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Review Article
Infection
Epidemiological changes in infectious diseases during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic in Korea: a systematic review
Jong Gyun Ahn
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(4):167-171.   Published online November 30, 2021
· Nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) have had a major impact on the epidemiology of various infectious diseases in Korea.
· Respiratory diseases and gastrointestinal viral diseases were significantly reduced during the NPI period.
· The decrease in Kawasaki disease after the introduction of NPI is an unintended result.
· Infectious diseases that decreased during NPI use may re-emerge.
· We must continuously monitor the epidemiology of various infectious diseases during the coronavirus era
Changes in age-specific seroprevalence of Japanese encephalitis virus and impact of Japanese encephalitis vaccine in Korea
Byung Ok Kwak, Young Jin Hong, Dong Hyun Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(3):108-114.   Published online September 24, 2021
Since the introduction of a universal Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccination program and urbanization, the incidence of JE has dramatically decreased in Korea. However, recent JE cases have occurred, predominantly among unvaccinated adults and with a shift in age distribution. Continuous surveillance of the seroprevalence of JE is required to establish a proper immunization policy in Korea.
Nutrition
Changes in health status of North Korean children and emerging health challenges of North Korean refugee children
Seong-Woo Choi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(11):552-558.   Published online May 17, 2021
· Among North Korean refugee (NKR) children under 5 years, 61% and 9.3% were underweight in 1998 and 2017, respectively.
· The immunization rate of NKR children exceeded 90% since 2006.
· For NKR children, protein-energy malnutrition was the #1 cause of death in 2009 versus #17 in 2019.
· In 2020, stunting affected 5.4% and 0.9% and obesity affected 10.7% and 2.7% of NKR versus South Korean children, respectively.
Guideline
Endocrinology
2017 Clinical practice guidelines for dyslipidemia of Korean children and adolescents
Jung Sub Lim, Eun Young Kim, Jae Hyun Kim, Jae-Ho Yoo, Kyung Hee Yi, Hyun Wook Chae, Jin-Ho Choi, Ji Young Kim, Il Tae Hwang; the Committee of Dyslipidemia of Korean Children and Adolescents on behalf of Korean Society of Pediatric Endocrinology (KSPE)
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(12):454-462.   Published online November 25, 2020
Question: How are children and adolescents with dyslipidemia treated and managed in Korea?
Finding: 2017 guidelines recommend to measure nonfasting non-HDL-C as a screening test and introduce new diet methods: Cardiovascular Health Integrated Lifestyle Diet (CHILD)-1, CHILD-2-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and CHILD-2-triglyceride. Statin is the only drug approved in children older than 10 years.
Meaning: New clinical practice guidelines for treating and managing dyslipidemia of Korean children and adolescents are provided.
Review Article
Gastroenterology
Causes of acute gastroenteritis in Korean children between 2004 and 2019
Eell Ryoo
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(6):260-268.   Published online September 18, 2020
· Norovirus is the most common virus in Korean children with acute gastroenteritis.
· Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. are the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in Korean children, with a detection rate of 3%–20%.
· Uncommon bacterial and parasitic gastroenteritis require attention because of increasing international exchange and overseas travel.
Original Article
Developmental and Behavioral Medicine
Development of the Korean Developmental Screening Test for Infants and Children (K-DST)
Hee Jung Chung, Donghwa Yang, Gun-Ha Kim, Sung Koo Kim, Seoung Woo Kim, Young Key Kim, Young Ah Kim, Joon Sik Kim, Jin Kyung Kim, Cheongtag Kim, In-Kyung Sung, Son Moon Shin, Kyung Ja Oh, Hee-Jeong Yoo, Hee Joon Yu, Seoung-Joon Lim, Jeehun Lee, Hae-Ik Jeong, Jieun Choi, Jeong-Yi Kwon, Baik-Lin Eun
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(11):438-446.   Published online May 14, 2020
Question: Can the Korean Developmental Screening Test for Infants and Children (K-DST) be a useful screening tool for infants and children in Korea?
Finding: The K-DST has high reliability (internal consistency of 0.73–0.93, test-retest reliability of 0.77–0.88) and a high discriminatory ability with a sensitivity of 0.833 and specificity of 0.979.
Meaning: The K-DST is an effective and reliable screening tool for infants and children with neurodevelopmental disorders in Korea.
Allergy
Ten-year trends and prevalence of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis among the Korean population, 2008–2017
Jihyun Ha, Seung Won Lee, Dong Keon Yon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(7):278-283.   Published online January 29, 2020
Background: Major questions remain regarding the agestratified trends of allergic diseases and asthma in Korea.
Purpose: To identify the estimated recent prevalence and 10- year trends in asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis among the Korean population from 2008 to 2017. Methods: This nationwide cross-sectional survey (Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) over 10 years (2008–2017) examined representative samples of the...
Review Article
Recommended immunization schedule for children and adolescents: Committee on Infectious Diseases of the Korean Pediatric Society, 2018
Eun Hwa Choi, Su Eun Park, Yae-Jean Kim, Dae Sun Jo, Yun-Kyung Kim, Byung-Wook Eun, Taek-Jin Lee, Jina Lee, Hyunju Lee, Ki Hwan Kim, Hye-Kyung Cho, Eun Young Cho, Jong-Hyun Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2019;62(7):252-256.   Published online July 15, 2019
The Committee on Infectious Diseases of the Korean Pediatric Society recommended immunization schedule for children and adolescents aged 18 years or younger in the 9th (2018) edition of Immunization guideline. This report provides the revised recommendations made by the committee and summarizes several changes from the 2015 guideline. National immunization program (NIP) launched a human papillomavirus (HPV) immunization for girls...
Original Article
Developmental and Behavioral Medicine
Validity of the Korean Developmental Screening Test for very-low-birth-weight infants
Chae Young Kim, Euiseok Jung, Byong Sop Lee, Ki-Soo Kim, Ellen Ai-Rhan Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2019;62(5):187-192.   Published online March 20, 2019

