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Review Article
Air pollution and childhood obesity
Moon Young Seo, Shin-Hye Kim, Mi Jung Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(10):382-388.   Published online March 27, 2020
Questions: What are the possible effects of air pollution on the occurrence of childhood obesity and what are the mechanisms?
Finding: Epidemiologic studies suggest that air pollutants might act as obesogens in the pediatric population, and their possible mechanisms include oxidative stress, physical inactivity, and epigenetic modulation.
Meaning: This paper reviews updated information on air pollution, one of the modifiable environmental factors in childhood obesity.
Effects of phytoestrogen on sexual development
Shin Hye Kim, Mi Jung Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2012;55(8):265-271.   Published online August 23, 2012

Phytoestrogen is an estrogenic compound that occurs naturally in plants. The most common sources of phytoestrogen are soybean products, which contain high levels of isoflavones. This compound, which has structural similarity with estrogen, can act as an estrogen receptor agonist or antagonist. Animal studies provide evidence of the significant effects of phytoestrogen on sexual development, including altered pubertal timing, impaired...

Original Article
Dietary patterns and metabolic syndrome risk factors among adolescents
Hyojee Joung, Soyoung Hong, Yoonju Song, Byung Chul Ahn, Mi Jung Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2012;55(4):128-135.   Published online April 30, 2012

Unbalanced diets and decreased physical activity have contributed to increased prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome in adolescents. We have performed a systematic review and data analysis to examine the association between dietary pattern and metabolic syndrome risk factors in adolescents.


We searched the PubMed and BioMedLib databases for appropriate articles published during the past 10 years and selected 6 articles....

Effects of human growth hormone on gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons in mice
Janardhan P. Bhattarai, Shin Hye Kim, Seong Kyu Han, Mi Jung Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2010;53(9):845-851.   Published online September 13, 2010

Recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) has been widely used to treat short stature. However, there are some concerns that growth hormone treatment may induce skeletal maturation and early onset of puberty. In this study, we investigated whether rhGH can directly affect the neuronal activities of of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH).


We performed brain slice gramicidin-perforated current clamp recording to examine the direct...

