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Review Article
Nephrology (Genitourinary)
Neonatal hypertension: concerns within and beyond the neonatal intensive care unit
Kathleen Altemose, Janis M. Dionne
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(8):367-376.   Published online May 30, 2022
Some neonates, especially those who are premature, may experience hypertension while in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The most common causes are prematurity-related and the hypertension usually resolves over the first 1–2 years of life. Unfortunately, the increasing population of NICU graduates is at risk for later cardiovascular and kidney disease in childhood and adulthood. This population requires careful attention to blood pressure and weight throughout their life course.
Pediatric hypertension based on Japanese Society of Hypertension Guidelines (JSH 2019) with actual school blood pressure screening data in Japan
Toru Kikuchi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(6):283-290.   Published online November 26, 2021
The prevalence of Japanese pediatric hypertension is 0.9% based on proper measurement protocols. Hypertensive children tend to be hypertensive adults. Pediatric essential hypertension is characterized by an absence of symptoms, obesity, a family history of hypertension, and a low birth weight. The most common causes of pediatric secondary hypertension are renal parenchymal and renovascular diseases. Important factors controlling pediatric hypertension include healthy lifestyle modifications and pharmacotherapy.
Nephrology (Genitourinary)
Blood pressure measurements and hypertension in infants, children, and adolescents: from the postmercury to mobile devices
Seon Hee Lim, Seong Heon Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(2):73-80.   Published online September 15, 2021
· Hypertension is defined as a blood pressure (BP) >90th (elevated) or 95th (hypertension) percentile in children by height, age, and sex and >95th percentile in neonates by age, birth weight, and sex.
· Although the oscillometric method can be used for screenings, the auscultatory method remains the gold standard. The hybrid method employs the auscultatory and electronic methods and can reduce bias.
· BP measurement mobile device applications have a potential for development.
Original Article
Age-, sex-, and height-based blood pressure reference charts, Yazd children 6–18 years, Iran
Nastaran ahmadi, Seyedeh Mahdieh Namayandeh, Seyed Mahmood Sadr Bafghi, Mohammad Reza Mohammadi, Masoud Mirzaei, Mohammadtaghi Sarebanhassanabadi, Amir Houshang Mehrparvar, Reza Faraji, Neda Nilforoshan, Ahmad Karimi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(8):321-328.   Published online July 21, 2020
Question: What is the 90th, 95th, 99th percentile of blood pressure based on height as the cut point for diagnosis of hypertension in children of our province?
Finding: We used blood pressure of 456 males and 579 females in 6–18 years old in “Iranian Children and Adolescents' Psychiatric Disorders survey.
Meaning: The 90th, 95th, 99th percentiles of systolic and diastolic blood pressure in both sex based on age and 10-cm height intervals were developed in Yazd.
Correlation between the morning hypertension on ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and the left ventricular mass in children
Hyun Jung Kim, Kyung Hee Kim, Hong Ryang Kil
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2014;57(9):403-409.   Published online September 30, 2014

Although high morning blood pressure (BP) is known to be associated with the onset of cardiovascular events in adults, data on its effects in children with hypertension are limited. Our retrospective study aimed to define the clinical characteristics of children with morning hypertension (MH) and to determine its associated factors.


We reviewed 31 consecutive patients with hypertension, confirmed by the ambulatory...

The association of blood pressure with body mass index and waist circumference in normal weight and overweight adolescents
Young-Hwan Song
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2014;57(2):79-84.   Published online February 24, 2014

Overweight can be defined by the body mass index (BMI) and is likely associated with an increased cardiovascular disease risk. However, waist circumference (WC), a central adiposity index, may be a better indicator of cardiovascular disease risk. Studies comparing the effects of BMI and WC on cardiovascular risk factors, such as high blood pressure (BP), are rare in adolescents.


We analyzed...

The correlation of blood pressure with height and weight in Korean adolescents aged 10-19 years; The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2009-2011)
Young-Hwan Song
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2014;57(1):35-40.   Published online January 31, 2014

Height-specific blood pressure (BP) is the standard parameter used to diagnose childhood hypertension. However, there has been some argument that weight may be a better variable than height in the reference BP standards. Therefore, before assessing the BP status using the reference BP standards, a basic understanding of the fundamental association of weight and height with BP is required.


In the...

