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Original Article
Other
Spatial modeling of mortality from acute lower respiratory infections in children under 5 years of age in 2000–2017: a global study
Ali Almasi, Sohyla Reshadat, Alireza Zangeneh, Mehdi Khezeli, Raziyeh Teimouri, Samira Rahimi Naderi, Shahram Saeidi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(12):632-641.   Published online March 19, 2021
Question: We assessed the spatial modeling of mortality from acute lower respiratory infections in children under 5 years old during 2000–2017 using a global data.
Finding: The total number of child deaths during the study period decreased, while the number of hot spots increased among countries.
Meaning: Hot spots were concentrated in Asia in 2000 but shifted toward African countries by 2017. A cold spot formed in Europe over the study period.
Neonatology (Perinatology)
New modified version of the Risk Adjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery category and mortality in premature infants with critical congenital heart disease
Young Mi Yoon, Seong Phil Bae, Yoon-Joo Kim, Jae Gun Kwak, Woong-Han Kim, Mi Kyoung Song, Seung Han Shin, Ee-Kyung Kim, Han-Suk Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(10):395-401.   Published online July 15, 2020
Questions: This study aimed to describe the survival of premature infants with critical congenital heart disease (CHD) and to identify the risk factors including the new modified version of the Risk Adjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery (M-RACHS) associated with mortality.
Finding: For premature infants with critical CHD, survival rate was 76.9% and very low birth weight (VLBW), persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), and M-RACHS 5 or more were associated with in-hospital mortality.
Meaning: VLBW, PPHN and BPD, as well as M-RACHS≥5, were risk factors for mortality among premature infants with critical CHD.
Review Article
Other
Review of epidemiological studies on air pollution and health effects in children
Jong-Tae Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(1):3-11.   Published online June 10, 2020
This review summarized the accumulated epidemiologic evidence with emphasis on studies conducted in Korea and heterogeneity in the literature. Based on systematic reviews and meta-analyses, there is consistent evidence on the association between exposure to ambient air pollution and children’s health, especially respiratory health and adverse birth outcomes, and growing evidence on neurodevelopmental outcomes.
Original Article
Critical Care Medicine
Comparative validity of microalbuminuria versus clinical mortality scores to predict pediatric intensive care unit outcomes
Shifa Nismath, Suchetha S. Rao, B.S. Baliga, Vaman Kulkarni, Gayatri M. Rao
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(1):20-24.   Published online August 12, 2019
Question: Does microalbuminuria predict mortality in pediatric intensive care unit?
Finding: Positive correlation was found between albumin-creatinine ratio and pediatric intensive care unit stay, organ dysfunction and need of inotropes. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for albumin-creatinine ratio was comparable to mortality scores.
Meaning: Microalbuminuria is a good predictor of outcome in pediatric intensive care unit and is comparable with mortality scores.
Clinical features and surgical outcomes of complete transposition of the great arteries
Suk Jin Hong, Hee Joung Choi, Yeo Hyang Kim, Myung Chul Hyun, Sang Bum Lee, Joon Yong Cho
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2012;55(10):377-382.   Published online October 29, 2012
Purpose

This single-center study aimed to assess the clinical features and surgical approaches and outcomes of complete transposition of the great arteries (TGA).

Methods

TGA patients who had undergone surgical correction at the Kyungpook National University Hospital from January 2000 to December 2010, were retrospectively evaluated for patient characteristics, clinical manifestation, preoperative management, intraoperative findings, postoperative progress, and follow-up status.

Results

Twenty-eight patients (17 boys...

Review Article
Changes in the neonatal and infant mortality rate and the causes of death in Korea
Sung-Hoon Chung, Yong-Sung Choi, Chong-Woo Bae
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2011;54(11):443-455.   Published online November 30, 2011

Neonatal mortality rate (NMR) or infant mortality rate (IMR) are the rate of deaths per 1,000 live births at which babies of either less than four weeks or of one year of age die, respectively. The NMR and IMR are commonly accepted as a measure of the general health and wellbeing of a population. Korea's NMR and IMR fell significantly...

Original Article
Outcomes of small for gestational age micropremies depending on how young or how small they are
Hee Joon Yu, Eun Sun Kim, Jin Kyu Kim, Hye Soo Yoo, So Yoon Ahn, Yun Sil Chang, Won Soon Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2011;54(6):246-252.   Published online June 30, 2011
Purpose

The outcomes of small for gestational age (SGA) infants especially in extremely low birth weight infants (ELBWIs) are controversial. This study evaluated the mortality and morbidity of ELBWIs, focusing on whether or not they were also SGA.

Methods

The medical records of 415 ELBWIs (birth weight <1,000 g), who were inborn and admitted to the Samsung Medical Center neonatal intensive care unit...

