport. The aim of this study was to assess the role of epidermal growth factor in the...
Review Article
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Transfusion practice in neonates
Do-Hyun Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(9):265-270.   Published online September 6, 2018
Neonates, especially extremely low birth weight infants, are among the groups of patients undergoing transfusion frequently. Since they are exposed to higher specific transfusion risks compared to the patients of other age groups, there are many special aspects that must be considered for transfusion therapy in neonates. The transfusion risks in neonates include adverse outcomes specific for preterm infants as...
Original Article
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Does anaesthesia in mothers during delivery affect bilirubin levels in their neonates?
Zeinab A El-Kabbany, Nadin N Toaima, Tamer N Toaima, Mona Y Gamal EL-Din
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2017;60(12):385-389.   Published online December 22, 2017

This study aimed to assess whether different anesthetic techniques and oxytocin use applied during delivery affect transcutaneous bilirubin levels during the first 24 hours in neonates.


A total of 1,044 neonates delivered by either caesarian section (C/S) or normal vaginal delivery (NVD) were included in the study. They were classified into 5 groups as follows: group 1: born by C/S using...

Review Article
Food protein-induced proctocolitis: Is this allergic disorder a reality or a phantom in neonates?
Jin-Bok Hwang, Jeana Hong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2013;56(12):514-518.   Published online December 20, 2013

The etiology of small and fresh rectal bleeding in neonates who are not sick is usually unknown; the only known cause is food protein-induced proctocolitis (FPIPC). It has been recently reported that FPIPC is a rare cause of rectal bleeding in newborns, and most cases have been proved to be due to idiopathic neonatal transient colitis. A recommended strategy for...

Original Article
Analysis of anthropometric data for premature infants of 26 to 35 weeks of gestation; comparison with the data of 1960's
Ji A Aum, Hee Jin Jung, Jae Won Huh, Sang Hee Son
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2007;50(6):543-548.   Published online June 15, 2007
Purpose : The anthropometric data of newborns published by Lubchenco et al in the 1960's have been most commonly used in Korea as a standard of newborn growth. We hypothesized that Lubchenco's data have limitations for Korean premature infants born in the 2000's. We analyzed and compared the data of birth weight, length, and head circumference. Methods : The medical records...
Review Article
Evaluation of function and disorders of the adrenal gland in neonates
Il Tae Hwang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2007;50(3):236-240.   Published online March 15, 2007
Majority of sick full term newborns have adequate adrenal cortical function in response to stress. Acutely ill neonates with a basal cortisol level less than 15 g/dL (414 nmol/L) suggest adrenal insufficiency and require function testing of adrenal function. In premature infant, immaturity of hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis (HPA axis), may limit the ability to increase cortisol production in response...
Regionalization of neonatal care and neonatal transport system
Jong Beom Sin
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2007;50(1):1-6.   Published online January 15, 2007
In the United States, The concept of designation for hospital facilities that care for newborn infants according to the level of complexity of care provided was first proposed in 1976. The extent of perinatal health care regionalization varies widely from one area to the other. facilities that provide hospital care for newborn are classified into three categories on the basis...
Original Article
Clinical characteristics and risk factors for staphylococcal infections in neonatal intensive care unit
Min Kook Chung, Jeong Ho Choi, Jin Keun Chang, Sung Hoon Chung, Chong Woo Bae, Sung Ho Cha
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2006;49(12):1287-1295.   Published online December 15, 2006
Purpose : The importance of staphylococcal infections in NICU has been emphasized in terms of increased resistant strains and increased incidence of morbidity and mortality. In this study, we inrestignted the clinical characteristics and risk factors for staphylococcal infections, and looked into sensitivity trends of antibiotics in the era of a high rate of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in our...