Clinical characteristics of vitamin D deficiency rickets in infants and preschool children
Kyoung Huh, Mi Kyeong Woo, Jung Rim Yoon, Gyu Hong Shin, Myoung Jae Chey, Mi Jung Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2010;53(2):152-157.   Published online February 15, 2010
Purpose : Vitamin D deficiency rickets is a significant public health problem that results from insufficient exposure to sunlight and inadequate vitamin D supplementation. The purpose of this study is to identify the clinical characteristics of vitamin D deficiency rickets in infants. Methods : Data of 35 infants diagnosed as vitamin D deficiency rickets at Sanggye-Paik Hospital, Seoul, Korea, from March...
Questionnaire-based analysis of growth-promoting attempts among children visiting a university growth clinic
Kyoung Huh, Mi Jung Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2009;52(5):576-580.   Published online May 15, 2009
Purpose : Growth-promoting attempts are widespread in Korea, but little is known about their prevalence or associated factors. This study was designed to assess the prevalence of growth-promoting attempts among children visiting a university growth clinic. Methods : A questionnaire-based survey was carried out with 823 children (416 boys, 407 girls) who visited the growth clinic at Paik Hospital. Results...
Effect of genistein on the sexual maturation in immature female rats
Woocheol Lee, Sung-Ho Lee, Ryun-Sup Ahn, Mi Jung Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2009;52(1):111-118.   Published online January 15, 2009
Puopose : Exposure to dietary phytoestrogens such as genistein during early childhood is a growing public health concern. We examined the effect of early exposure to genistein on sexual maturation in immature rats. Methods : Weaning (3wk-old) Sprague-Dawley female rats were assigned to three groups (n=6 for each): fed by high dose of genistein (100 mg/kg/d), low dose of genistein...
Preliminary analysis of metabolic syndrome components in Korean adolescents by using Korean national health and nutrition examination Survey pooling data (1998, 2001, and 2005)
Kyoung Huh, Mi Jung Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2008;51(12):1300-1309.   Published online December 15, 2008
Purpose : This study aimed to estimate age- and gender-specific cut points for metabolic syndrome (MS) components, including body mass index (BMI), blood pressure (BP), triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and glucose. Methods : Data from the 1998, 2001, and 2005 Korean NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) were analyzed (n=4164; 2,139 boys and 2,025 girls, aged 10-19 years)....
Review Article
Epidemiology of the metabolic syndrome among Korean children and adolescents
Mi Jung Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2008;51(6):564-568.   Published online June 15, 2008
The prevalence of obesity in Korean children is estimated to be around 10%, and has increased significantly over the past 20 years. Metabolic syndrome, which includes central obesity, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension, is a well documented risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, but there is no general consensus concerning its definition for children. In this study, ablut 30-40%...
Original Article
A review of the contents about childhood health care in middle & high school textbooks
Jung Hun Kim, Sung Won Park, Son Moon Shin, In Kyung Sung, Mi Jung Park, Yoo Mi Chung, Jeong Hun Ha
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2007;50(4):340-347.   Published online April 15, 2007
Purpose : The purpose of this study is to investigate the material in middle school and high school textbooks covering child care and children's health for medically inaccurate content and to make sure that the correct information is given to students. Methods : We have examined 47 kinds of textbooks on the subjects 'Home economics' and 'Technology and home economics' published...
Review Article
Update in the etiology and treatment of sexual precocity
Mi Jung Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2006;49(7):718-725.   Published online July 15, 2006
The pubertal activation of gonadotrophin releasing hormone(GnRH) requires coordinated changes in excitatory or inhibitory amino acids, growth factors, and a group of transcriptional regulators. The age of onset of puberty is progressing to younger age. Factors affecting early puberty include genetic traits, nutrition(body fat) and exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals. In rapidly progressing central precocious puberty, gonadotrophin releasing hormone(GnRH) agonists(GnRHa)...
Original Article
The timing of sexual maturation and secular trends of menarchial age in Korean adolescents
Mi Jung Park, In-Sook Lee, Eun-Kyung Shin, Hyojee Joung, Sung-Il Cho
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2006;49(6):610-616.   Published online June 15, 2006
Purpose : The purpose of this study was to evaluate the timing of sexual maturation and secular trends of menarchial age in Korean adolescents. Methods : Nine hundred eighty two school students and 119 university female students were included. Tanner's pubertal assessment method was applied using a self-assessment sheet with pictures for their developmental stages. A medical checkup database...
Trace element concentrations profiles in the hair of normal children living in the northern area of Seoul