The relationships of body mass index, waist-to-height ratio, and body fat percentage with blood pressure and its hemodynamic determinants in Korean adolescents: a school-based study
Na Young Kim, Young Mi Hong, Jo Won Jung, Nam Su Kim, Chung Il Noh, Young-Hwan Song
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2013;56(12):526-533.   Published online December 20, 2013

Obesity is an important risk factor for hypertension in adolescents. We investigated the relationship of obesity-related indices (body mass index [BMI], waist-to-height ratio [WHR], and body fat percentage [%BF]) with blood pressure and the hemodynamic determinants of blood pressure in Korean adolescents.


In 2008, 565 adolescents, aged 12-16 years, were examined. The %BF of the participants was measured by bioelectrical impedance...

Orthostatic symptoms does not always manifest during tilt-table test in pediatric postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome patients
Tae-Eon Huh, Jung Sook Yeom, Young-Soo Kim, Hyang-Ok Woo, Ji Sook Park, Eun Sil Park, Ji-Hyun Seo, Jae-Young Lim, Chan-Hoo Park, Ki-Jong Park, Hee-Shang Youn
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2013;56(1):32-36.   Published online January 29, 2013

Chronic day-to-day symptoms of orthostatic intolerance are the most notable features of postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS). However, we have encountered patients with such symptoms and excessive tachycardia but with no symptoms during the tilt-table test (TTT). We aimed to investigate whether POTS patients with chronic orthostatic intolerance always present orthostatic symptoms during the TTT and analyze the factors underlying...

Validation study of the Dinamap ProCare 200 upper arm blood pressure monitor in children and adolescents
Chong Guk Lee, Hyang Mi Park, Hye Jung Shin, Jin Soo Moon, Yeong Mi Hong, Nam Soo Kim, Il Soo Ha, Myeong Jin Chang, Kyeong Won Oh
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2011;54(11):463-469.   Published online November 30, 2011

To validate the Dinamap ProCare 200 blood pressure (BP) monitor against a mercury sphygmomanometer in children 7 to 18 years old in accordance with the 2010 International Protocol of European Society of Hypertension (ESH-IP2) and the British Hypertension Society (BHS) protocol.


Forty-five children were recruited for the study. A validation procedure was performed following the protocol based on the ESH-IP2 and...