Diagnostic limitation and usefulness of 99mTc-DISIDA hepatobiliary scanning on neonatal cholestasis
Jung Mi Kim, Byung-Ho Choi, You Cheol Jang, Ki Won Oh, Min Hyun Cho, Kyung Hee Lee, Jin-Young Park, Heng Mi Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2006;49(7):737-744.   Published online July 15, 2006
Purpose : To assess the usefulness of 99mTc-DISIDA scanning in the early evaluation of neonatal cholestasis and to verify the diagnostic value of this test in the differential diagnosis of biliary atresia. Methods : DISIDA scannings were performed and analyzed in 87 children(58 males and 29 females; age, 18-139 days, mean, 59.1 days) with neonatal cholestasis. Five groups according to the...
Clninical Features of Rotaviral Gastroenteritis in Neonates
Shin-I Park, Hae Oak Kwon, Jun Ho Lee, Su Jin Jung
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2005;48(10):1121-1125.   Published online October 15, 2005
Purpose : Rotavirus is the main cause of infantile diarrheal disease worldwide, especially in patients 3-24 months of age. Infants younger than 3 months of age are relatively protected by transplacental antibody. So the purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical features and severity of neonatal rotaviral gastroenteritis less than 1 month of age. Methods : A retrospective chart...
Serum Albumin Concentrations and Clinical Disorders by Gestational Ages in Preterm Babies
Mia Lee, Soo Youn, Baek Keun Lim, Jong Soo Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2005;48(2):148-153.   Published online February 15, 2005
Purpose : The aim of this study was to determine the reference ranges of serum albumin levels depending on the gestational ages of preterm infants. We also intended to compare the mean serum albumin levels between groups of preterm infants that did not develop clinical disorders later, and groups that did develop clinical disorders such as respiratory distress syndrome, intraventricular...
Assessment of Cardiac Function in Neonates by Using Tissue Doppler Imaging
Hee Chul Yoon, Jae Hoon Choe, Sun Young Kim, In Kyu Lee, Myung Ho Oh
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2004;47(9):959-964.   Published online September 15, 2004
Purpose : Tissue Doppler imaging(TDI) is recently being used for assessement of regional ventricular function in adults. However, data in neonates have not been established yet. The aim of this study is to establish reference values of TDI velocities and to investigate the effect of other factors on TDI velocites in the neonatal population. Methods : Forty eight healthy neonates with...
Clinical Findings of Sepsis-Associated Cholestasis in the Neonates
Soo Jung Yoon, Chun Soo Kim, Sang Lak Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2004;47(4):380-385.   Published online April 15, 2004
Purpose : Bacterial endotoxins or inflammatory cytokines are known to be important causes of cholestasis in patients with systemic infections such as sepsis. This study was undertaken to investigate the clinical features of cholestasis in newborn infants with sepsis. Methods : This study included 17 neonates with cholestasis diagnosed at the time of septicemia who had no previous history of cholestasis....
The Difference between Clinical Manifestations and Feeding or Delivery Methods in Healthy Full-term Neonates and Those with Nosocomial Rotaviral Infection
So Young Lee, Hyun Ji Kim, Mi Young Kim, Won Duck Kim, Dong Seok Lee, Doo Kwun Kim, Sung Min Choi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2003;46(5):454-458.   Published online May 15, 2003
Purpose : Rotavirus is the main cause of infantile diarrheal disease worldwide. The purpose of this study is to assess the difference between clinical manifestations and feeding or delivery methods in healthy full-term neonates and those with nosocomially-acquired rotaviral infection. Methods : The study was conducted on 348 babies who were delivered in Dongguk University Kyongju Hospital from Jan 1...
Availability of Capillary Blood Gas Analysis in Neonate
Jong Tae Jeong, Su Young Yun, Ran Lee, Jae Ho Hyun, Gyu Young Jung
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2002;45(4):449-453.   Published online April 15, 2002
Purpose : Arterial blood gas analysis is frequently performed in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) to evaluate ventilation and the metabolic state of critically ill infants. In occasions when umbilical arterial catheterization is not available, frequent arterial puncture is mandatory. This requires some technical skill and may occasionally have side effects. So we studied the validity of capillary blood gas...
