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Original Article
Surfactant Therapy for Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome : Experience in Korea Over 15 Years
Chong-Woo Bae, Young-Min Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2004;47(9):940-948.   Published online September 15, 2004
Purpose : Surfactant replacement therapy in neonates with respiratory distress syndrome(RDS) has been used in Korea since 1990. We undertook a collective study of trials from multi-hospitals to evaluate results of neonates with RDS who were treated with surfactant during the past 15 years in Korea(Period I, P-I, 1990-91; Period II, P-II, 1996; Period-III, P-III; 2002). Methods : There were 60...
Association between the Human Surfactant Protein-A(SP-A) Gene Locus and Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Korean Neonates
Jae Hoon Choe, Myung Ho Oh, Jung Ho Ko, Sun Young Kim, In Kyu Lee, Chong Woo Bae
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2004;47(7):735-739.   Published online July 15, 2004
Purpose : Respiratory distress syndrome(RDS) is caused by a deficiency of pulmonary surfactant, which is a lipoprotein complex. Both low levels of surfactant protein A(SP-A) and SP-A alleles have been associated with RDS. However, the genes underlying susceptibility to RDS are insufficiently known. The candidate-gene approach was used to study the association between the SP-A gene locus and RDS in...
Cause and Prognosis of Pediatric Acute Respiratory Failure by Intrapulmonary Lesion
Hye-Young Lee, Ji-Suk Park, Hee-Ra Choi, Ji-Hyun Seo, Jeum-Su Kim, Jae-Young Lim, Myoung-Bum Choi, Chan-Hoo Park, Hyang-Ok Woo, Hee-Shang Youn
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2004;47(5):555-560.   Published online May 15, 2004
Purpose : Respiratory failure arises from derangements in pulmonary gas exchange. The causes may be classified as due to either lung disease or respiratory pump dysfunction. Problems with lung mechanics is an important cause of acute respiratory failure in children clinically. The aims of this study were to survey the cause and prognosis of children diagnosed with acute respiratory failure...
Prevention of Chronic Lung Disease with Early Dexamethasone Treatment in less than 32 Weeks Premature : Randomized Controlled Study
So Yun Shim, Su Jin Cho, Eun Ae Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2004;47(5):521-526.   Published online May 15, 2004
Purpose : The optimal timing and the consequences of dexamethasone therapy in chronic lung disease remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine whether early dexamethasone therapy would reduce the incidence of chronic lung disease and to determine the adverse effects and complications of prematurity associated with such therapy. Methods : Twenty neonates with hyaline membrane disease(dexamethasone n=10, placebo...
The Effect of Post-natal Weight Changes on the Development of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia in Infants with Respiratory Distress Syndrome
Hye One Jhon, Young Min Kim, Hee Joo Hong, Chong Woo Bae
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2004;47(3):269-274.   Published online March 15, 2004
Purpose : The subjects were compared and measured for differences in the aspects of weight changes between the groups that developed bronchopulmonary dysplasia(BPD) after treatment and those that did not, to analyze the relations between the patterns of early weight change after birth and the development of BPD. Methods : Retrospective analysis of medical records were performed for birth weight and...
The Effect of Histologic Chorioamnionitis on the Development of Respiratory Distress Syndrome and Chronic Lung Disease in Preterm Infants
Heui seung Jo, Beyong Il Kim, Chang Won Choi, Jun Dong Park, Chong Jai Kim, Jung-Hwan Choi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2004;47(2):150-156.   Published online February 15, 2004

Purpose: Histologic chorioamnionitis may play a role in the development of respiratory distress syndrome(RDS) and chronic lung disease(CLD) independently or through its association with preterm birth. We investigated the relationship between histologic chorioamnionitis and clinical complications including, RDS and CLD, of preterm infants. Methods: Clinical data were collected retrospectively from 478 preterm infants(gestational period≤34 weeks) who were admitted to the neonatal...
