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Review Article
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Pathophysiology, classification, and complications of common asymptomatic thrombocytosis in newborn infants
Ga Won Jeon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(4):182-187.   Published online October 18, 2021
· Thrombocytosis, common in newborns and infants (<2 years) (3%–13%), is caused by elevated thrombopoietin (TPO) concentrations.
· Serum TPO levels are significantly higher immediately to 1 month postnatal and decrease with age.
· Platelet counts are positively correlated with gestational age at birth and postnatal age.
· Thrombocytosis is more common in preterm than in term infants.
· Thrombocytosis in newborns is reactive and resolves spontaneously without complications.
Original Article
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Predictive factors of death in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy receiving selective head cooling
Behnaz Basiri, Mohammadkazem Sabzehei, Mohammadmahdi sabahi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(4):180-187.   Published online August 27, 2020
Question: What is the most important factor that increases mortality in infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) who receive selective head cooling?
Finding: All cases of neonatal mortality were severe HIE (stage 3), and a severely abnormal amplitude-integrated electroencephalography and mortality were increased with the need for advanced neonatal resuscitation upon delivery.
Meaning: Advanced neonatal resuscitation affects HIE outcomes, and medical personnel should be prepared to provide the best intervention.
Review Article
Infection
Epidemiology and clinical features of coronavirus disease 2019 in children
Soo-Han Choi, Han Wool Kim, Ji-Man Kang, Dong Hyun Kim, Eun Young Cho
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(4):125-132.   Published online April 6, 2020
Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), which started in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 and declared a worldwide pandemic on March 11, 2020, is a novel infectious disease that causes respiratory illness and death. Pediatric COVID-19 accounts for a small percentage of patients and is often milder than that in adults; however, it can progress to severe disease in some cases. Even neonates...
Original Article
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Effectiveness of various nonpharmacological analgesic methods in newborns
Pancham Kumar, Rakesh Sharma, Sukhdev Rathour, Sunidhi Karol, Mohit Karol
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(1):25-29.   Published online August 16, 2019
Question: Can nonpharmacological methods be used for neonatal pain management.
Finding: Nonpharmacological methods like Sucrose, breastfeeding etc have shown to significantly reduce the pain caused by intramuscular hepatitis B vaccination.
Meaning: Nonpharmacological methods are the safe and cheap potential modalities of analgesia which can be used during mild to moderate pain in newborns.
Review Article
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Surfactant preparations for preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome: past, present, and future
Ga Won Jeon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2019;62(5):155-161.   Published online February 8, 2019
Following the first successful trial of surfactant replacement therapy for preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) by Fujiwara in 1980, several animal-derived natural surfactants and synthetic surfactants have been developed. Synthetic surfactants were designed to overcome limitations of natural surfactants such as cost, immune reactions, and infections elicited by animal proteins contained in natural surfactants. However, first-generation synthetic surfactants...
Infection
Central line-associated bloodstream infections in neonates
Hye Jung Cho, Hye-Kyung Cho
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2019;62(3):79-84.   Published online December 19, 2018
Newborn infants, including premature infants, are high-risk patients susceptible to various microorganisms. Catheter-related bloodstream infections are the most common type of nosocomial infections in this population. Regular education and training of medical staffs are most important as a preventive strategy for central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs). Bundle approaches and the use of checklists during the insertion and maintenance of central...
Original Article
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Association between vitamin D level at birth and respiratory morbidities in very-low-birth-weight infants
Ian Kim, Sung Shin Kim, Jee In Song, Seock Hwa Yoon, Ga Young Park, Yong-Wha Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2019;62(5):166-172.   Published online October 24, 2018

Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate vitamin D status at birth in very-low-birth-weight infants (VLBWIs: <1,500 g) and to determine the association between vitamin D level and respiratory morbidity. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted at Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital between November 2013 and November 2017. We collected blood samples and data on respiratory morbidity from 230 VLBWIs on the first...
Oral findings and its association with prenatal and perinatal factors in newborns
Brenda Perez-Aguirre, Uriel Soto-Barreras, Juan Pablo Loyola-Rodriguez, Juan Francisco Reyes-Macias, Miguel Angel Santos-Diaz, Alejandra Loyola-Leyva, Obed Garcia-Cortes
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(9):279-284.   Published online September 15, 2018

Purpose: This study aimed to determine the frequency of abnormalities in the newborn oral cavity and to evaluate the association with prenatal and perinatal factors. Methods: This cross-sectional study evaluated 2,216 newborns. Oral findings were assessed in the first 24 hours of life using visual examination. Sex, weight, length, gestational age, and medical disorders at birth were recorded. Maternal demographic and...
Cardiology
Outcome of neonatal palliative procedure for pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect or tetralogy of Fallot with severe pulmonary stenosis: experience in a single tertiary center
Tae Kyoung Jo, Hyo Rim Suh, Bo Geum Choi, Jung Eun Kwon, Hanna Jung, Young Ok Lee, Joon Yong Cho, Yeo Hyang Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(7):210-216.   Published online July 15, 2018

