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Review Article
Cardiology
Application of CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing for congenital heart disease
Heeyoung Seok, Rui Deng, Douglas B. Cowan, Da-Zhi Wang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(6):269-279.   Published online March 2, 2021
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats and CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR-Cas9) system has made a big step in the genome editing which still requires technical developments for the efficient applications in the many fields including congenital heart diseases (CHDs), closely related to the genomic abnormality. In this review, we tried to cover the most updated researches of CRISPR-Cas9 in the CHDs to understand the current technologies, eventually becoming therapeutic bases for the CHD patients.
Infection
The COVID-19 pandemic: an unprecedented tragedy in the battle against childhood obesity
Maximilian Andreas Storz
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(12):477-482.   Published online November 5, 2020
Large-scale quarantine and home confinement during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic will impose new and unfamiliar stressors on children, thereby worsening the childhood obesity epidemic. Physical, nutritional, and psychosocial factors that promote obesity in children during this special situation complementarily contribute to an unprecedented obesogenic environment. Involved stakeholders, including governments, schools, and families, must make all efforts to minimize the impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on childhood obesity.
Original Article
Other
Korean parents’ perceptions of the challenges and needs on school re-entry during or after childhood and adolescent cancer: a multi-institutional survey by Korean Society of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology
Jun Ah Lee, Jae Min Lee, Hyeon Jin Park, Meerim Park, Byung Kiu Park, Hee Young Ju, Ji Yoon Kim, Sang Kyu Park, Young Ho Lee, Ye Jee Shim, Heung Sik Kim, Kyung Duk Park, Yeon-Jung Lim, Hee Won Chueh, Ji Kyoung Park, Soon Ki Kim, Hyoung Soo Choi, Hyo Seop Ahn, Jeong Ok Hah, Hyoung Jin Kang, Hee Young Shin, Mee Jeong Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(4):141-145.   Published online November 14, 2019
Question: What are the parental needs and challenges when their children return to school after cancer?
Finding: In addition to scholastic aptitude-oriented programs, emotional and psychosocial support is necessary for a successful return to school.
Meaning: Pediatric oncologists should actively engage in improving oncology practices to better integrate individualized school plans and educate peers and teachers to improve health literacy to make them understand the needs of children with cancer.
Endocrinology
Lipid accumulation product is a predictor of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in childhood obesity
Bahar Özcabı, Salih Demirhan, Mesut Akyol, Hatice Öztürkmen Akay, Ayla Güven
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2019;62(12):450-455.   Published online October 28, 2019
Background: Lipid accumulation product (LAP) is associated with the presence and severity of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in adults.
Purpose: Here we evaluated the ability of LAP to predict NAFLD in obese children. Methods: Eighty obese children (38 girls; age 6–18 years) were included. Anthropometric measurements and biochemical values were obtained from the patients’ medical records. LAP was calculated as [waist...
Cardiology
Subtle inflammation: a possible mechanism of future cardiovascular risk in obese children
Watchareewan Sontichai, Prapai Dejkhamron, Peraphan Pothacharoen, Prachya Kongtaweelert, Kevalee Unachak, Nuthapong Ukarapol
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2017;60(11):359-364.   Published online November 27, 2017
Purpose

The risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been shown to be associated with systemic inflammation in obese adults with metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of MetS and its relation to inflammatory markers in obese Thai children.

Methods

A cross-sectional study was conducted. Children with history of endogenous obesity, chronic diseases, drug ingestion, and any...

Case Report
Signal change in hippocampus and current source of spikes in Panayiotopoulos syndrome
Jung Sook Yeom, Youngsoo Kim, Ji Sook Park, Ji Hyun Seo, Eun Sil Park, Jae Young Lim, Chan-Hoo Park, Hyang Ok Woo, Hee-Shang Youn, Oh-Young Kwon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2012;55(2):63-67.   Published online February 14, 2012

A 4-year-old girl with Panayiotopoulos syndrome presented with a history of 4 prolonged autonomic seizures. The clinical features of her seizures included, in order of occurrence, blank staring, pallor, vomiting, hemi-clonic movement on the right side, and unresponsiveness. A brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a slightly high T2 signal in the left hippocampus. Interictal electoencephalogram revealed spikes in the...