Purpose: The importance of the neurodevelopmental outcomes of very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants has been emphasized as their mortality rate has markedly improved. This study aimed to assess the validity of the Korean Developmental Screening Test (K-DST), a developmental screening tool approved by the Korean Society of Pediatrics, for the timely diagnosis of neurodevelopmental delay in VLBW infants. Methods: Subjects included VLBW infants...
Other
Rapidly growing pediatric trampoline-related injuries in Korea: a 10-year single center retrospective study
Min Jeng Cho, Jihoon Kim, Sung Jeep Kim, Kyu Hyouck Kyoung, Min Ae Keum, Sung Kyun Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2019;62(3):90-94.   Published online March 11, 2019

Purpose: Several published policy statements have warned against the risks associated with trampoline use and recommended safety guidelines. However, few studies have focused on trampoline-related injuries in Korea. This study aimed to assess the incidence and characteristics of pediatric trampoline-related injuries presented to Ulsan University Hospital. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of children aged <16 years with trampoline-related injuries...
Endocrinology
Final height of Korean patients with early treated congenital hypothyroidism
Jiyun Lee, Jeongho Lee, Dong Hwan Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(7):221-225.   Published online July 15, 2018

Purpose: Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is the most common endocrine disorder in children. Thyroid hormone deprivation results not only in mental retardation but also growth retardation. This study investigates the final height (FH) in Korean patients with CH detected by newborn screening and examines factors that may affect the FH. Methods: The medical records of Korean CH patients (n=45) were reviewed. The...
Review Article
General Pediatrics
The 2017 Korean National Growth Charts for children and adolescents: development, improvement, and prospects
Jae Hyun Kim, Sungha Yun, Seung-sik Hwang, Jung Ok Shim, Hyun Wook Chae, Yeoun Joo Lee, Ji Hyuk Lee, Soon Chul Kim, Dohee Lim, Sei Won Yang, Kyungwon Oh, Jin Soo Moon; for the Committee for the Development of Growth Standards for Korean Children and Adolescents, the Committee for School Health and Public Health Statistics; the Committee for School Health and Public Health Statistics; the Korean Pediatric Society, and Division of Health and Nutrition Survey; Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(5):135-149.   Published online May 28, 2018

