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Review Article
Management of patients with allergic diseases in the era of COVID-19
Eun Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(11):529-535.   Published online September 23, 2022
In the early days of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, allergic diseases, especially asthma, were considered to be risk factors for severe COVID-19 infection, hospitalization, and death. These concerns stemmed from the idea that individuals with allergic diseases are generally more susceptible to respiratory virus infections, which are major causes of exacerbation of allergic diseases. However, epidemiologic data with...
Therapeutics for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 in children and adolescents
Soo-Han Choi, Jae Hong Choi, Ki Wook Yun
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(8):377-386.   Published online June 27, 2022
· Children and adolescents with high risks for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) should be identified and proper treatment should be provided promptly according to the patient’s condition.
· Remdesivir can be considered for pediatric patients of all ages with COVID-19 who have an emergent or increase in supplemental oxygen.
· The use of corticosteroids is not recommended for patients with nonsevere COVID-19. Corticosteroids are recommended in children and adolescents with severe and critical COVID-19.
Epidemiology of pediatric fractures before versus during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic
Chi Hoon Oh, Siyeong Yoon, Kyung Rae Ko, Young Woo Kwon, Kyeong Mi Kim, Hyun Seo Park, Hogyeong Kang, Inseok Jang, Soonchul Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(7):330-336.   Published online June 3, 2022
∙ The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first reported in December 2019 as a cluster outbreak in Wuhan, since then, national lockdowns have included school closures, stay-at-home orders.
∙ The characteristics of adolescent fractures were often related to physical activity such as sports-related injury.
∙ During the COVID-19 pandemic, both in the East and the West, the incidence of fractures in children and adolescents is showing a decreasing trend worldwide.
∙ Fractures in children and adolescents were significantly reduced in the proportion of relatively low-energy damage, and the incidence of fractures in adolescents with greater activity compared to children was reduced.
∙ If COVID-19 pandemic ends, normal academic and sports activities increase due to the easing of lockdown policies, the number of trauma patients related to increased activity may increase rapidly, and clinics should prepare for this change.
Jeopardized mental health of children and adolescents in coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic
Bohyun Jin, Sohee Lee, Un Sun Chung
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(7):322-329.   Published online June 3, 2022
∙ The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has required preventive measures like self-quarantine, school closures, and lockdown, which ultimately make youth directly and indirectly vulnerable to depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, and somatization.
∙ Child abuse is more common in the COVID-19 era than previously.
∙ Pediatricians should carefully examine parental and child mental health to directly and indirectly aid their physical and mental health.
Original Article
Role of lung ultrasound patterns in monitoring coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome in children
Satyabrata Roychowdhoury, Subhajit Bhakta, Manas Kumar Mahapatra, Saptarshi Ghosh, Sayantika Saha, Mithun Chandra Konar, Mihir Sarkar, Mousumi Nandi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(7):358-366.   Published online May 13, 2022
Question: Potential role of patterns of lung ultrasonography (US) in monitoring changes in mechanically ventilated patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia.
Finding: Interstitial syndrome, an irregular pleural line, and peripheral microconsolidation were the most prevalent findings. Changes in lung aeration after mechanical ventilation corelated with improved oxygenation. A fall in lung ultrasound reaeration score ≤ 5 may predict successful weaning.
Meaning: Lung US is gaining wider utility for monitoring COVID-19 pneumonia.
Review Article
Epidemiological changes in infectious diseases during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic in Korea: a systematic review
Jong Gyun Ahn
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(4):167-171.   Published online November 30, 2021
· Nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) have had a major impact on the epidemiology of various infectious diseases in Korea.
· Respiratory diseases and gastrointestinal viral diseases were significantly reduced during the NPI period.
· The decrease in Kawasaki disease after the introduction of NPI is an unintended result.
· Infectious diseases that decreased during NPI use may re-emerge.
· We must continuously monitor the epidemiology of various infectious diseases during the coronavirus era
Etiological and pathophysiological enigmas of severe coronavirus disease 2019, multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, and Kawasaki disease
Jung-Woo Rhim, Jin-Han Kang, Kyung-Yil Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(4):153-166.   Published online November 23, 2021
· Severe cases of coronavirus disease, Kawasaki disease (KD), and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) share similar findings: a protracted clinical course, multiorgan involvement, and similar activated biomarkers.
· Here we propose etiological agents in KD and MIS-C as species in the microbiota and introduce a common pathogenesis through the protein-homeostasis-system hypothesis.
· Early proper dose of corticosteroids and/or intravenous immunoglobulin may help to reduce morbidity and mortality in these diseases.
Original Article
Viral load and rebound in children with coronavirus disease 2019 during the first outbreak in Daegu city
Mi Ae Chu, Yoon Young Jang, Dong Won Lee, Sung Hoon Kim, Namhee Ryoo, Sunggyun Park, Jae Hee Lee, Hai Lee Chung
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(12):652-660.   Published online October 12, 2021
Question: What is the natural course of viral load in children with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?