Original Article
Prognostic significance of minimal residual disease detected by a simplified flow cytometric assay during remission induction chemotherapy in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia
Kyung Nam Koh, Meerim Park, Bo Eun Kim, Ho Joon Im, Chan-Jeoung Park, Seongsoo Jang, Hyun Sook Chi, Jong Jin Seo
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2010;53(11):957-964.   Published online November 30, 2010
Purpose

Our study attempted to determine the prognostic significance of minimal residual disease (MRD) detected by a simplified flow cytometric assay during induction chemotherapy in children with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL).

Methods

A total of 98 patients were newly diagnosed with precursor B-ALL from June 2004 to December 2008 at the Asan Medical Center (Seoul, Korea). Of those, 37 were eligible for...

Review Article
Multimodal neuroimaging in presurgical evaluation of childhood epilepsy
Da Eun Jung, Joon-Soo Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2010;53(8):779-785.   Published online August 31, 2010

In pre-surgical evaluation of pediatric epilepsy, the combined use of multiple imaging modalities for precise localization of the epileptogenic focus is a worthwhile endeavor. Advanced neuroimaging by high field Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diffusion tensor images, and MR spectroscopy have the potential to identify subtle lesions. 18F-FDG positron emission tomography and single photon emission tomography provide visualization of metabolic alterations...