A Study on the Effects of the Early Use of Nasal CPAP in the Weaning of Mechanical Ventilators
Yeoung Ju Kim, Byun Kyung Jung, Sang Geel Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2003;46(12):1200-1206.   Published online December 15, 2003
Purpose : This study was conducted for the use of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), by comparing the early use of non-invasive nasal CPAP with low intermittent mandatory ventilation(low IMV) and endotracheal CPAP in weaning a mechanical ventilator from infants with moderate respiratory distress syndrome(RDS). Methods : Thirty infants in the study group, with moderate RDS from November 2001 to...
Comparison of Clinical Courses According to the Existence of Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Respiratory Distress Syndrome
Ju Hee Seong, Hyeon Joo Lee, Hyun Kee Hong, Chong-Woo Bae, Yong-Mook Choi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2003;46(11):1080-1084.   Published online November 15, 2003
Purpose : To compare perinatal characteristics, clinical courses, and overall morbidity between respiratory distress syndrome(RDS) with patent ductus arteriosus(PDA) and RDS without PDA in neonates. Methods : Eighty-three neonates who were diagnosed and treated for RDS in the neonatal intensive care unit(NICU) from Jan. 2000 to Dec. 2002 were included in this study. RDS was complicated with PDA(group A) in...
Correlation between Chest Radiographic Findings and Respiratory Indices in Neonates with Respiratory Distress Syndrome
Yong-Hwan Chung, Youn-Jin Park, Chong-Woo Bae, Dong-Wook Sung
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2003;46(7):655-660.   Published online July 15, 2003
Purpose : The relationship between chest X-ray findings and respiratory indices, including the arterial-alveolar oxygen partial pressure ratio(a/APO2) and the ventilatory index(VI), indicators of the clinical respiratory status in neonates with respiratory distress syndrome(RDS), was examined in the present study. Methods : The records of 50 neonates, randomly chosen from 174 neonates treated with pulmonary surfactant(PS) in the Neonatal Intensive Care...
Analysis of Affecting Factors for Cortisol Level in Cord Blood
Hyun Jung Lim, Chang Hun Song, Eun Young Kim, Sang Kee Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2003;46(2):183-187.   Published online February 15, 2003
Purpose : Long-term stress to the fetus causes alterations in adrenal steroidogenesis. The purpose of this study was to analyze the association of cord blood cortisol with stress during delivery. Methods : Cord blood samples were collected from 58 neonates at once to labor. Cortisol was measured by RIA method(DPC, USA). Cortisol level according to gestational age(<34, 34-37, >38 wks)...
A Clinical Study of the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Children
Taek Jin, Dong Soo Kim, Dong Hwan Shin
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2003;46(1):42-50.   Published online January 15, 2003
Purpose : The acute respiratory distress syndrome(ARDS), an acute form of severe alveolar-capillary injury evolving after a direct or indirect lung insult is thought to be a common cause of respiratory failure though not many clinical studies on the subject have been made yet. Methods : Between January 1992 and December 2001, we conducted a retrospective study on 33 children who...
A Comparative Study of Parental Stress in Families with Epileptic Children
Bo-Young Kim, Sung Min Cho
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2002;45(10):1251-1262.   Published online October 15, 2002
Purpose : The purpose of this study is to assess and compare the stress of mothers and fathers in families with epileptic children, and to assess contributing factors to their stress. Methods : We used a family stress survey with 35 questionnaires to obtain data concerning the parents' perceived stress. Data were analyzed with SPSS 8.0 program using Pearson correlation coefficient, oneway ANOVA, and...
Effect of Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure after Early Surfactant Therapy in Moderate Respiratory Distress Syndrome
Eun Ji Kim, Hae Sook Kim, Man Hoe Hur, Sang Geel Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2002;45(10):1204-1212.   Published online October 15, 2002
Purpose : Early surfactant therapy with either gentle ventilation, high-frequency ventilation or aggressive weaning of mechanical ventilation are principles for the treatment of respiratory distress syndrome(RDS). We studied to determine the accessibility of noninvasive nasal continuous positive airway pressure(CPAP) rather than mechanical ventilation by invasive intubation after early surfactant therapy. Methods : The study group consisted of 14 infants who were born and diagnosed with...