An 18-year experience of tracheoesophageal fistula and esophageal atresia
Juhee Seo, Do Yeon Kim, Ai Rhan Kim, Dae Yeon Kim, Seong Chul Kim, In Koo Kim, Ki Soo Kim, Chong Hyun Yoon, Soo Young Pi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2010;53(6):705-710.   Published online June 23, 2010
Purpose

To determine the clinical manifestations and outcomes of patients with tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) and esophageal atresia (EA) born at a single neonatal intensive care unit.

Methods

A retrospective analysis was conducted for 97 patients with confirmed TEF and EA who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit between 1990 and 2007.

Results

The rate of prenatal diagnosis was 12%. The average gestational age...

Effect of severe neonatal morbidities on long term outcome in extremely low birthweight infants
Kyo Yeon Koo, Jeong Eun Kim, Soon Min Lee, Ran Namgung, Min Soo Park, Kook In Park, Chul Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2010;53(6):694-700.   Published online June 23, 2010
Purpose

To assess the validity of individual and combined prognostic effects of severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), brain injury, retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), and parenteral nutrition associated cholestasis (PNAC).

Methods

We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 80 extremely low birthweight (ELBW) infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of the Severance Children's Hospital, and who survived to a postmenstrual age of...

Effect of hyperglycemia on mortality rates in critically ill children
Seongkuk Kim, Bo Eun Kim, Eun Ju Ha, Mi Young Moon, Seong Jong Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2010;53(3):323-328.   Published online March 15, 2010
Purpose : To verify the effect of hyperglycemia on mortality rates in critically ill children and to identify the blood glucose level that influences prognosis. Methods : From July 2006 to June 2008, a total of 206 patients who were admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) at Asan Medical Center and who survived for more than 7 days...
Outcome and risk factors of pediatric hemato-oncology patients admitted in pediatric intensive care unit
Bo Eun Kim, Eun Ju Ha, Keun Wook Bae, Seongguk Kim, Ho Joon Im, Jong Jin Seo, Seong Jong Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2009;52(10):1153-1160.   Published online October 15, 2009
Purpose : To evaluate the risk factors for mortality and prognostic factors in pediatric hemato-oncology patients admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Methods : We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of pediatric hemato-oncology patients admitted at the PICU of the Asan Medical Center between September 2005 and July 2008. Patients admitted at the PICU for perioperative or terminal...
Clinical features and results of recent total anomalous pulmonary venous connection : Experience in a university hospital (Clinical study of total anomalous pulmonary venous connection)
Mi Ae Chu, Byung Ho Choi, Hee Joung Choi, Yeo Hyang Kim, Joon Yong Cho, Myung Chul Hyun, Sang Bum Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2009;52(2):194-198.   Published online February 15, 2009
Purpose : Active perioperative intervention and improvement on surgical technique has decreased the mortality rate of total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC); however, when complicated with pulmonary venous obstruction, operative mortality is still high. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical course of TAPVC. Methods : Twenty-seven patients who were diagnosed with TAPVC (without other complex heart...
Performance effectiveness of pediatric index of mortality 2 (PIM2) and pediatricrisk of mortality III (PRISM III) in pediatric patients with intensive care in single institution: Retrospective study
Hui Seung Hwang, Na Young Lee, Seung Beom Han, Ga Young Kwak, Soo Young Lee, Seung Yun Chung, Jin Han Kang, Dae Chul Jeong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2008;51(11):1158-1164.   Published online November 15, 2008
Purpose : To investigate the discriminative ability of pediatric index of mortality 2 (PIM2) and pediatric risk of mortality III (PRISM III) in predicting mortality in children admitted into the intensive care unit (ICU). Methods : We retrospectively analyzed variables of PIM2 and PRISM III based on medical records with children cared for in a single hospital ICU from January 2003...
Early stress hyperglycemia as independent predictor of increased mortality in preterm infants
Young Sun Wee, Gae Hyun Ahn, Eun Gyong Yoo, In Sook Lim, Kyu Hyung Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2008;51(5):474-480.   Published online May 15, 2008
Purpose : Stress hyperglycemia is common in critically ill adult patients. It is known as a predictor of increased mortality, and intensive insulin therapy has been shown to improve the prognosis in such patients. We have investigated the relationship between early stress hyperglycemia and clinical outcomes in preterm infants. Methods : In this study, 141 preterm infants with a gestational age...
Antithrombin-III as an early prognostic factor in children with acute lung injury
Young Seung Lee, Seonguk Kim, Eun Kyeong Kang, June Dong Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2007;50(5):443-448.   Published online May 15, 2007
Purpose : To evaluate the potential prognostic value of the antithrombin-III (AT-III) level in the children with acute lung injury (ALI), we analyzed several early predictive factors of death including AT-III level at the onset of ALI and compared the relative risk of them for mortality. Methods : Over a 18-month period, a total of 198 children were admitted to our...