Original Article
Association of HLA-G gene promoter haplotype with childhood IgA nephropathy in the Korean population
Hwan Hee Jung, Won Ho Hahn, Byoung Soo Cho, Sung Do Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2010;53(4):548-553.   Published online April 15, 2010
Purpose : IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the most commonly occurring form of chronic glomerulonephritis in pediatric cases.Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes have been implicated in various inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The present study was conducted to investigate the association between 2 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the HLA-G gene and childhood IgAN. Methods : The authors analyzed and compared HLA-G gene...
Review Article
Late physical effects of childhood cancer survivors
Young-Ho Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2010;53(4):477-480.   Published online April 15, 2010
Advances in research and medical and supportive care have contributed to a growing population of adults formerly treated for childhood cancer. History of cancer and its therapy can have significant life-long health implications. Late effects of cancer therapy can be insidious on onset, occur outside the pediatric age, and contribute to premature morbidity and mortality. In this review, I have focused on the...
Psychosocial aspects of childhood cancer survivors
Jong Jin Seo
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2010;53(4):471-476.   Published online April 15, 2010
The majority of childhood cancer survivors and their families will be psychologically healthy, but may desire and benefit from preventive care. A significant portion of the survivor population will be psychosocially distressed in various aspects by their harsh experience of long cancer treatment, and may warrant professional intervention and treatment. Pediatricians should be aware of the late psychological effects that can occur a...
Long-term follow-up study and long-term care of childhood cancer survivors
Hyeon Jin Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2010;53(4):465-470.   Published online April 15, 2010
The number of long-term survivors is increasing in the western countries due to remarkable improvements in the treatment of childhood cancer. The long-term complications of childhood cancer survivors in these countries were brought to light by the childhood cancer survivor studies. In Korea, the 5-year survival rate of childhood cancer patients is approaching 70%; therefore, it is extremely important to undertake...
Original Article
Endocrine dysfunction after bone marrow transplantation during childhood and adolescence
Hye Young Jin, Jin-Ho Choi, Ho-Joon Im, Jong-Jin Seo, Hyung-Nam Moon, Han-Wook Yoo
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2010;53(3):420-427.   Published online March 15, 2010
Purpose : Several complications can occur in patients who received bone marrow transplantation (BMT) during childhood and adolescence. This study aims to investigate endocrine dysfunctions after BMT so that better care can be provided to care for long-term survivors of BMT. Methods : One hundred patients (61 males, 39 females) were included in this study. Clinical parameters such as initial diagnosis,...
Remission rate and remission predictors of Graves disease in children and adolescents
Sun Hee Lee, Seong Yong Lee, Hye Rim Chung, Jae Hyun Kim, Ji Hyun Kim, Young Ah Lee, Sei Won Yang, Choong Ho Shin
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2009;52(9):1021-1028.   Published online September 15, 2009
Purpose : Medical therapy is the initial treatment for children with Graves disease to avoid complications of other treatments. However, optimal treatment for childhood Graves disease is controversial because most patients require relatively long periods of medical therapy and relapse is common after medication discontinuation. Therefore, this study aimed to search clinical or biochemical characteristics that could be used as...
Review Article
Guidelines for childhood urinary tract infection
Seung Joo Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2009;52(9):976-983.   Published online September 15, 2009
Urinary tract infection (UTI), the most common bacterial disease in childhood, is frequently associated with urinary tract anomalies (15-50%) and can induce renal scarring, which is a cause of hypertension and chronic kidney disease. Despite the high risk of renal scarring in infancy, the diagnosis may be delayed due to its nonspecific presenting symptoms; moreover, over-diagnosis is frequent due to...
Hypertension in children and adolescents
Jo Won Jung
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2009;52(7):745-751.   Published online July 15, 2009
Hypertension is a major risk factor for myocardial infarction, stroke, and cardiovascular mortality in adults; its treatment reduces the risk of cardiovascular events. In recent times, attention is being paid to monitoring of blood pressure from childhood to adulthood. Childhood hypertension is associated with hypertension in later life, and early intervention is important. In the Korean socioeconomic background, a rapid...
Original Article
Multicenter clinical study of childhood periodic syndromes that are common precursors to migraine using new criteria of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-II)
Jae Yong Park, Sang-Ook Nam, So-Hee Eun, Su Jeong You, Hoon-Chul Kang, Baik-Lin Eun, Hee Jung Chung
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2009;52(5):557-566.   Published online May 15, 2009
Purpose : To evaluate the clinical features and characteristics of childhood periodic syndromes (CPS) in Korea using the new criteria of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD)-II. Methods : The study was conducted at pediatric neurology clinics of five urban tertiary-care medical centers in Korea from January 2006 to December 2007. Patients (44 consecutive children and adolescents) were divided into...
Review Article
Non-epileptic paroxysmal events during sleep - Differentiation from epileptic seizures -
In Kyu Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2007;50(8):726-731.   Published online August 15, 2007
This review describes the wide spectrum of paroxysmal events during sleep in infancy and childhood. The differential diagnosis between sleep-related non-epileptic paroxysmal events and epileptic seizures is difficult in special occasions. The nocturnal frontal lobe seizure and of the more common non- epileptic paroxysmal events during sleep are described. The main differentiating features characterizing parasomnias are: onset in early...
Sleep disorders in childhood
Byung Ho Cha
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2007;50(8):718-725.   Published online August 15, 2007
Sleep disorders are very common among pediatric patients. Its prevalence is between 10% and 45% in preschool- and school-aged children. However parents commonly do not concern about their children's sleeping habits and for many pediatricians, there is not part of the routine office visit about a childs sleep. Sleep disorders were classified by International Classification of Sleep Disorder (ICSD) as...
Solid tumors in childhood: risk-based management
Hong Hoe Koo
