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Original Article
Inferior vena cava to aorta ratio in dehydrated pediatric patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Gilbert Sterling Octavius, Michelle Imanuelly, Johan Wibowo, Nadia Khoirunnisa Heryadi, Melanie Widjaja
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(11):477-484.   Published online June 14, 2023
Question: The inferior vena cava to aorta (IVC/Ao) ratio measured via ultrasound has been touted as a promising noninvasive technique to assess clinically significant dehydration in pediatric patients.
Finding: Our meta-analysis found that IVC/Ao ratio had a positive likelihood ratio of 3.2 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.1–5.1) and negative likelihood ratio of 0.18 (95% CI, 0.12–0.28).
Meaning: Hence, IVC/Ao ratio is insufficient to exclude or confirm significant dehydration in pediatric patients.
Relationship between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and hyperandrogenemia in adolescents with polycystic ovary syndrome
Ozlem Kara, Hanife Aysegul Arsoy, Murat Keskin
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(9):395-402.   Published online June 14, 2023
Question: Is polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) a risk factor for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in adolescents?
Finding: The frequency of NAFLD did not increase in adolescents with PCOS. However, hyperandrogenemia was a risk factor for NAFLD.
Meaning: Adolescents with PCOS and hyperandrogenemia should be closely monitored for hepatic steatosis.
Review Article
Current diagnosis and image-guided reduction for intussusception in children
Jisun Hwang, Hee Mang Yoon, Pyeong Hwa Kim, Ah Young Jung, Jin Seong Lee, Young Ah Cho
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(1):12-21.   Published online July 4, 2022
· Intussusception, the most common cause of small bowel obstruction in young children, has an overall incidence in Korea of 28.3 cases per 100,000 person-years.
· Its cause is idiopathic inmost cases, although viral or bacterial gastroenteritis has beenpostulated as a cause. Approximately 4% of children have pathological lead points for intussusception, and Meckel’s diverticulum is the most common cause.
· Intussusception in preterm infants is extremely rare. Older children (>5 years of age) are at increased risk of pathological lead points.
Original Article
Risk factors and screening timing for developmental dysplasia of the hip in preterm infants
Ga Won Jeon, Hye Jung Choo, Yong Uk Kwon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(5):262-268.   Published online November 5, 2021
Question: When is the best screening timing and what is the risk factor for developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) in preterm infants?
Finding: Ultrasonography performed earlier than 38 weeks of postmenstrual age caused unnecessary subsequent ultrasonography. DDH did not occur predominantly on the left side or in breech infants.
Meaning: The screening timing, etiology, and risk factors for DDH in preterm infants are somewhat different from those in term infants.
Nephrology (Genitourinary)
Sonographic renal length and volume of normal Thai children versus their Chinese and Western counterparts
Chantima Rongviriyapanich, Thanarat Sakunchit, Chirawat Sudla, Supamas Mungkung, Napapong Pongnapang, Chai Hong Yeong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(12):491-498.   Published online July 13, 2020
Question: What is the normal renal size of Thai children and is the renal nomogram comparable to those of Western and Chinese cohorts?
Finding: The renal length of Thai children was moderately correlated with that of Western children, while the age-specific renal volume was significantly smaller than that of Chinese children.
Meaning: Renal size in children can vary among regions and sociodemographic backgrounds; hence, a local reference standard is needed.
Outcome of ultrasonographic imaging in infants with sacral dimple
Jin Hyuk Choi, Taekwan Lee, Hyeok Hee Kwon, Sun Kyoung You, Joon Won Kang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(6):194-199.   Published online June 25, 2018

Sacral dimples are a common cutaneous anomaly in infants. Spine ultrasonography (USG) is an effective and safe screening tool for patients with a sacral dimple. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical manifestations in patients with an isolated sacral dimple and to review the management of spinal cord abnormalities identified with USG.


We reviewed clinical records and collected...

Usefulness of pelvic ultrasonography for the diagnosis of central precocious puberty in girls
Jung Yu, Ha Young Shin, Sun Hee Lee, You Sung Kim, Jae Hyun Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2015;58(8):294-300.   Published online August 21, 2015

It is difficult to differentiate between central precocious puberty (CPP) and premature thelarche (PT) in girls. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic usefulness of pelvic ultrasonography to distinguish between CPP and PT in girls with early breast development.


This study included girls with early breast development who visited the clinic between January 2012 and December 2013. Clinical,...

Ultrasound-guided internal jugular vein catheterization in critically ill pediatric patients
Eu Jeen Yang, Hyeong Seok Ha, Young Hwa Kong, Sun Jun Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2015;58(4):136-141.   Published online April 22, 2015

Continuous intravenous access is imperative in emergency situations. Ultrasound-guided internal jugular vein (IJV) catheterization was investigated in critically ill pediatric patients to assess the feasibility of the procedure.