Finding: A significant number of patients still had a relatively high viral load once clinically asymptomatic. Nearly half of the patients experienced viral rebound, which contributed to prolonged viral detection in their respiratory specimens.
Meaning: Further studies are needed to determine the clinical significance of viral rebound in asymptomatic or mild pediatric cases of COVID-19.
Review Article
Updates on the coronavirus disease 2019 vaccine and consideration in children
Hyun Mi Kang, Eun Hwa Choi, Yae-Jean Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(7):328-338.   Published online June 21, 2021
· The number of coronavirus disease 2019 cases has exponentially increased worldwide, and children ≤19 years old account for 11.0% of all confirmed cases.
· mRNA vaccines, BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273, and adenoviral vector vaccines, AZD1222 and Ad26.COV2.S, authorized for emergency use in the Emergency Use Listing of the World Health Organization are reviewed.
· Clinical trials of these vaccines have shown that they are safe and serious adverse reactions are rarely observed.
Original Article
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Perinatal outcome and possible vertical transmission of coronavirus disease 2019: experience from North India
Ritu Sharma, Shikha Seth, Rakhee Sharma, Sanju Yadav, Pinky Mishra, Sujaya Mukhopadhyay
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(5):239-246.   Published online February 16, 2021
Question: Is there any risk of vertical transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and what is its neonatal profile?
Finding: Biological samples for vertical transmission were negative in all deliveries; however, 2 neonates tested positive for nasopharyngeal COVID-19 reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. No significant neonatal morbidity was observed.
Meaning: COVID-19 does not increase adverse neonatal outcomes and shows a negligible risk of vertical transmission; however, horizontal transmission cannot be underestimated.
Review Article
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Clinical implications of coronavirus disease 2019 in neonates
Do-Hyun Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(4):157-164.   Published online February 4, 2021
• Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV-2) was detected in approximately 3% of neonates of mothers with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
• Neonatal COVID-19 is relatively benign with 16%–22.4% cases asymptomatic.
• Neonates with pre-existing medical conditions and preterm infants are at a higher risk of severe COVID-19.
• Requirement for neonatal mechanical ventilation is 20%–22.4% (vs. 4% in children)
• Low birth weight (13.9%) and premature birth (22.2%) affect neonates of mothers with COVID-19.
General Pediatrics
Clinical features, diagnosis, and outcomes of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children associated with coronavirus disease 2019
Ji Hee Kwak, Soo-Young Lee, Jong-Woon Choi; the Korean Society of Kawasaki Disease
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(2):68-75.   Published online December 30, 2020
Hundreds of cases of children and adolescents with hyperinflammatory responses such as Kawasaki disease have been reported amid the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, leading to coining of the new term COVID-19–associated multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. In this review article, we introduce the illness and describe its case definitions, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, treatments, and outcomes.
The COVID-19 pandemic: an unprecedented tragedy in the battle against childhood obesity
Maximilian Andreas Storz
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(12):477-482.   Published online November 5, 2020
Large-scale quarantine and home confinement during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic will impose new and unfamiliar stressors on children, thereby worsening the childhood obesity epidemic. Physical, nutritional, and psychosocial factors that promote obesity in children during this special situation complementarily contribute to an unprecedented obesogenic environment. Involved stakeholders, including governments, schools, and families, must make all efforts to minimize the impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on childhood obesity.
Overview of management of children with COVID-19
Dyah Kanya Wati, Arya Krisna Manggala
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(9):345-354.   Published online July 17, 2020
The specific treatments for COVID-19 in children remain inconclusive and debatable despite effectively decreasing its signs and symptoms.
The need for clinical trials and reports should be investigated.
Immunopathogenesis of COVID-19 and early immunomodulators
Kyung-Yil Lee, Jung-Woo Rhim, Jin-Han Kang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(7):239-250.   Published online June 18, 2020
The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is spreading globally. Although its etiologic agent is discovered as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), there are many unsolved issues in COVID-19 and other infectious diseases. The causes of different clinical phenotypes and incubation periods among individuals, species specificity, and cytokine storm with lymphopenia as well as the mechanism of damage to organ...
Epidemiology and clinical features of coronavirus disease 2019 in children
Soo-Han Choi, Han Wool Kim, Ji-Man Kang, Dong Hyun Kim, Eun Young Cho
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(4):125-132.   Published online April 6, 2020
Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), which started in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 and declared a worldwide pandemic on March 11, 2020, is a novel infectious disease that causes respiratory illness and death. Pediatric COVID-19 accounts for a small percentage of patients and is often milder than that in adults; however, it can progress to severe disease in some cases. Even neonates...
Epidemiology, virology, and clinical features of severe acute respiratory syndrome -coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2; Coronavirus Disease-19)
Su Eun Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(4):119-124.   Published online April 2, 2020
A cluster of severe pneumonia of unknown etiology in Wuhan City, Hubei province in China emerged in December 2019. A novel coronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) was isolated from lower respiratory tract sample as the causative agent. The current outbreak of infections with SARS-CoV-2 is termed Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) by the World Health Organization (WHO). COVID-19...
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