Growth charts are curves or tables that facilitate the visualization of anthropometric parameters, and are widely used as an important indicator when evaluating the growth status of children and adolescents. The latest version of the Korean National Growth Charts released in 2007 has raised concerns regarding the inclusion of data from both breastfed and formula-fed infants, higher body mass index...

Original Article
Cardiology
A comparative study of established z score models for coronary artery diameters in 181 healthy Korean children
Kyungguk Ryu, Jeong Jin Yu, Hyun Ok Jun, Eun Jung Shin, Young Hee Heo, Jae Suk Baek, Young-Hwue Kim, Jae-Kon Ko
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2017;60(11):373-378.   Published online November 27, 2017
Purpose

The aim of this study was to investigate the statistical properties of four previously developed pediatric coronary artery z score models in healthy Korean children.

Methods

The study subjects were 181 healthy Korean children, whose age ranged from 1 month to 15 years. The diameter of each coronary artery was measured using 2-dimensional echocardiography and converted to the z score in the...

Developmental and Behavioral Medicine
Usefulness of the Korean Developmental Screening Test for infants and children for the evaluation of developmental delay in Korean infants and children: a single-center study
Chung-Hyuk Yim, Gun-Ha Kim, Baik-Lin Eun
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2017;60(10):312-319.   Published online October 20, 2017
Purpose

To evaluate the usefulness of the Korean Developmental Screening Test (K-DST) for infants and children for developmental delay assessment.

Methods

This study was based on retrospective studies of the results of the K-DST, Preschool Receptive-Expressive Language Scale (PRES), Sequenced Language Scale for Infants (SELSI), Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT), electroencephalography, magnetic resonance imaging, and extensive...

Neonatology (Perinatology)
Healthcare access challenges facing six African refugee mothers in South Korea: a qualitative multiple-case study
Min Sun Kim, In Gyu Song, Ah Reum An, Kyae Hyung Kim, Ji Hoon Sohn, Sei Won Yang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2017;60(5):138-144.   Published online May 31, 2017
Purpose

Following legal reform in 2013, the annual number of asylum seekers entering South Korea has increased from 1,143 in 2012 to 5,711 in 2015. We interviewed six African refugee mothers of young children regarding their health needs and barriers to access maternal child health services.

Methods

We recruited mothers who had visited a clinic for immigrants between July 2013 and August 2015....

Neurology
Single-center experience of the Korean-Developmental Screening Test for infants and children
Chae-Ri Suh, Su Ye Sohn, Gun-Ha Kim, Seong-Kwan Jung, Baik-Lin Eun
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2016;59(12):483-489.   Published online December 31, 2016
Purpose

We investigated the number of test takers of the Korean-Developmental Screening Test (K-DST) in a single children's hospital within a year, according to age, referral rate, and follow-up percentage.

Methods

For this study, 4,062 children who visited and received K-DST at Woorisoa Children's Hospital between January and December 2015 were enrolled. Seven test sets were used according to the Korean National Health...

Review Article
Infection
Recommended immunization schedule for children and adolescents: Immunization Guideline (8th edition) released by the Korean Pediatric Society in 2015
Jong-Hyun Kim, Eun Hwa Choi, Su Eun Park, Yae-Jean Kim, Dae Sun Jo, Yun-Kyung Kim, Byung-Wook Eun, Jina Lee, Soo-Young Lee, Hyunju Lee, Ki Hwan Kim, Kyung-Hyo Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2016;59(12):461-465.   Published online December 31, 2016

This report includes the recommended immunization schedule table for children and adolescents based on the 8th (2015) and revised 7th (2012) Immunization Guidelines released by the Committee on Infectious Diseases of the Korean Pediatric Society (KPS). Notable revised recommendations include: reorganization of the immunization table with a list of vaccines on the vertical axis and the corresponding age on the...

