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Original Article
Plastic bottle feeding produces changes in biochemical parameters in human infants – A pilot study
Mahendra Kumar Pant, Abul Hasan Ahmad, Manisha Naithani, Jayanti Pant
Received February 9, 2022  Accepted April 28, 2022  
Background: Plastic bottles are widely used by people to feed their infants when breastfeeding is not possible. Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disruptor is widely used in the manufacturing of plastic wares and is leached out from these plastic wares on exposure to high temperature, changed pH or cleaning the plastic wares by harsh detergents.
Purpose: Feeding through plastic bottles over...
Review Article
Clinical importance of immunonutrition in infants: a review of the recent literature
Ji Sook Park
Received April 30, 2021  Accepted December 15, 2021  
During the last decades, the role of nutrition has been well elucidated in medicine, especially among critically ill infants and children. Many nutrients have the potential to modulate the immune system. A healthy immune system is essential for the prevention and recovery of many pediatric illnesses. Intervention using specific nutrients for the immune system is called immunonutrition. Immunonutrient supplementation has...
Factors influencing development of the infant microbiota: From prenatal period to early infancy
SUJIN JEONG
Received July 15, 2021  Accepted December 3, 2021  
The collection of bacteria, archaea, and eukarya colonizingthe gastrointestinal tract is termed the “gut microbiota.”1) The microbiota offers many benefits to the host, through a range of physiological functions such as strengthening gut integrity or shaping the intestinal epithelium,2) harvesting energy,3) protecting against pathogens,4) and regulating host immunity.5) The newborn infant microbiota is highly dynamic and undergoes rapid changes in...
Breastfeeding and vitamin D
Ju Sun Heo, Young Min Ahn, Ai-Rhan Ellen Kim, Son Moon Shin
Received April 12, 2021  Accepted November 15, 2021  
The recent re-emergence of vitamin D deficiency (VDD) and rickets among breastfed infants without adequate sunlight exposure and vitamin D supplementation has been reported worldwide. Breastfed infants are particularly vulnerable to VDD because of the low vitamin D content of breast milk, restricted sunlight exposure, increased pollution, and limited natural dietary sources of vitamin D. The prevalence of VDD in...
Original Article
Other
Risk factors and screening timing for developmental dysplasia of the hip in preterm infants
Ga Won Jeon, Hye Jung Choo, Yong Uk Kwon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(5):262-268.   Published online November 5, 2021
Question: When is the best screening timing and what is the risk factor for developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) in preterm infants?
Finding: Ultrasonography performed earlier than 38 weeks of postmenstrual age caused unnecessary subsequent ultrasonography. DDH did not occur predominantly on the left side or in breech infants.
Meaning: The screening timing, etiology, and risk factors for DDH in preterm infants are somewhat different from those in term infants.
Review Article
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Pathophysiology, classification, and complications of common asymptomatic thrombocytosis in newborn infants
Ga Won Jeon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(4):182-187.   Published online October 18, 2021
· Thrombocytosis, common in newborns and infants (<2 years) (3%–13%), is caused by elevated thrombopoietin (TPO) concentrations.
· Serum TPO levels are significantly higher immediately to 1 month postnatal and decrease with age.
· Platelet counts are positively correlated with gestational age at birth and postnatal age.
· Thrombocytosis is more common in preterm than in term infants.
· Thrombocytosis in newborns is reactive and resolves spontaneously without complications.
Original Article
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Comparison of minimally invasive surfactant therapy with intubation surfactant administration and extubation for treating preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome: a randomized clinical trial
Mohammad Kazem Sabzehei, Behnaz Basiri, Maryam Shokouhi, Sajad Ghahremani, Ali Moradi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(4):188-193.   Published online July 28, 2021
Question: Are the short-term outcomes of minimally invasive surfactant therapy (MIST) relatively superior to those of INtubation, SURfactant administration, and Extubation (INSURE) in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS)?
Finding: MIST could be an appropriate substitution for INSURE in preterm infants with RDS since it reduced hospitalization time and number of side effects.
Meaning: MIST is recommended for surfactant administration for its proven advantages over the INSURE technique.
Review Article
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Growth patterns of preterm infants in Korea
Joohee Lim, So Jin Yoon, Soon Min Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(1):1-9.   Published online July 8, 2021
∙ The growth of preterm infants is a main focus of neonatology.
∙ Preterm infants in Korea, especially those with a very low birth weight, achieve retarded growth.
∙ Careful growth monitoring and early intervention will contribute to better development outcomes and quality of life for preterm infants and improve public health.