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2007;50(7):606-612.   Published online July 15, 2007
Since the introduction of chemotherapy for the treatment of childhood leukemia more than 50 years ago, the results of childhood cancer have improved dramatically. The 5-year survival rate of disease, many of which were uniformly fatal in the prechemotherapy era, reached to more than 75%. This remarkable improvement in survival is a direct result of the incorporation of chemotherapeutics into...
Original Article
Affecting Factors of Insulin Resistance in Obese Children and Adolescents
Duk Hee Kim, Ho Seon Eun, In Kyung Choi, Ho Seung Kim, Bong Soo Cha, Dong Kee Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2005;48(10):1076-1081.   Published online October 15, 2005
Purpose : Insulin resistance is the most important risk factor linked to the development of impaired glucose tolerance(IGT), diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases in childhood and adolescent obesity, The purpose of this study was to see whether insulin resistance of obese adolescent is higher than that of obese children. and to analyze gender difference and affecting factors of insulin resistance. Methods...
Case Report
A Case of Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonia in Childhood
Su-Jin Lee, Eon-Woo Shin, Eun-Young Park, Phil-Soo Oh, Kon-Hee Lee, Kwang-Nam Kim, Ho-Seung Shin, Il-Seung Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2005;48(3):327-332.   Published online March 15, 2005
Interstitial lung disease refers to a group of pulmonary disorders characterized by inflammation of the interstitium, derangements and loss of alveolar capillary units leading to disruption of alveolar gas exchange, which induces symptoms of restrictive lung disease. Cases of interstitial pneumonia in children are uncommon and mostly have unknown causes. We have experienced an 8-year old boy who had symptoms...
Clinical Lecture
Treatment of Immue Thrombocytopenic Purpura in Childhood
Hwang Min Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2004;47(12):1262-1265.   Published online December 15, 2004
Childhood immune thrombocytopenic purpura(ITP) is a typically benign self-limiting bleeding disorder of not fully known autoimmune etiology. Chronic ITP, which is defined by duration of more than 6 months, occurs in approximately 20% of children. Neither the risk of bleeding nor the type of disease, acute or chronic, can be predicted at initial presentation. The indication of treatment, choice...
Original Article
Factors Affecting the Increments of Body Mass Index in Adult Survivors of Childhood Brain Tumors
Jae Ho Yoo, Sung Yeon Ahn, Choong Ho Shin, Sei Won Yang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2004;47(9):970-977.   Published online September 15, 2004
Purpose : The purpose of this study was to evaluate the factors affecting the increments of body mass index(BMI) in adult survivors from childhood brain tumors. Methods : We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 63 patients who were diagnosed with brain tumors and treated at Seoul National University Children's Hospital between 1982 and 2000. We evaluated the factors affecting adult BMI(aBMI)...
Clinical Lecture
Acquired Thyroid Disorders in Childhood
Ho-Seong Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2004;47(9):926-932.   Published online September 15, 2004
Thyroid hormones influence growth and development, oxygen consumption, heat production, nerve function, and metabolism, thus play a critical role as a regulator of nervous system myelination, of growth and of puberty. Disorders affecting thyroid function may cause irreversible and permanent nervous system damage and developmental delay, especially in early infancy. Appropriate medical care of children with thyroid disorders requires refined...
Original Article
Follow-up Studies and Clinical Significance of Chromosomal Rearrangement in Childhood Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia
Yang Hyun Kim, Jung Tae Kim, Jung Chul Kang, Hae Sik Kwon, Sung Chul Won, Seung Hwan Oh, Chuhl Joo Lyu
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2004;47(8):861-867.   Published online August 15, 2004
Purpose : Through routine screening for chromosomal defects present in patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia(ALL) by means of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR), we aimed for earlier detection of recurrences, hence evaluating the progress of the disease after treatment, and forecasting the need for further testing. Methods : We analyzed 30 patients who visited the Pediatrics Department of Severance Hospital, from...
Clinical Lecture
The Pharmacotherapy of Childhood Epilepsy
Sang Ook Nam
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2004;47(8):821-826.   Published online August 15, 2004
Epilepsy is one of the most common and disabling neurologic disorders in childhood. The primary goal of epilepsy treatment is to choose the treatment modality that provides the best chance of improving the patient's quality of life. In addition to classic antiepileptic drugs, newly developed antiepileptic drugs ketogenic diet, epilepsy surgery, and vagal nerve stimulation have improved the ability to...
Original Article
The Prevalence of Childhood and Adolescent Obesity in Jeju and Clinical Characteristics according to the Degree of Obesity
Jung Ho Seo
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2004;47(4):362-367.   Published online April 15, 2004
Purpose : Recently, childhood obesity has increased and became a major health concern in Korea. The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence of childhood and adolescent obesity in Jeju and to analyze clinical characteristics according to the degree of obesity. Methods : A total of 3,643 students from April 2002 to August 2002 were studied. To examine the...
Effect of Delayed Intensification on Survival of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Jie Yeon Lee, Sue Youn, Byoung Chul Kwon, Chuhl Joo Lyu, Hwang Min Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2003;46(12):1260-1265.   Published online December 15, 2003
Purpose : In 1970, the Berlin-Frankfurt-Munster(BFM) group introduced an intensification therapy after remission induction to reduce relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia(ALL) in childhood. Delayed intensification(DI) phase has been included for treatment of ALL in our hospital since the mid-1990s. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the outcome with vs. without DI phase and the outcome with two vs....
A Five-year Epidemiologic Study of Childhood Leukemia in Busan City, 1996 to 2000
Jae Hoon Moon, Soon Yong Lee, Jong Beom Sinn, Jae Sun Park, Young Ho Lee, Young Tak Lim, Su Eun Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2003;46(10):972-976.   Published online October 15, 2003
Purpose : For the control of childhood leukemia, of which the mortality is still high, the basic data for the incidence has a great importance. The authors analyzed the data from 133 new patients with childhood leukemia between 1996-2000 in Busan, Korea. Methods : The data were obtained from 133 new cases(87 males and 46 females from 0 to 15 years...
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