Case Report
Three Cases of Acute Scrotal Disorders in the Neonate
Ja Yun Yun, Min Kyoung Kwon, Mi Ran Kim, Kon Hee Lee, Kwang Nam Kim, Ho Hyun Jeong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2001;44(7):841-846.   Published online July 15, 2001
Acute scrotal disorders(ASD) in neonates-especially the torsion of testes- are rare, and the clinical presentations are quite different from those of adolescents or adults. The neonates with ASD are generally afebrile and do not show typical symptoms. Early diagnosis and proper treatment of ASD are very important but the differentiation of torsion and orchitis is not easy in neonates. The...
Original Article
Clinical Evaluation of Diagnostic Criteria for Early Prediction of Bacterial Infection in Febrile Neonates
Jai Il Cho, Sang Chun Lee, Hwan Il Kim, Cheol Am Kim, Kil Seo Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1999;42(12):1661-1667.   Published online December 15, 1999
Purpose : A retrospective study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that febrile neonates, who have bacterial infections, can be accurately predicted early by diagnostic criteria. Methods : We conducted a retrospective study of 152 infants, 28 days or less of age, whose rectal temperature was at least 38℃. Past history, family history, finding on physical examinations and results of CBC,...
Changes in Arterial Blood Gas in Crying Neonates
Yeo Hyang Kim, Heng Mi Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1999;42(11):1496-1501.   Published online November 15, 1999
Purpose : Arterial blood gas and pH measurements are the standard by which adequacy of oxygenation and ventilation are assessed. The major problem with arterial punctures is that they can rarely be done without disturbing the neonates. Crying during arterial puncture usually results in change in respiratory patten and thus may result in significant changes in blood gas values Methods :...
Study of Nosocomial Infection of Rotavirus in Preterm and Full-term Neonates
Kwang Ok Chung, Dong Seok Lee, Doo Kwun Kim, Sung Min Choi, Woo Taek Kim, Sun Hee Yu
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1999;42(3):332-338.   Published online March 15, 1999
Purpose : The present study was designed to investigate rotavirus infection by comparing clinical characteristics of the nosocomial infection of rotavirus between preterm and full-term neonates. Methods : The subjects were admitted from May to December, 1996. In 71 preterms, 44 were Rotazyme positive, 27 were negative, and in 321 full-terms, 64 were Rotazyme positive, 257 were negative. We studied the...
Effect of Dexamethasone on Preventing the Laryngeal Edema Following Extubation in Neonates
Joon Sung Kim, Young Youn Choi, Jae Sook Ma, Tai Ju Hwang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1998;41(9):1180-1187.   Published online September 15, 1998
Purpose : We performed this study to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of dexamethasone in preventing laryngeal edema following exubation. Methods : We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 100 neonates who underwent endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation. Subjects were divided into two groups; dexamethasone treated(60 cases, dexamethasone group) and non-treated(40 cases, control group). We examined the underlying diseases of...
Mumps and Rubella-Specific IgG Levels of Term Pregnant W omen and Their Neonates
Young Kyoo Shin, Hae Won Cheon, Kee Hyoung Lee, Ji Tae Choung, Young Chang Tockgo
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1998;41(1):47-52.   Published online January 15, 1998
Purpose : This study was performed to evaluate seropositivities in term pregnant women and their neonates, and the transplacental transfer rate of maternal mumps and rubella- specific IgG from term pregnant women to their neonates. Methods : During Jun. 1, 1994 to Mar. 31. 1995, we collected 44 pairs of sera from pregnant women and their neonates in Anam Hospital of Korea University Medical...
Plasma Fibronectin Concentration in the Premature,Fullterm Neonates and Infants
Hyun Joo Lee, Kyung Hyo Kim, Gyoung Hee Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1997;40(4):473-479.   Published online April 15, 1997
Purpose : Plasma fibronectin has important role in the inflammatory response as non-specific opsonin and host defense. Plasma fibronectin concentration is different according to age and presence of infection. We performed this study to evalulate plasma fibronectin concentration in the healthy preterm, term neonates and infants and how that correlate with gestational age and birth weight and increased CRP concentration....