Review Article
Hypertension in children and adolescents
Jo Won Jung
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2009;52(7):745-751.   Published online July 15, 2009
Hypertension is a major risk factor for myocardial infarction, stroke, and cardiovascular mortality in adults; its treatment reduces the risk of cardiovascular events. In recent times, attention is being paid to monitoring of blood pressure from childhood to adulthood. Childhood hypertension is associated with hypertension in later life, and early intervention is important. In the Korean socioeconomic background, a rapid...
Original Article
Normal blood pressure values and percentile curves measured by oscillometric method in children under 6 years of age
Jin A Sohn, Hee Sook Lee, Kyoung Aha Lim, So Young Yoon, Jo Won Jung, Nam Su Kim, Chung Il Noh, Soon Young Lee, Young Mi Hong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2008;51(9):998-1006.   Published online September 15, 2008
Purpose : Hypertension is defined as average systolic blood pressure and/or diastolic blood pressure that is ≥95th percentile for gender, age, and height on ≥three occasions. Knowing that blood pressure values increase in children as they grow older, the purposes of this study were to measure blood pressure by an oscillometric device and to determine normal values and percentile curves...
The utility of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in obese children
Myung Jin Kim, Jin Young Song
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2008;51(6):604-609.   Published online June 15, 2008
Purpose : Obesity in children and adolescence is highly correlated with adult obesity, which can provoke hypertension. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the blood pressure of obese children regularly. In this study, the results of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in obese children and adolescents were evaluated. Methods : ABPM was conducted for selected patients who visited Handong University...
Review Article
Normative blood pressure references for Korean children and adolescents
Chong Guk Lee, Jin Soo Moon, Joong-Myung Choi, Chung Mo Nam, Soon Young Lee, Kyungwon Oh, Young Taek Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2008;51(1):33-41.   Published online January 15, 2008
Purpose : It is now understood that blood pressure (BP) measurement in the routine pediatric examination is very important because of the relevance of childhood BP to pediatric health care and the development of adult essential hypertension. There hasn't been a reference table of BP for Korean children and adolescents up to now. This study was to make normative BP...
The methodology for developing the 2007 Korean growth charts and blood pressure nomogram in Korean children and adolescents
Soon Young Lee, Youn Nam Kim, Yeon Ji Kang, Myoung-Jin Jang, Jinheum Kim, Jin Soo Moon, Chong Guk Lee, Kyungwon Oh, Young Taek Kim, Chung Mo Nam
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2008;51(1):26-32.   Published online January 15, 2008
Purpose : This study was to provide the methods of developing the growth charts and the blood pressure nomogram among Korean children and adolescents. Methods : The growth charts were developed based on the data from the national growth surveys for children and adolescents in 1998 and 2005. The percentile charts were developed through two stages. At the first stage, the...
Original Article
Pulse wave velocity and ankle brachial index in obese adolescents
Ji Hye Kim, Hee Sun Koo, Young Mi Hong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2007;50(11):1078-1084.   Published online November 15, 2007
Purpose : The prevalence of childhood obesity has doubled over the last 30 years. Obesity-associated sequelae in the vasculature begins in the early stages of life. The purpose of this study was to investigate how pulse wave velocity (PWV) and ankle brachial index (ABI) change with height, weight and body mass index (BMI) in obese adolescents. Methods : Seventy-nine obese...
Pulse wave velocity and ankle brachial index in normal adolescents
Ji Hye Kim, Tae Young Gil, Hee Woo Lee, Young Mi Hong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2007;50(6):549-555.   Published online June 15, 2007
Purpose : Pulse wave velocity (PWV) and ankle brachial index (ABI) are simple, non-invasive methods to assess arterial stiffness. These parameters are also known to be closely related to cardiovascular risk factors and diseases. The purposes of this study were to measure blood pressure, PWV, ABI in healthy Korean adolescents, set up their normal values and assess their correlations. Methods...
The influence of some intrauterine growth variables on neonatal blood pressure
Jungwon Min, Eun Ae Park, Kyoungae Kong, Bohyun Park, Juhee Hong, Young Ju Kim, Hwayoung Lee, EunHee Ha, Hyesook Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2006;49(9):966-971.   Published online September 15, 2006
Purpose : ‘Programming’ describes the process that stimulus at a critical period of development has lifelong effects. The fact that low birth weight links to the risk of elevated blood pressures in adult life is well known. This study aims to examine whether this link is evident in the newborn by investigating the relationship of the intrauterine growth indices and...
The Effectiveness of Propofol on Pediatric Cardiac Catheterization and Electrophysiologic Study
Woo Saeng Park, Myung Chul Hyun
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2001;44(7):773-777.   Published online July 15, 2001
Purpose : Our purpose was to evaluate the effectiveness of propofol on pediatric cardiac catheterization or radiofrequency catheter ablation. Methods : We measured the serial changes of arterial oxygen saturation, heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure at 4 stages, a baseline(during normal sleep), stage 1(just after loading of propofol 2 mg/kg over 10 minutes), stage 2(10-15 minutes after propofol continuous...
Oscillometric Blood Pressure Values of Infants and Children
Hae In Suh, Young Mi Hong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2000;43(8):1029-1036.   Published online August 15, 2000
Purpose : Automated oscillometric blood pressure measurement is not used universally, but has a tendency to be used more frequently in pediatric areas. Reference values of blood pressure by this method were not reported on infants and children under 5 years of age in Korea. This study was performed to study normative blood pressure values by using oscillometric method, presenting...