Thymus Size and Its Relationship to Perinatal Diseases; Respiratory Distress Syndrome and Intrauterine Growth Retardation
Sun Mi Chung, Woo Taek Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2002;45(7):855-861.   Published online July 15, 2002
Purpose : Thymus size can be affected by several factors and perinatal diseases can be estimated by its size. The purpose of this study was to search for a relationship between cardiothymic/ thoracic(CT/T) ratio and perinatal diseases such as neonatal respiratory distress syndrome(RDS) and intrauterine growth retardation(IUGR) by measuring the width of the cardiothymic shadow at the level of the...
Case Report
A Case of Congenital Nasal Pyriform Aperture Stenosis
Hyoung Sik Oh, Sang Hee Kim, Gil Hyun Kim, Hak Soo Lee, Il Hwan Jang, Ji Hae Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2001;44(1):99-102.   Published online January 15, 2001
The cause of congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis is unclear. The development of the facial skeleton occurs between the fifth and the eighth week of gestation. It is at this stage that the stenosis occurs due to overgrowth of the ossification of the maxilla. Infants are obligate nasal breathers. Incomplete and milder forms of nasal airway obstruction may be present...
Original Article
Short-term Effects of Inhaled Corticosteroid Following Early Systemic Corticosteroid Administration in Premature Babies with Respiratory Distress Syndrome : A Preliminary Report
Hyeon-Soo Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2000;43(11):1440-1445.   Published online November 15, 2000
Purpose : To asses the short-term effects of the topical corticosteroid, budesonide administered by metered dose inhaler(MDI) and spacer(Aerochamber MV 15) following systemic corticosteroid in premature babies with respiratory distress syndrome at birth. Methods : 19 premature babies <1800gm were randomly assigned to receive steroids(n=9) or not (n=10). The steroid group(n=9, GA[gestational age]=29.6¡¾2.9 weeks, BW[birth weight]=1.29¡¾0.35kg) received systemic dexamethasone for 48...
Effects of Partial Liquid Ventilation on Gas Exchange, Hemodynamics, and Pulmonary Function in Newborn Piglet with Respiratory Distress
Yun Sil Chang, Won Soon Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2000;43(11):1430-1439.   Published online November 15, 2000
Purpose : To evaluate gas exchange, hemodynamics and pulmonary function during partial liquid ventilation(PLV) using PFC(perfluorodecalin), compared with conventional gas ventilation in newborn piglets with saline lavage-induced respiratory distress. Methods : In a total of 16 instrumented and ventilated piglets, acute respiratory distress(below 70 mmHg of PaO2 at FiO2 1.0) was induced by repeated saline pulmonary lavage. The piglets were randomized...
A Study of Surface Physical Properties of New Surfactant Using Synthetic Peptides of Surfactant Protein-B
Chong-Woo Bae, Yong-Mook Choi, Joo Hyun Kang, Sang-Chul Lee, Kil Lyong Kim, Kyung-Soo Hahm
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2000;43(8):1059-1067.   Published online August 15, 2000
Purpose : To produce a new generation of artificial pulmonary surfactant(PS), surfactant protein (SP)-B from human PSwas isolated, and the amino acid sequences of these proteins were studied. Artificial peptides of human SP-B were synthesized. New artificial PS preparations which were composed of phospholopids and two artificial synthetic SP-B peptides were made, and the surface physical properties of these new PS preparations were tested. Methods...