Study on Platelet Countsand Indices in Neonates
Kyoung Hee Choi, Sung Soo Rim, Byung Min Moon, Ki Bok Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1996;39(3):338-345.   Published online March 15, 1996
Purpose : The platelet number alone does not give a complete picture of platelet maturity and function, therefore, the platelet indices have been the subject of intensive study in recent years, but they have not been firmly established in the neonates. Methods : Blood samples collected in K2 EDTA bottle from femoral vein of 176 neonates (54 healthy fullterm, 96...
Circumcision, Neonates, Pain sensation
In Rok Do, Jeong Ho Lee, Yong Sub Kim, Jong Dae Jo
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1995;38(10):1324-1328.   Published online October 15, 1995
Purpose : Routine neonatal circumcision has widely performed without anesthesia under the assumption that the penis of neonates does not yet have functioning pain sensory nerve endings at this early stage of development, and has decreased the incidence of neonatal urinary tract infection. This study was performed to evaluate whether neonates recognize pain during opertion of circumcision without anesthasia. Methods :...
Diagnostic Value of Stable Microbubble Rating test and Efficacy of Surfactant Replacement Therapy in Neonates with Respiratory Distres syndroems
Jeong Hee Kim, Eun Ae Park, Kyung Hee Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1995;38(6):760-770.   Published online June 15, 1995
Purpose : Stable microbubble rating test(SMR) plays an important role in the clinical course and the prognosis of respiratory distress syndrome(RDS) patients, because SMR can be easily performed and it can predict quickly the neonatal RDS. After the success of the pulmonary surfactant replacement therapy in RDS infants by Fujiwara and co-workers in 1980, many supporting studies were presented and...
Outbreak of Non-typhoidal Salmonellosis in neonates
N.M. Park, M.J. Chey, M.J. Jeong, H.S. Kim, K.H. Kim, H.S. Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1995;38(1):20-26.   Published online January 15, 1995
During the period from Jun. 24, 1991 to Aug. 31, 1991, we experienced 6 cases of non-typhoidal salmonella and 18 cases with symptoms suggesting salmonellosis. The results obtained were as follows; 1) Mean age on admission was 9¡¾6 days and mean body weight was 3.3¡¾0.3kg. All cases were fullterm neonate. 2) 12 pts were transferred from nursery becasuse of diarrhea (50.0%), 7 pts...
The Significance of Nucleated Red Blood Cell Counts in Low Birth Weight Neonates
In Ho Song, Weon Kee Lee, Hye Lim Jung, Dong Hyuck Keum
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1993;36(11):1526-1533.   Published online November 15, 1993
We studied to assess the relationship between intrauterine growth retardation and the increased nucleated red blood cell counts (NRBC) in small for gestational age (SGA) and appropriate for gestational age (AGA) neonates with low birth weight. We also evaluated the nucleated red blood cell counts in low birth weight neonates who had either perinatal asphyxia or hyaline membrane disease (HMD)...
Evaluation of the Serum Erythropoietin Levels in Neonates
Soo Young Kweon, Gyoung Hee Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1993;36(1):67-72.   Published online January 15, 1993
Erythropoietin is the major hormonal regulator of erythropoiesis. It is controlled by many factors induct=ing hypoxia in tissue. The serum erythropoietin levels of neonates have shown gradual decrease untill 1 month of age. Which they are reactivated in the period of pysiologic anemia. This change is exaggerated if the neonates are born prematurely, and the levels of erythropoietin respond to...
Clinical charateristics of pregnancy-induced hypertensive mothers and their neonates.
Soo Jeong Ryu, Jin Sook Kim, Kyong Hoon Choi, Myong Jin Kim, Mi Na Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1991;34(7):929-933.   Published online July 31, 1991
The results were as follows; 1) The mean platelet count of peripheral blood in pergnancy-induced hypertensive mothers was 221, 733±17,357/mm3 which was than control Significant thrombocytopenia was encountered in 8 cases 2) Meanwhile their newborns showed neutropenia and prolongation of prothrombin time. 3) Intrauterine growth retardation could be assesed in 8 out of 30 newborns from these mothers.
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