Oscillometric Blood Pressure of Upper and Lower Extremities and Aortic Blood Flow Velocity in Neonates
Sang Young Bae, Hae Soon Kim, Se Jung Sohn, Young Mi Hong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2000;43(4):484-488.   Published online April 15, 2000
Purpose : We studied the blood pressure difference between the upper and lower extremities in healthy newborn infants and the effect of isthmic narrowing of the aorta on making a possible difference. Methods : The blood pressure was measured with an oscillometric blood pressure device from four extremities of 62 healthy infants aged 1-15 days. A Doppler echocardiography was performed for...
Indirect Measurement of Blood Pressure in Neonates Using an Automatic Noninvasive Oscillometric Monitor
Jung Hea Park, Hea Jin Choeh, Eun Sik Kang, Chong Sung Chung, Kyuchul Choeh
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1993;36(9):1211-1218.   Published online September 15, 1993
The measurement of blood pressure in neonates is an important diagnostic procedure. But the measurement of blood pressure has not been performed routinely because of difficulty in measuring blood pressure and varable normal range according to measuring apparatus. Recently some accurate and convenient apparatus of measuring blood pressure have been introduced in neonatal care, so the reference values...
Blood Pressure Measurement of School-Aged Children in Goesan
Seong Hoon Hah
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1993;36(5):705-713.   Published online May 15, 1993
Since clinical significance of blood pressure level in childhood has been known, a several studies for the purpose of establishing normal blood pressure referce values in Korean school-aged children were performed. The author of this article measured normal blood pressure values for children in an elementary school, and two middle schools of Korean rural area using mercury sphygmomanometer. The results...
Systolic Pressure Amplification of the Aortic Pressure in Children with Congenital Heart Disease
Chan Uhng Joo, Byoung Geun Lee, Sun Jun Kim, Jung Soo Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1993;36(2):232-238.   Published online February 15, 1993
Direct intraarterial measurement of blood pressure is an important diagnostic procedure in critical patients and premature baby care. Direct measurement was more accepted and confident method in physician than the indirect methods. But the presence of a significant amplification of systolic pressure in peripheral artery may lead to important error. So we have investigated the degree of the systolic pressure...
Blood Pressure Values of Primary, Middle and High School Children in Kwangju.
Jin Soo Choi, Ki Weon Park, Jae Sook Ma, Tai Ju Hwang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1990;33(7):952-958.   Published online July 31, 1990
For the purpose of establishing normal reference values, the author measured blood pressure of 6, 221 school children (male 3,587, female 2,634) in Kwangju area using automatic noninvasive oscil- lometic method. Blood pressure increased as age and height increased. Distributions of systolic blood pressures were 101±7 mmHg (Mean±SD) in boys and 102±7mmHg (Mean±SD) in sgirls at age 7 and increased with a rate of 1,6...
A Study on Noninvasive Measurement of Blood Pressure in Normal Newborn.
Eun Hee Lee, Ran Namgung, Chul Lee, Dong Gwan Han
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1989;32(9):1216-1223.   Published online September 30, 1989
Measurement of blood pressure in neonate is an important diagnostic procedure. But measurement of blood pressure were not performed routinely because of difficulty in measuring blood pressure and variable normal range according to measuring apparatus. Recently some accurate and convinient apparatuses of measuring blood pressure have been introduced in neonatal care, so normal blood pressure values of neonate are needed. In this study, we establish...
A Study on Blood Pressure Measurements in School Children in Seoul Area.
Young Choi, Chang Youn Lee, Chung Il Noh, Chang Yee Hong, Sang Il Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1989;32(8):1086-1092.   Published online August 31, 1989
Blood pressure measurements were done in 9,346 school children in Seoul area in May, June and September, 1987. Korin BP 103N (automated oscillometric method) was used for blood pressure measurements. The results were as follows. 1) Blood pressure increased according to both increasing age and height. 2) Mean systolic pressure (MSP) increased from 100 mmHg at 6 to 124 mmHg at 18 years of age in boys. On...
A Study on the Blood Pressure Measurements in Newborn.
Ran Namgung, Ki Soo Pai, Chul Lee, Dong Gwan Han
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1988;31(5):541-546.   Published online May 31, 1988
Non invasive blood pressures measured by the Dinamap monitor, an oscillometric device, were compared with the invasive radial artery pressure in neonates. There were 21 patients with a mean age of 16.5 days (ranges 7 days to 1 month) and a mean body weight of 3.3 kg. The invasive radial artery pressures were recorded on a strip chart and comparisons were made between the...
Blood Pressure Change in the Neonates during Abdominal Examination.
Young Sun Kim, Yoon Deok Kim, Jung Hwan Choi, Chong Ku Yun, Son Moon Shin
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1987;30(11):1201-1206.   Published online November 30, 1987
During abdominal palpation in the 50 full term neonates, blood pressure changes were measured by automatic oscillometric blood pressure monitor. The systolic blood pressure value at resting stage was 61.2 ±2.9 mmHg, and during the liver, the left kidney and the bladder palpation, it was signifi- cantly elevated to 67.2±4.7 mmHg, 68.1 ±4.8 mmHg, 69.0±4.6 mmHg respectively (P< 0.005). The diastoloic pressure value at...
A Study of Blood Pressure Measurement in Newborn Infants.
Yoon Deok Kim, Joong Whan Choi, Chong Ku Yun
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1986;29(8):819-829.   Published online August 31, 1986
The inability to detect Korotkoff sounds in infants have in the past made it difficult for most pediatricians to measure blood pressures by indirect conventional sphygmomanometry. Now, however, Korotkoff sounds, or the mechanical events which produce them, can be sensed with an ultrasonic Doppler device. The author measured systolic and diastolic blood pressure using a Doppler arteriokinetog raphic instrument during 6...
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