Case Report
Immunology
Familial Mediterranean fever presenting as fever of unknown origin in Korea
Jun Hee Lee, Jong Hyun Kim, Jung Ok Shim, Kwang Chul Lee, Joo Won Lee, Jung Hwa Lee, Jae Jin Chae
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2016;59(Suppl 1):S53-S56.   Published online November 30, 2016

Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is the most common Mendelian autoinflammatory disease, characterized by uncontrolled activation of the innate immune system that manifests as recurrent brief fever and polyserositis (e.g., peritonitis, pleuritic, and arthritis). FMF is caused by autosomal recessive mutations of the Mediterranean fever gene, MEFV which encodes the pyrin protein. Although FMF predominantly affects people from Mediterranean and Middle...

Genetics and Metabolism
Maternal 3-methylcrotonyl-coenzyme A carboxylase deficiency with elevated 3-hydroxyisovalerylcarnitine in breast milk
Kyung Lae Cho, Yeo Jin Kim, Song Hyun Yang, Gu-Hwan Kim, Jun Hwa Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2016;59(Suppl 1):S41-S44.   Published online November 30, 2016

We report here a case of maternal 3-methylcrotonyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (3-MCC) deficiency in a Korean woman. Her 2 infants had elevated 3-hydroxyisovalerylcarnitine (C5-OH) on a neonatal screening test by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), but normal results were found on urine organic acid analysis. The patient was subjected to serial testing and we confirmed a maternal 3-MCC deficiency by blood...

The first pediatric case of tularemia in Korea: manifested with pneumonia and possible infective endocarditis
Jung Sook Yeom, Kyuyol Rhie, Ji Sook Park, Ji-Hyun Seo, Eun Sil Park, Jae-Young Lim, Chan-Hoo Park, Hyang-Ok Woo, Hee-Shang Youn
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2015;58(10):398-401.   Published online October 21, 2015

Tularemia is a potentially severe zoonotic disease caused by Francisella tularensis. A lack of awareness about tularemia can be embarrassing and could result in delayed treatment because of improper diagnosis. The diagnosis of tularemia is difficult, because the infections are rare and the clinical spectrum is broad. As only 1 adult case has been reported in Korea thus far, pediatricians...

Original Article
Change in the height of Korean children and adolescents: analysis from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Survey II and V
Na Yung Ryoo, Ha Young Shin, Jae Hyun Kim, Jin Soo Moon, Chong Guk Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2015;58(9):336-340.   Published online September 21, 2015
Purpose

The mean adult height of Koreans has increased since nationwide anthropological measurements began in 1967. The objective of this study was to evaluate differences in heights of Korean late adolescents and young adults within and between the Second and Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES II and V).

Methods

Koreans aged ≤22 years with available measurements of height were...

Epidemiological comparison of three Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia epidemics in a single hospital over 10 years
Eun-Kyung Kim, You-Sook Youn, Jung-Woo Rhim, Myung-Seok Shin, Jin-Han Kang, Kyung-Yil Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2015;58(5):172-177.   Published online May 22, 2015
Purpose

Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) pneumonia epidemics have occurred in 3- to 4-year cycles in Korea. We evaluated the epidemiologic characteristics of MP pneumonia in Daejeon, Korea, from 2003 to 2012.

Methods

We retrospectively analyzed 779 medical records of children (0-15 years of old) with MP pneumonia admitted to our institution and compared the data from 3 recent epidemics.

Results

In 779 patients, the mean age...