Infection
Recommendation for use of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis, inactivated poliovirus, Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate, and hepatitis B vaccine in infants
Hye-Kyung Cho, Su Eun Park, Yae-Jean Kim, Dae Sun Jo, Yun-Kyung Kim, Byung-Wook Eun, Taek-Jin Lee, Jina Lee, Hyunju Lee, Ki Hwan Kim, Eun Young Cho, Jong Gyun Ahn, Eun Hwa Choi; The Committee on Infectious Diseases of the Korean Pediatric Society
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(12):602-607.   Published online June 8, 2021
∙ Diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus-Haemophilus influenzae type b-hepatitis B (DTaP-IPV-Hib-HepB) was licensed in Korea in April 2020.
∙ DTaP-IPV-Hib-HepB is indicated as a 3-dose primary series for infants aged 2, 4, and 6 months who received the standalone HepB vaccine at birth.
∙ Infants born to HepB surface antigen-positive mothers are currently recommended to be immunized with HepB immunoglobulin at birth and then monovalent HepB vaccine at 0, 1, and 6 months.
Original Article
General Pediatrics
Efficacy of probiotics for managing infantile colic due to their anti-inflammatory properties: a meta-analysis and systematic review
Reza Shirazinia, Ali Akbar Golabchifar, Mohammad Reza Fazeli
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(12):642-651.   Published online April 12, 2021
Question: Do probiotics reduce colic symptoms?
Finding: Probiotics reduced colic symptoms in colicky infants probably due to the anti-inflammatory properties.
Meaning: Probiotics may be an effective and less noxious way to manage infantile colic.
Allergy
Cohort profile: National Investigation of Birth Cohort in Korea study 2008 (NICKs-2008)
Ju Hee Kim, Jung Eun Lee, So Min Shim, Eun Kyo Ha, Dong Keon Yon, Ok Hyang Kim, Ji Hyeon Baek, Hyun Yong Koh, Kyu Young Chae, Seung Won Lee, Man Yong Han
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(9):480-488.   Published online January 5, 2021
This national cohort study included all Korean children born in 2008 and 2009 observed over a period of more than 10 years. Our findings demonstrate that it is possible to analyze disease onset prior to hospitalization based on information such as lifestyle, eating habits, and risk factors by integrating National Health Insurance System data with national health screening data.
Review Article
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Neurodevelopmental outcomes of very low birth weight infants in the Neonatal Research Network of Japan: importance of neonatal intensive care unit graduate follow-up
Yumi Kono; on behalf of the Neonatal Research Network of Japan
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(7):313-321.   Published online November 9, 2020
· Very low birth weight infants remain at high risk of developing neurodevelopmental impairments in early childhood.
· It is important to establish a network follow-up protocol and complete assessments with fewer dropouts to enable clarification of the outcomes of registered infants.
· All possible strategies should be employed to maintain good compliance after neonatal intensive care unit discharge.
Neurology
Is it really a seizure? The challenge of paroxysmal nonepileptic events in young infants
Seung Yeon Jung, Joon Won Kang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(8):384-392.   Published online September 18, 2020
Paroxysmal nonepileptic events (PNE) comprise of a variety of nonepileptic behaviors and are divided into various types. A more accurate diagnosis is possible by examining the video clip provided by the caregiver. In infants, physiologic PNE accounts for the majority of the PNE. It is important to exclude epilepsy, for which blood tests, electroencephalography, and imaging tests can facilitate differential...
Original Article
General Pediatrics
Significance of the tethered maxillary frenulum: a questionnaire-based observational cohort study
Sody A. Naimer, Ariel Israel, Aviezer Gabbay
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(3):130-135.   Published online September 7, 2020
Question: Does a tethered maxillary frenulum in the newborn result in breastfeeding difficulty or other oral symptomatology?
Finding: The analysis of subjects with a tethered maxillary frenulum surveyed beyond a mean 5-year follow-up did not reveal an increase in oral issues versus those of a random agematched control group.
Meaning: These data demonstrate no need to intervene upon the diagnosis of a tethered maxillary frenulum.
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Predictive factors of death in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy receiving selective head cooling
Behnaz Basiri, Mohammadkazem Sabzehei, Mohammadmahdi sabahi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(4):180-187.   Published online August 27, 2020
Question: What is the most important factor that increases mortality in infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) who receive selective head cooling?
Finding: All cases of neonatal mortality were severe HIE (stage 3), and a severely abnormal amplitude-integrated electroencephalography and mortality were increased with the need for advanced neonatal resuscitation upon delivery.
Meaning: Advanced neonatal resuscitation affects HIE outcomes, and medical personnel should be prepared to provide the best intervention.
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