Clin Exp Pediatr > Accepted Articles
DOI:    [Accepted]
Published online September 15, 2021.
BP measurements and hypertension in infants, children, and adolescents: from the postmercury to mobile devices
Seon Hee Lim1  , Seong Heon Kim2 
1Department of Pediatrics, Uijeongbu Eulji Medical Center, Uijeongbu, Korea
2Department of Pediatrics, Seoul National University Children's Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
Seong Heon Kim, Email:
Received: 4 February 2021   • Revised: 14 August 2021   • Accepted: 19 August 2021
A mercury sphygmomanometer (MS) has been the gold standard for pediatric blood pressure (BP) measurements, and diagnosing hypertension is critical. However, because of environmental issues, other alternatives are needed. Non-invasive BP measurement devices are largely divided into auscultatory and oscillometric types. The aneroid sphygmomanometer, the currently used auscultatory method, is inferior to mercury sphygmomanometers in terms of limitations such as validation and regular calibration and difficult to apply to infants, in whom Korotkoff sounds are not audible. The oscillometric method uses an automatic device that eliminates errors caused by human observers and has the advantage of being easy to use; however, owing to its measurement accuracy issues, the development of an international validation protocol for children is important. The hybrid method, which combines the auscultatory and electronic methods, solves some of these problems by eliminating the observer bias of terminal digit preference while maintaining measurement accuracy; however, the auscultatory method remains limited. As the age-related characteristics of the pediatric group are heterogeneous, it is necessary to reconsider the appropriate BP measurement method suitable for this indication. In addition, the mobile application–based BP measurement market is growing rapidly with the development of smartphone applications. Although more research is still needed on their accuracy, many experts expect that mobile application–based BP measurement will effectively reduce medical costs due to increased ease of access and early BP management.
Key Words: Blood pressure, Children, Mercury, Oscillometry, Auscultatory

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