Purpose: The present study aimed to evaluate progression and prognosis according to the palliation method used in neonates and early infants aged 3 months or younger who were diagnosed with pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect (PA VSD) or tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) with severe pulmonary stenosis (PS) in a single tertiary hospital over a period of 12 years. Methods: Twenty...
Case Report
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Case of mucinous adenocarcinoma of the lung associated with congenital pulmonary airway malformation in a neonate
Juneyoug Koh, Euiseok Jung, Se Jin Jang, Dong Kwan Kim, Byong Sop Lee, Ki-Soo Kim, Ellen Ai-Rhan Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(1):30-34.   Published online January 22, 2018

Congenital pulmonary airway malformation (CPAM), previously known as congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation, is a rare developmental lung abnormality associated with rhabdomyosarcoma, pleuropulmonary blastoma, and mucinous adenocarcinoma of the lung. We report an unusual case of a 10-day-old male newborn with a left lower lobe pulmonary cyst who underwent lobectomy, which revealed type II CPAM complicated by multifocal mucinous adenocarcinoma. KRAS...

Original Article
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Hearing loss screening tool (COBRA score) for newborns in primary care setting
Watcharapol Poonual, Niramon Navacharoen, Jaran Kangsanarak, Sirianong Namwongprom, Surasak Saokaew
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2017;60(11):353-358.   Published online November 27, 2017
Purpose

To develop and evaluate a simple screening tool to assess hearing loss in newborns. A derived score was compared with the standard clinical practice tool.

Methods

This cohort study was designed to screen the hearing of newborns using transiently evoked otoacoustic emission and auditory brain stem response, and to determine the risk factors associated with hearing loss of newborns in 3 tertiary...

The influencing factors on procalcitonin values in newborns with noninfectious conditions during the first week of life
Jueseong Lee, Yong Hyeon Bang, Eun Hee Lee, Byung Min Choi, Young Sook Hong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2017;60(1):10-16.   Published online January 16, 2017
Purpose

Although procalcitonin (PCT) level is useful for the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis, PCT reliability is inconsistent because of the varied conditions encountered in neonatal intensive care units. This study aimed to investigate PCT levels and factors influencing increased PCT levelin newborns without bacterial infection during the first week of life.

Methods

In newborns hospitalized between March 2013 and October 2015, PCT levels...

Neurology
Prognostic factors of neurological outcomes in late-preterm and term infants with perinatal asphyxia
Sun Young Seo, Gyu Hong Shim, Myoung Jae Chey, Su Jeong You
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2016;59(11):440-445.   Published online November 18, 2016
Purpose

This study aimed to identify prognostic factors of neurological outcomes, including developmental delay, cerebral palsy and epilepsy in late-preterm and term infants with perinatal asphyxia.

Methods

All late-preterm and term infants with perinatal asphyxia or hypoxic-ischemic insults who admitted the neonatal intensive care unit of Inje University Sanggye Paik Hospital between 2006 and 2014 and were followed up for at least 2...

Case Report
Infection
Distinctive clinical features of HPeV-3 infection in 2 neonates with a sepsis-like illness
Jung Sook Yeom, Ji Sook Park, Ji-Hyun Seo, Eun Sil Park, Jae-Young Lim, Chan-Hoo Park, Hyang-Ok Woo, Hee-Shang Youn, Ok Jeong Lee, Tae-Hee Han, Ju-Young Chung
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2016;59(7):308-311.   Published online July 31, 2016

We report a human parechovirus-3 (HPeV-3) infection in 2 neonates who had prolonged fever (>5 days) with palmar-plantar erythema. This distinctive rash was observed 4–5 days after fever onset, just before defervescence. Elevated aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and ferritin levels were characteristic laboratory findings in the 2 cases, suggesting tissue damage caused by hypercytokinemia. Case 1 was treated with intravenous...

Review Article
Neurology
White matter injury following rotavirus infection in neonates: new aspects to a forgotten entity, 'fifth day fits'?
Jung Sook Yeom, Chan-Hoo Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2016;59(7):285-291.   Published online July 31, 2016

That rotavirus infection can cause neurological symptoms in young children has been well established. However, it is surprising why rotavirus infection has been overlooked as a cause of neonatal seizures for many years, despite significant research interest in neonatal rotavirus infection. Neonates are the age group most vulnerable to seizures, which are typically attributed to a wide range of causes....

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