Patients admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit between February 2011 and September 2012 were enrolled in this study. All patients received a central venous catheter from attending house staff under ultrasound guidance....

Characteristics of thyroid nodules in infant with congenital hypothyroidism
Seo Young Youn, Jeong Ho Lee, Yun-Woo Chang, Dong Hwan Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2014;57(2):85-90.   Published online February 24, 2014

This study aimed to assess the characteristics of thyroid nodules among infants diagnosed with congenital hypothyroidism.


A retrospective study of 660 infants (374 males, 286 females) diagnosed with congenital hypothyroidism was carried out at the Pediatric Endocrine Clinic in Soonchunhyang University Hospital, Korea, between May 2003 and February 2013. The average age at diagnosis was 1.16±1.68 months.


Of the 28 patients (4.2%)...

Clinical features of macrocephaly at birth in Korea
Goun Jeong, Minkyun Kim, Byoung Hee Han
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2014;57(2):75-78.   Published online February 24, 2014

This study aimed to investigate the clinical features of macrocephaly at birth in Korea using ultrasonography.


We retrospectively investigated the medical records of full-term birth neonates in Cheil General Hospital & Women's Healthcare Center from January 2000 to June 2012. The following parameters were recorded and analyzed: gestational age, sex, birth weight, height, occipitofrontal circumference (OFC), physical examination, perinatal problems, and...

Case Report
Two cases of female hydrocele of the canal of nuck
Yu Mi Choi, Gyu Min Lee, Jung Bin Yi, Kyung Lim Yoon, Kye Shik Shim, Chong Woo Bae, Sung Il Choi, Hyun Cheol Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2012;55(4):143-146.   Published online April 30, 2012

The processus vaginalis within the inguinal canal forms the canal of Nuck, which is a homolog of the processus vaginalis in women. Incomplete obliteration of the processus vaginalis causes indirect inguinal hernia or hydrocele of the canal of Nuck, a very rare condition in women. Here, we report 2 cases of hydrocele of the canal of Nuck that were diagnosed...