Ji Won Kwon, Byung Eui Kim, Mi Jung Park, Sang Woo Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2006;49(1):18-23.   Published online January 15, 2006
Purpose : The reliability of hair mineral analyses regarding nutritional status, environmental exposure or diseases is controversial. The aim of this study was to determine the normal reference range of hair mineral concentration of Korean children. Methods : We examined hair mineral concentrations of 223 children(3-12 yrs old, 110 boys, 113 girls, mean age 8.8?.2 yrs old) living in the...
Medical Lecture Course
Recent Advances in Regulating Energy Homeostasis and Obesity
Mi Jung Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2005;48(2):126-137.   Published online February 15, 2005
New insights in the complex metabolic pathways and its control mechanism for energy homeostasis have refined our understanding of the pathophysiology of obesity. It is now recognized that there are several additional regulatory mechanism such as peripheral signals including leptin, ghrelin, GLP-1 and PYY and cellular signals including uncoupling proteins and β Adrenergic receptors, which contribute to the regulation of...
Original Article
Diagnostic Significance of the Urine-Stick Test in Middle and High School Children in Seoul
Mi Jung Park, Yun Ju Kang, Jong Hee Kim, Duk Hi Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2000;43(3):411-416.   Published online March 15, 2000
Purpose : This study was performed to assess the diagnostic significance of the urine-stick test in detecting Diabetes Mellitus(DM) and to assess the clinical characteristics of adolescent diabetes. Methods : A total of 926,208 middle and high school children participated. The urine-stick test was performed and those who showed glycosuria and, further studies such as evaluations of plasma glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol...
Thyroid Hormone Concentrations in Preterm Infants
Sung Keun Moon, Jeong Nyun Kim, Mi Jung Park, Myung Jae Choi, Chrul Young Chung
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1998;41(10):1324-1328.   Published online October 15, 1998
Purpose : To establish reference ranges for thyroid hormone concentrations in premature infants, we measured T4 and thyroid stimulating hormone(TSH) concentrations and analyzed the relation to gestational age and birth weight. Methods : Serum T4 and TSH concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay for 391 premature infants born in Sanggye Paik Hospital for two years and eight months. Results : Gestational age of...
Serum Leptin Levels in Obese Children
Kyoung Ah Ha, Il Ran Kim, Mi Jung Park, Jae Heon Kang, Churl Young Chung
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1998;41(7):953-959.   Published online July 15, 1998
Purpose : Leptin is a protein encoded by the ob gene that is expressed in adipocytes. It regulates eating behavior by the action to the satiety centers in the hypothalamus. In ob/ob mouse, adipocytes can not produce leptin because of a mutation in the ob gene which results in obesity. Whereas, leptin concentrations were elevated in obese adults, and leptin...
Serial Changes of Blood Glucose Levelsin IDDM Patients Using Intermediate-acting Insulin only Therapy
Ye Sik Kim, Mi Jung Park, Duk Hi Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1996;39(4):552-557.   Published online April 15, 1996
Purpose : We investigated the clinical characteristics of IDDM patients, treated with NPH only, and evaluated current problems by measurement of serial blood glucose, insulin, C-peptide for 12 hours after administration of intermediate-acting insulin. Methods : We studied 19 IDDM patients who had been diagnosed and followed up on a regular basis at Severance hospital. They were assigned into 2 groups, one(HbA1c...
Clinical Observations of Transient Idiopathic Hypocalcemia
Jeong Nyun Kim, Mi Jung Park, Duk Hi Kim, Ho Sung Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1995;38(9):1193-1200.   Published online September 15, 1995
Purpose : In concern of diagnosis and treatment of transient idiopathic hypocalcemia, a major cause of infantile, we studied the onset of age, clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, and duration of treatment and recovery of transient idiopathic hypocalcemia. Methods : The author observed 19 infants with transient idiopathic hypocalcemia who had been admitted to Yonsei university hospital due to convulsion for 4...
Characteristics of Childhood Diabetes
Mi Jung Park, Wook Chang, Hyun Chul Lee, Duk Hi Kim, Ho Seoung Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1995;38(8):1116-1123.   Published online August 15, 1995
Purpose : Because of weternized life style, environmental air pollution and infection, the incidence of childhood diabetes is increasing daily. This study was attempted to evaluate charateristics of childhood diabetes. Methods : We evaluated 117 patients diagnosed with Diabetes at Yonsei and Ewha University College of medicine from 1985 to 1994. Results : 1) The majority of patients were diagnosed as IDDM(86%)....
Sex Hormone Binding Globulin Levels in Children with Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus
Duk Hi Kim, Mi Jung Park, Ho Sung Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1995;38(7):963-969.   Published online July 15, 1995
Purpose : Sex hormone binding globulin(SHBG) is produced in liver and binds to testostero-ne and estradiol. Plasma SHBG levels are increased by estrogen and thyrotoxicosis and decreased by testostrone, insulin, growth hormone, prolactin, obesity and noninsulin dependent diabetes mellitus. SHBG levels in patients with NIDDM is known to be higher than normal, but SHBG levels in children with IDDM is controversial....