Review Article
Osteosarcoma in Korean children and adolescents
Jun Ah Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2015;58(4):123-128.   Published online April 22, 2015

Osteosarcoma is the most frequent primary bone tumor. Advances in combination chemotherapy and surgical technique have greatly improved the survival of patients with osteosarcoma. In Korea, improvements in osteosarcoma treatment have been made over the past two decades. The 5-year event-free survival rate of Korean children and adolescents with localized disease is 64.6%, comparable to that of American or European...

Original Article
Long-term follow-up of Fanconi anemia: clinical manifestation and treatment outcome
Byung Gyu Yoon, Hee Na Kim, Ui Joung Han, Hae In Jang, Dong Kyun Han, Hee Jo Baek, Tai Ju Hwang, Hoon Kook
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2014;57(3):125-134.   Published online March 31, 2014
Purpose

The aim of this study was to characterize Korean patients with Fanconi anemia (FA), which is a rare but very challenging genetic disease.

Methods

The medical records of 12 FA patients diagnosed at Chonnam National University Hospital from 1991 to 2012 were retrospectively reviewed.

Results

The median age at diagnosis was 6.2 years. All patients showed evidence of marrow failure and one or more...

Review Article
The role of the pediatrician in youth violence prevention
Soon Ki Kim, Nam Su Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2013;56(1):1-7.   Published online January 29, 2013

School bullying has become a major social problem in Korea after the emergence of media reports on children who committed suicide after being victimized by bullies. In this article, we review the characteristics of bullying, and investigate the role of the pediatrician in the prevention of and intervention against bullying and school violence. Bullying can take on many forms such...

Current status of measles in the Republic of Korea: an overview of case-based and seroepidemiological surveillance scheme
Young June Choe, Geun-Ryang Bae
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2012;55(12):455-461.   Published online December 20, 2012

Following the Five Year Measles Elimination Program, measles has been declared eliminated from the Republic of Korea since 2006. However, there remain challenges related to the surveillance of measles in the postelimination phase. Even though the routine surveillance system has revealed a gradual decrease in the number of reported cases since 2002, 4 resurgences have occurred, notably due to outbreaks....

An overview of the national immunization policy making process: the role of the Korea expert committee on immunization practices
Hee Yeon Cho
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2012;55(1):1-5.   Published online January 31, 2012

The need for evidence-based decision making in immunization programs has increased due to the presence of multiple health priorities, limited human resources, expensive vaccines, and limited funds. Countries should establish a group of national experts to advise their Ministries of Health. So far, many nations have formed their own National Immunization Technical Advisory Groups (NITAGs). In the Republic of Korea,...

Infectious diseases in children and adolescents in the Republic of Korea; Past & recent status
Jong-Hyun Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2011;54(12):489-500.   Published online December 31, 2011

Compared to the past decades, in recent decades, environmental and hygienic conditions in the Republic of Korea have improved along with socioeconomic developments, and the incidence of most infectious diseases, especially vaccine-preventable diseases, has greatly decreased due to active immunization with the developed level of health care. However, the incidence of some diseases has been increasing, and new diseases have...

Regionalization of neonatal intensive care in Korea
Yun Sil Chang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2011;54(12):481-488.   Published online December 31, 2011

In the current era of low-birth rate in Korea, it is important to improve our neonatal intensive care and to establish an integrative system including a regional care network adequate for both high-risk pregnancies and high-risk newborn infants. Therefore, official discussion for nation-wide augmentation, proper leveling, networking, and regionalization of neonatal and perinatal care is urgently needed. In this report,...

Regionalization of pediatric emergency care in Korea
Do Kyun Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2011;54(12):477-480.   Published online December 31, 2011

In order to care for an ill or injured child, it is crucial that every emergency department (ED) has a minimum set of personnel and resources because the majority of children are brought to the geographically nearest ED. In addition to adequate preparation for basic pediatric emergency care, a comprehensive, specialized healthcare system should be in place for a critically-ill...

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