Original Article
Incidence and outcome of congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract detected by prenatal ultrasonography: a single center study
Gina Lim, Joo Hoon Lee, Young Seo Park, Kun Seok Kim, Hye-Sung Won
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2009;52(4):464-470.   Published online April 15, 2009
Purpose : This study assessed the incidence and outcome of congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) detected by prenatal ultrasonography Methods : There were 906 cases of CAKUT detected by prenatal ultrasonography and postnatally confirmed at the Asan Medical Center from October 1989 to October 2007. We investigated the incidence and outcome of these cases by reviewing medical...
Is routine screening examination necessary for detecting thromboembolism in childhood nephrotic syndrome?
Mun Sub Kim, Ja Wook Koo, Soung Hee Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2008;51(7):736-741.   Published online July 15, 2008
Purpose : The incidence of thromboembolic episodes in children with nephrotic syndrome (NS) is low; however, these episodes are often severe. Moreover, both pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) and renal vein thrombosis (RVT) rarely show clinical symptoms. This study was performed to determine the benefits of routine screening in the detection of thrombosis in childhood NS. Methods : Among 62 children with...
Prenatal diagnosis and clinical course of restrictive foramen ovale in otherwise normal heart
Ji Joung Lee, Min A Lee, Yun ee Rhee, Mea Young Chang, Hong Ryang Kil
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2007;50(3):268-271.   Published online March 15, 2007
Purpose : Premature narrowing of the foramen ovale is rare but serious clinical entity. Prenatal narrowing or obstruction of the foramen ovale shows symptoms such as right heart failure, fetal hydrops, triscupid regurgitation, left heart obstructive disease, and supraventricular tachycardia. This study aimed to assess the prenatal diagnosis and postnatal clinical course of restrictive foramen ovale in utero in otherwise...
Clinical features of congenital muscular torticollis
Ji Eun Jun, Hye Kyeong Ryu, Jae Won Shim, Jung Yeon Shim, Hye Lim Jung, Moon Soo Park, Deok-Soo Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2007;50(3):241-247.   Published online March 15, 2007
Purpose : Congenital muscular torticollis (CMT) is a common and benign congenital disorder of the musculoskeletal system in neonates and infants. The pathophysiology is that the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM) is shortened on the involved side by fibrosis, leading to ipsilateral tilt and contralateral rotation of the face and chin. In this study, we investigated the clinical features of CMT, the...
Renal manifestations in tuberous sclerosis complex
Il Cheon Jeong, Ji Tae Kim, You Sik Hwang, Jung A Kim, Jae Seung Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2007;50(2):178-181.   Published online February 15, 2007
Purpose : The renal manifestations of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) are remarkably diverse, including polycystic kidney disease, simple renal cysts, renal cell carcinomas, and angiomyolipomas. All of these occur in children as well as adults in TSC. Angiomyolipomas, which can cause spontaneous life-threatening hemorrhages, are by far the most prevalent and the greatest source of morbidity. Here, we will address...
Evaluation of diagnostic methods in children with nonpalpable undescended testis
Noh Sung Seok, Hong Jin Suh, Dong Hwan Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2006;49(7):732-736.   Published online July 15, 2006
Purpose : Numerous methods exist for diagnosing nonpalpable testis in treatment of cryptochidism. However, there is no clinically established data for the rational diagnostic tool of nonpalpable testis in terms of expenses. We tried to establish a current conventional diagnostic course of nonpalpable testis. We then evaluated the efficacy of ultrasonography, physical examination under general anesthesia and laparoscopy for diagnosing...
Voiding cystourethrography in children with an initial episode of febrile urinary tract infection
Hae Jeong Lee, Won Deok Lee, Hyun Seok Kim, Tae Hong Kim, Joo Seok Lee, Kyung Lae Cho
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2006;49(6):653-658.   Published online June 15, 2006
Purpose : Because voiding cystourethrography(VCUG) is an invasive method, we studied whether VCUG could be postponed through evaluation of alternative non-invasive tests including renal ultrasonography and 99mTc-DMSA renal scan. Methods : We reviewed the medical records of 175 patients initially diagnosed with febrile urinary tract infection during the one year period of 1999, and compared 3-tests : renal ultrasongraphy, 99mTc-DMSA renal...
1 year follow-up results of prenatally diagnosed unilateral hydronephrosis according to renal sonographic findings at 1 month of age
Hoe-Soo Yoon, Mi Sun Yum, Joo Hoon Lee, Young Seo Park, Kun Seok Kim, Chong Hyun Yoon, Dae Hyuk Moon, Hyewon Hahn
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2006;49(1):64-70.   Published online January 15, 2006
Purpose : The natural courses of prenatally diagnosed hydronephrosis(HN) are diverse. Our purpose was to determine if the findings of renal ultrasonography(USG) in patients with prenatal HN at 1 month of age can predict the 1 year follow-up results and determine the guideline of follow-up study. Methods : Among 462 hydronephrotic patients registered between 1996 and 2004, 153 unilateral hydronephrotic renal...
Measurement of the Common Carotid Artery by Ultrasound as a Predictor of Atherosclerosis in Obese Adolescents
Ye Jin Kim, Yoon Hee Shim, Joung Hyun Yoo, Keun Lee, Young Mi Hong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2005;48(7):745-752.   Published online July 15, 2005
Purpose : Adolescent obesity is known to be associated with complications such as hypertension, coronary artery disease and insulin resistance. We measured the common carotid artery by ultrasound as a predictor of atherosclerosis, and investigated the relationship between carotid artery parameters and serum cytokines in obese adolescents. Methods : Twenty-nine obese adolescents(16-17 years old, obesity index>130 percent) and twenty- seven...
Case Report
A Case of Pulmonary Sequestration with Pleural Effusion
Hye Jin Ku, Ji Ae Park, Su Eun Park, Young Dae Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2005;48(2):221-223.   Published online February 15, 2005