Comparison of Preventive Effect of RDS and Neonatal Morbidity between Antenatal Dexamethasone versus Ambroxol Administration
Eun Jeong, Kim, Seong Sook Jeon, Son Sang Seo
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2000;43(1):13-22.   Published online January 15, 2000
Purpose : Antenatal dexamethasone administration is associated with a significant lowering respiratory distress syndrome(RDS) incidence, but can increase neonatal infection. Ambroxol has been accepted as an alternative treatment to dexamethasone and is of at least equal efficacy but without adverse reaction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of ambroxol versus dexamethasone in RDS incidence and neonatal...
Inhalation of Bronchodilator Aerosol by Metered-dose Inhaler and Spacer in Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome
Hyeon-Soo Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1999;42(12):1668-1675.   Published online December 15, 1999
Purpose : To examine the clinical effects of two bronchodilator agents, salbutamol and ipratropium bromide, administered by metered-dose inhaler(MDIS) to preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome(RDS) during mechanical ventilation. Methods : This study included 8 ventilated preterm infants with RDS, at a postnatal age of 1 week. The effects of single doses of salbutamol(2puffs, 200mcg) and ipratropium bromide(2 puffs, 36mcg) and...
The Protective Effect of Vitamin E and Desferrioxamine on Cultured Cerebral Neurons of Neonatal Mouse Damaged by Ischemic Condition
So-ra Lee, Yeon-kyun Oh, Seung-taek Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1999;42(10):1426-1433.   Published online October 15, 1999
Purpose : Perinatal asphyxia is an important cause of neurologic morbidity. Experiments in animal models of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury demonstrate that brain damage starts during hypoxia-ischemia. In order to evaluate the ischemic condition-induced neurotoxic effect in view of oxi- dative stress, we examined the cytotoxic effect in cultured cerebral neurons of neonatal mouse. Methods : Dissociated cell cultures were prepared...
Correlation between Changes of Intrapulmonary Right to Left Shunt and Improvements in Oxygenation after Exogenous Surfactant Administration in Preterm Respiratory Distress Syndrome
Sei Woo Chung
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1999;42(10):1373-1380.   Published online October 15, 1999
Purpose : This study was aimed to investigate the relationship between changes in intrapulmonary right to left shunt(QSP/QT) and improvements in oxygenation during the 2-hr study period after Surfactant-TA(S-TA) administration. Methods : Umbilical arterial blood gases and corresponding respiratory indexes of 27 preterm neonates with respiratory distress syndrome were studied. The neonates were separated into group A(n=20) and group B(n=7) according...
The Effects of Glutamate Receptor Antagonists on Cultured Cerebral Cortical Neurons of Neonatal Mouse Damaged by Oxidative Stress
Dae-ho Choi, Yeon-kyun Oh, Seung-taek Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1999;42(8):1096-1103.   Published online August 15, 1999
Purpose : To evaluate neurotoxic effects induced by oxygen-radicals, which were generated by adding xanthine oxidase(XO) and hypoxanthine(HX), and protective effects of glutamate receptor antagonist such as MK-801 and 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline(CNQX). Methods : Dissociated cell cultures were prepared from cerebrum of neonatal mouse. Tissues were dissected and diced into small pieces in phosphate buffered saline and were incubated at 37℃. Isolated cells...
Antenatal Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone to Prevent Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Preterm
Ai-Rhan Kim, Sung-Jong Park, Hye-Sun Yoon, Ki-Soo Kim, Hye-Sung Won, In-Sik Lee, Ahm Kim, Soo-Young Pi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1999;42(7):911-920.   Published online July 15, 1999
Purpose : The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of antenatal thyrotropin-releasing hormone(TRH) given to mothers at risk for preterm delivery and assess various neonatal outcomes in infants born to these mothers. Methods : Sixty-one mothers(TRH+Dexamethasone(D):30, D:31) with preterm labor at 26-34 weeks of gestational age were randomized into a study group which received 400μg of TRH at...
