Article 64(3); Mar 2021
Review Articles
General Pediatrics
Association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and risk of bone fractures in offspring: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Erfan Ayubi, Saeid Safiri, Kamyar Mansori
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(3):96-102.   Published online February 5, 2020
Question: What is the effect of maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) on the risk of bone fractures in the offspring?
Finding: After the adjustment for misclassification, MSDP may be associated with a 27% increased risk of bone fracture in the offspring (pooled odds ratio, 1.27; 95% confidence interval, 1.00–1.62; I2=0%; P=0.537)
Meaning: Preventive measures and health education programs should be designed and implemented to encourage women to stop smoking, especially during.
Neurology
Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody-associated disorders: clinical spectrum, diagnostic evaluation, and treatment options
Yun-Jin Lee, Sang Ook Nam, Ara Ko, JuHyun Kong, Shin Yun Byun
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(3):103-110.   Published online May 14, 2020
MOG antibody-associated disorder exhibits different pathophysiological and phenotypic findings than both aquaporin-4 antibody-associated neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder and typical MS. MOG-antibody is of particular interest in pediatric patients with clinical or radiological non-MS typical findings. MOG-antibody was included in a diagnostic algorithm for children recommending for the first time a standardized use in clinical practice except in cases of typical MS.
Other
Behavioral insomnia in infants and young children
Eun Kyeong Kang, Seung Soo Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(3):111-116.   Published online July 15, 2020
• Behavioral insomnia is common and affects a child’s daytime functioning and emotions.
• Diagnosing insomnia using the child’s sleep history, a sleep diary/log, and sleep questionnaires is important.
• Behavioral intervention, the main treatment, involves creating positive associations with sleep, establishing a consistent sleep schedule and bedtime routines, and the development of selfsoothing skills.
Editorials
Other
Is correcting exposure misclassification bias an additional option in meta-analyses?
Ki Eun Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(3):117-118.   Published online January 14, 2021
Systematic reviews and meta-analyses examine various existing research results. Such studies are conducted according to a technically determined algorithm to minimize errors. It is particularly important to understand basic analytical methods such as the fixed-effect and random-effects models and apply appropriate statistical techniques to verify interstudy heterogeneity. A design that eliminates possible bias from the early stages of the research in a step-by-step manner is required whenever possible.
Infection
Catheter care bundle and feedback to prevent central line-associated bloodstream infections in pediatric patients
Hye-Kyung Cho
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(3):119-120.   Published online December 8, 2020
• Intravascular catheter-related infection is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children, and care bundles are effective and cost-saving in pediatric and neonatal patients.
• Providing regular feedbacks to critical care practitioners is helpful to maintain compliance to care bundle.
• Establishing a bundle policy (insertion and maintenance), monitoring compliance, and providing regular feedbacks are necessary for prevention of central line-associated bloodstream infections in pediatric patients.
Nephrology (Genitourinary)
Inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system during fetal kidney development
Eujin Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(3):121-122.   Published online September 22, 2020
· Fetal exposure to renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors leads to short- and long-term kidney complications.
· Women of reproductive age who are absolutely indicated for RAS inhibitors should be adequately informed of the risks for the duration of treatment.
Original Articles
Critical Care Medicine
Can central venous access device care bundles and regular feedback reduce central line-associated complications in pediatric patients?
Chanapai Chaiyakulsil, Onsuthi Pharadornuwat
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(3):123-129.   Published online July 14, 2020
Question: Can central line bundles and feedback reduce central line-associated complications in pediatric patients?
Finding: The central line-related bloodstream infection rate decreased from 10.0 catheter-days to 1.4/1,000 catheter-days at 6-month postintervention. The central line occlusion rate was also decreased.
Meaning: Reinforcing central line care bundles with direct feedback can significantly decrease central line-associated complications in pediatric patients.
General Pediatrics
Significance of the tethered maxillary frenulum: a questionnaire-based observational cohort study
Sody A. Naimer, Ariel Israel, Aviezer Gabbay
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(3):130-135.   Published online September 7, 2020
Question: Does a tethered maxillary frenulum in the newborn result in breastfeeding difficulty or other oral symptomatology?
Finding: The analysis of subjects with a tethered maxillary frenulum surveyed beyond a mean 5-year follow-up did not reveal an increase in oral issues versus those of a random agematched control group.
Meaning: These data demonstrate no need to intervene upon the diagnosis of a tethered maxillary frenulum.
Clinical Note
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Secondary renal tubular dysgenesis in a newborn exposed to angiotensin Ⅱ receptor antagonist during gestation
Mi Hyeon Gang, Yong Wook Lee, Mea-young Chang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(3):136-138.   Published online July 21, 2020
Question: The use of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockers during pregnancy causes lethal neonatal complications.
Finding: A neonate, whose mother took a RAS blocker during pregnancy, was diagnosed with renal tubular dysgenesis. He presented with respiratory failure, severe refractory hypotension, and anuria requiring continuous dialysis.
Meaning: Physicians should consider any degree of RAS fetopathy in a newborn born to a hypertensive mother who had use of RAS blockers during her pregnancy.
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