Congenital pleural effusions are uncommon. The majority of cases are due to chylothorax, hydrops fetalis, and infection. Effusions of this nature are, for the most part, self-limited. We experienced a rare case of a congenital unilateral pleural effusion due to an extralobar sequestraion with pulmonary lymphangiectasia. Pleural effusion was found by antenatal ultrasonography and confirmed by CT scans and CT...
Original Article
Clinical Significance of Gastrointestinal Symptoms and Abdominal Ultrasonographic Findings in Henoch-Schönlein Purpura
Eun Jung Choi, Chang Woo Lee, Du Young Choi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2005;48(1):63-67.   Published online January 15, 2005
Purpose : Henoch-Sch nlein purpura(HSP) is a systemic vasculitis, characterized by cutaneous palpable purpura, gastrointestinal(GI) symptoms, arthritis and renal involvement. In general, the prognosis is determined by GI complication as well as the severity of nephritis. In this study, we analyzed the statistical relationship between the GI symptom and other clinical findings for assessing the prognosis, and evaluated abdominal ultrasonographic...
Utility of Abdominal Computerized Tomography in Diagnosis of Acute Appendicitis
Su Jin Sung, Ji Young Yeoun, Seong Hoon Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2004;47(3):290-293.   Published online March 15, 2004
Purpose : To evaluate the accuracy of ultrasonography(USG) and abdominal computerized tomography(CT) and the possibility of reducing unnecessary appendectomy rate with improvement of diagnostic accuracy using optional CT with USG. Methods : From January 1999 to May 2003, 496 patients younger than 14 years received surgical intervention with preoperative impression of acute appendicitis. They were devided into three groups no...
Ultrasonographic Bladder Parameters for Successful Suprapubic Bladder Aspiration
Sung Chul Baek, Hoe Kyoung Koo, Cheol Hong Kim, Kyung Bum Kim, Hyun Hee Lee, Byung Min Choi, Kee Hwan Yoo, Young Suk Hong, Dong Gwan Han
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2004;47(2):187-192.   Published online February 15, 2004
Purpose : Suprapubic bladder aspiration(SBA) is a widely accepted method of obtaining sterile urine for culture in neonates but has a relatively low success rate and a few serious complications during SBA procedure. To improve the chance of obtaining urine, we determined the ultrasonographic bladder parameters(diameters and volume) to confirm that the bladder is adequately distended for successful aspiration of...
Diagnostic Significance of Neonatal Electroencephalography
Byeong Eui Kim, Heung Dong Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2003;46(2):137-142.   Published online February 15, 2003
Purpose : This study was performed to determine the sensitivity of neonatal electroencephalography (EEG) in detecting underlying brain disease, to compare the sensitivity and specificity of EEG with those of brain ultrasonography and to determine the prognostic value of EEG for neonatal neurologic diseases. Methods : Eighty-seven newborn babies were subjected to a electroencephalographic examination for the evaluation of underlying...
Post-natal Outcome of Fetal Hydronephrosis Detected with Prenatal Ultrasonography
Youn Jin Park, Soon Jung Mun, Chong Woo Bae, Bum Ha Lee, Jin Il Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2002;45(10):1213-1218.   Published online October 15, 2002
Purpose : Hydronephrosis constitutes a great portion of fetal anomalies screened by prenatal sonogram. The present authors made an attempt to access its natural courses through follow up neonatal hydronephrosis diagnosed by prenatal sonogram. Methods : The study was composed of 23 neonates(36 renal units) who were diagnosed with hydronephrosis through prenatal sonogram screening and confirmed 3-7 days after birth with sonographic evaluation at Kyung...
The Etiologic Diseases and Diagnostic Usefulness of Color Doppler Ultrasonography in Children with Chronic Coughs
Sun Young Park, Joon Sung Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2002;45(4):489-497.   Published online April 15, 2002
Purpose : The objectives of this study were to investigate the causes of chronic cough and to establish the appropriate diagnostic approach to chronic cough in children. Methods : One hundred and thirty two cases of chronic cough were prospectively evaluated. They visitors to pediatric chronic cough clinics at Kang-nam saint Mary's Hospital of Catholic University from August 2000 to...
Optimal Timing of Surgery of Hydronephrosis Due to Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction in Neonates and Infants
Seung Ju Ha, Ji Hyun Jung, Byeong Seon Lee, Kun Seok Kim, Dae Hyuk Moon, Young Seo Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2002;45(2):223-231.   Published online February 15, 2002
Purpose : We review our experience with pyeloplasty for unilateral ureteropelvic junction obstruction of moderate to severe hydronephrosis observed by prenatal ultrasonography to assess the appropriate timing of operation for recovery of renal function and obstruction. Methods : We retrospectively reviewed the records of the total 28 patients who underwent pyeloplasty between 1995 and 2001 at Asan Medical Center. We compared...
Evoked Potentials and Cranial Ultrasonography as a Prognostic Method in Newborn with Asphyxia
Hyung Jin Kim, Hee Kang, Byoung Min Choi, Kee Hwan Yoo, Young Sook Hong, Joo Won Lee, Soon Kyum Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2001;44(10):1162-1167.   Published online October 15, 2001
Purpose : This study was aimed at finding a diagnostic tool which is useful in predicting the neurologic outcome of the asphyxiated newborns. Methods : 31 newborns with asphyxia were evaluated by brainstem evoked potentials and cranial ultrasonography(CUS). During the neonatal follow-up, we evaluated the development of the babies with Bayley Scale of Infant Development II and INFANIB on corrected age...
Case Report
A Case of Renal Abscess in Healthy Child
Jin Yeong Jeong, Young Seo Park, Soo Youn Ham
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2000;43(7):1012-1015.   Published online July 15, 2000
Renal abscess is rare in children and presents varying features which often lead to delay or error in diagnosis. Fever, lumbar pain, abdominal pain and occasional flank mass are the usual presenting complaints but a high degree of suspicion is important for the early detection of renal abscess. Hematogenous seeding of the kidney or ascending infection from the urinary collecting system are two proposed...
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