Doppler Echocardiographic Assessment of the Changes in Pulmonary Arterial Pressure in Preterm Infants with Respiratory Distress Syndrome
Sejung Sohn, Eun Ae Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1999;42(6):790-799.   Published online June 15, 1999
Purpose : The ratio of time to peak velocity(AT) and right ventricular ejection time(ET) as measured from the pulmonary artery Doppler waveform showed a close inverse correlation with pulmonary arterial pressure. The purpose of this study was to see the pattern of change in pulmonary arterial pressure assessed by AT/ET in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Methods : The...
Effects of Thioredoxin on Oxidative Neuronal Cell Injury
Hyunmi Kim, Gyoung Hee Kim, Yoon Song Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1999;42(5):686-696.   Published online May 15, 1999
Purpose : Thioredoxin is an endogenous antioxidant which directly scavenges reactive oxygen species(ROS) and regenerates oxidatively damaged protein by reducing potential at the redox active disulfide(-Cys-Gly-Pro-Cys-) site. Under oxidative stress, thiredoxin plays a protective and adaptative role by inducing expressions. The aim of this study was to clarify the role of thioredoxin on oxidative neuronal cell injury. We investigated the...
Pulmonary Inflammatory Cells in Preterm Infants with Respiratory Distress Syndrome Followed by Surfactant Treatment
Hyeon-Soo Lee, Myung-Seo Kang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1999;42(5):644-649.   Published online May 15, 1999
Purpose : The effect of surfactant treatment on inflammatory cell populations has not been determined. I evaluated the effect of surfactant treatment on a number and distribution of inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid(BALF) from the preterm infants who were dependent on mechanical ventilation over the 1st week of life. Methods : This study included 8 preterm infants with respiratory distress...
Clinical Trial of Domestically Developed Bovine Lung Surfactant YY-38 in Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome
Chul Lee, Jeong Nyun Kim, Min-Soo Park, Moon Sung Park, Shin Won Yoon, Wook Chang, Ran Namgung, Kook In Park, Dong-Gwan Han
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1999;42(4):472-483.   Published online April 15, 1999
Purpose : We previously reported modified bovine lung surfactant YY-38(NewfactanⓇ) had a low surface tension, good hysteresis, and exhibited good pressure-volume curve in animal experiment (J Korean Pediatr Asso 1997;40:771-85). We performed multicenter clinical trial of NewfactanⓇ in neonatal RDS. Methods : Seventy-seven infants with RDS(GA 31.8¡¾2.9 wks and BW 1,809¡¾592 gm) in 4 NICU were enrolled. After administration of...
A Nationwide Clinical Study of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Children
Soo Jung Choi, Do Suck Jeong, Jae Won Oh, Ha Baik Lee, Im Ju Kang, Kwang Woo Kim, Kyu Earn Kim, Ki Bok Kim, Young Ho Rah, Kang Seo Park, Byong Kwan Son, Ki Young Lee, Sang Il Lee, Ji Tai Choung, Young Mi Hong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1999;42(1):23-31.   Published online January 15, 1999
Purpose : Acute respiratory distress syndrome(ARDS) is the final course of acute lung injury. It results from various etiological origins and pathophysiologic mechanisms, and has a mortality rate of approximately 60-70%. Although the confirmative incidence of ARDS in children is yet unknown, the increasing incidence of ARDS has been reported in Korea. In the present study, we report ARDS diagnosed...
Prognostic Factors for Mortality in Neonates with Respiratory Distress Syndrome After Surfactant Replacement Therapy
Nam Soo Kang, Byung Min Choi, Young Sook Hong, Joo Won Lee, Soon Kyum Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1998;41(9):1188-1197.   Published online September 15, 1998
Purpose : To evaluate the association between neonatal mortality and the initial response to surfactant replacement therapy, and to examine the correlation between the response type and other prognostic factors. Methods : Sixty-seven neonates with respiratory distress syndrome(RDS) were divided into two groups; group I(n=51) who survived and group II(n=16) who died within the first 28 days of life after one...
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