Comparison Between 24-hour Integrated Growth Hormone Concentrations and Pharmacological Provocation Tests in Children with Short Statue
Mi Jung Park, Duk Hi Kim, Ho Seong Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1995;38(6):835-842.   Published online June 15, 1995
Purpose : The ability to respond to pharmacologial provovation tests may not necessary reflect actuaol secretory patterns of growth hormone. Therefore, the aim of this study in to evaluate the 24-h IC-GH and compare this with their resposnses to standard pharmacological provocation tests for growth hormone comcentrations and to evaluate peak frequency and peak amplitude during 24-h IC-GH in children...
Clinical Differences by Karyotype in Patients with Turner Syndrome
Mi Jung Park, Jin Sung Lee, Kir Young Kim, Duk Hi Kim, Ho Seoung Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1995;38(2):143-150.   Published online February 15, 1995
Purpose : The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical differences by karyotype in Turner Syndrome. Methods : We evaluated 66 patients with Turner syndrome diagnosed at Yonsei University College of medicine from Mar.1985 to Feb.1993. We divided subproups as pure 45,X groups, mosaisism groups and structural aberration groups. Clinical features, serum estrogen, LH, FSH, concentrations, gonadotropin release after GnRH...
Body Composition of Children and Adolescents with Insulin-dependetn Diabetes Mellitus
Hye Young Kang, Mi Jung Park, Duk Hi Kim, You Kyung Park, Jong Ho Lee, Ho Seong Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1994;37(12):1709-1716.   Published online December 15, 1994
Bodycomposition measurement is useful in the diagnosis of pathoogy, assessment of disease process and response to treatment in many endoclonologic and metabolic diseases. The Techniques used currently are mostly indirect, often expensive, difficult and time-consuming. A new method for estimation of body composition, infrared interactance, is rapid, safe, noninvasive, and may be useful in research ad clinical studies. Body composition was...
Mechanism of Impaired Growth Hormone Response in Children with Simple Obesity
Moon Sung Park, Mi Jung Park, Ho Seong Kim, Duk Hi Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1994;37(4):457-463.   Published online April 15, 1994
Obesity is associated with an impairment of the hormone secretion elicited by all stimuli known to date, but the basic mechanism of this alteration is unknown, To determine whether obesity is associated with a chronic state of tonic somatostatin, several tests with growth hormone stimuli such as GHRH (1㎍/kg), clonidine (150㎍/m2) and Resular insulin (0.1U/kg, subcutaneously), to obese subjects and...
Case Report
A Case of Childhood Adenocarcinoma
Mi Jung Park, Moon Sung Psrk, Seunng Hwang Oh, Chuhl Joo Lyu, Ki Sup Chung, Byung Soo Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1994;37(1):109-114.   Published online January 15, 1994
Gastric adenocarcinoma in childhood is an extremely rare disease with poor prognosis. We experienced a case in which a 14 year old female patient who was admitted with complaints of abdominal pain, indigestion and obstipation. Her physical examination revealed positive Blumer's rectal shelf, positive ascitic fluid cytology and typical radiologic and endoscopic findings suggesting gartric adenocarcinoma. She showed symptomatic improvement...
Original Article
Growth Outcome in Congenital Hypothyroidism
Mi Jung Park, Ho Seong Kim, Duk Hi Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1993;36(5):713-720.   Published online May 15, 1993
Congenital hypothyroidism is one of the most common endocrine disease in childhood and it causes not only mental retardation but also growth retardation. There were many papers about evaluation of developmental outcome in congenital hypothyroidism, The aim of this study was to evaluate growth outcome in congenital hypothyroidism. We evaluated 65 patients with congenital hypothyroidism diagnosed at yonsei University College...
Case Report
A Case of Primary Hyperparathyroidism in Infancy
Mi Jung Park, Ho Seong Kim, Duk Hi Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1992;35(7):1008-1013.   Published online July 15, 1992
Primary hyperparathyroidism is very rare and often fatal disease in childhood. We experienced a case in which a 4 months old male patient complaning of lethargy, hypotonia, respiratory difficulty showed typical laboratory and radiological findings compatible to primary hyperparathyroidism. He was successfully treated with total parathyroidectoimy with partial parathyroid autotrans-plantation. Thus the case of primary hyperparathyroidism in infancy is presented with...
Original Article
Diagnostic Significance in Case with Growth Hormone Deficient Dwarfs.
Duk Hi Kim, Mi Jung Park, Yan Kyu Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1990;33(12):1699-1704.   Published online December 31, 1990
As the scope for treatment with GH widens, it is of interest to evaluate those criteria that are used conventionally for diagnosis of GH deficiency. 11 patients with hypotha lamic-pituitay lesions and 11 patients with idiopathic GH deficiency underwent retesting GH secretion with insulin or arginine stimulation test. All 11 parients with organic GH deficiency remained GH deficient. Of the 11 retested patients with...
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