Clinical significance of cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis in pediatric refractory status epilepticus
Jung Mi Kim, Young Mi Kim, Soon Hak Kwon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2006;49(10):1086-1092.   Published online October 15, 2006
Purpose : Refractory status epilepticus(RSE) is a serious neurological emergency in children. The mortality is high and the neurological outcome is not good. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical significance of cerebrospinal fluid(CSF) pleocytosis in refractory status epilepticus in children. Methods : From January 1999 to January 2006, 25 out of 37 children with refractory status epilepticus had...
A Clinical Study of the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Children
Taek Jin, Dong Soo Kim, Dong Hwan Shin
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2003;46(1):42-50.   Published online January 15, 2003
Purpose : The acute respiratory distress syndrome(ARDS), an acute form of severe alveolar-capillary injury evolving after a direct or indirect lung insult is thought to be a common cause of respiratory failure though not many clinical studies on the subject have been made yet. Methods : Between January 1992 and December 2001, we conducted a retrospective study on 33 children who...
Frequency of Platelet Transfusions and Outcome in Neonates with Thrombocytopenia
Suk-Hwan Lim, Jin-Hwa Kook, Chang-Yee Cho, Young-Youn Choi, Tai-Ju Hwang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2002;45(8):961-966.   Published online August 15, 2002
Purpose : We compared the underlying or associated diseases according to the frequency of platelet transfusions in neonates with thrombocytopenia to know the factors predicting which patients will require multiple platelet transfusions. We also compared mortality. Methods : A retrospective study was performed in 72 neonates who received the platelet transfusions in neonatal intensive care unit(NICU) between August 1996 and July...
Long-term Clinical Study of Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return
Jin Young Song, Yong Soo Yoon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2000;43(2):229-235.   Published online February 15, 2000
Purpose : Total anomalous pulmonary venous return is a rare congenital heart disease, which is fatal if untreated, especially, if the obstruction in pulmonary venous return is obstructed. With the technical development of echocardiogram, we are now able to do an early diagnosis if TAPVR and perform surgery. Accordingly, this report was aimed to evaluate patients with TAPVR as well...
A Nationwide Clinical Study of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Children
Soo Jung Choi, Do Suck Jeong, Jae Won Oh, Ha Baik Lee, Im Ju Kang, Kwang Woo Kim, Kyu Earn Kim, Ki Bok Kim, Young Ho Rah, Kang Seo Park, Byong Kwan Son, Ki Young Lee, Sang Il Lee, Ji Tai Choung, Young Mi Hong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1999;42(1):23-31.   Published online January 15, 1999
Purpose : Acute respiratory distress syndrome(ARDS) is the final course of acute lung injury. It results from various etiological origins and pathophysiologic mechanisms, and has a mortality rate of approximately 60-70%. Although the confirmative incidence of ARDS in children is yet unknown, the increasing incidence of ARDS has been reported in Korea. In the present study, we report ARDS diagnosed...
Prognostic Factors for Mortality in Neonates with Respiratory Distress Syndrome After Surfactant Replacement Therapy
Nam Soo Kang, Byung Min Choi, Young Sook Hong, Joo Won Lee, Soon Kyum Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1998;41(9):1188-1197.   Published online September 15, 1998
Purpose : To evaluate the association between neonatal mortality and the initial response to surfactant replacement therapy, and to examine the correlation between the response type and other prognostic factors. Methods : Sixty-seven neonates with respiratory distress syndrome(RDS) were divided into two groups; group I(n=51) who survived and group II(n=16) who died within the first 28 days of life after one...
Study on Child Mortality among Korean Children
Beom Soo Park, Moo Song Lee, Seung Pil Jeong, Yoon Ok Ahn
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1994;37(9):1264-1272.   Published online September 15, 1994
To estimate the child and infant mortality rates among Korean children, a mortality survey was carried out in the province of Kyongsangnam¡¤buk-do. The study popolation are the beneficiaries of Korea Medical Insurance Coorporation(KMIC), Kyongsangnam¡¤buk-do area, among which the 3,867 and 1767 deaths occurred from Januray, 1989 to December, 1990 in Kyongsangnam-do area and from January, 1991 to December, 1991 in...
Neonatal Mortality
Min Jeong Kim, Eun Eui Kim, Ock Seung Jeong, Son Sang Seo
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1993;36(3):356-363.   Published online March 15, 1993
A review of all 919 perinatal deaths occuring in Il Sin Christian Hospital From 91985 to 1989 was carried out. The results of clinical analysis were as follows : 1) The overall perinatal mortality rate was 26.30 per 1,000 birth. 2) The perinatal mortality rate was lowest in the gestation group between 37~41 week and in the weight group between 2,501~4,000gm. 3) The perinatal...
Surfactant Replacement Therapy in Neonates with Respiratory Distress Syndrome: A Collective Evaluation of Trials from 16 Hospitals
CW Bae, YD Kwon, SJ Ko, KS Kim, HM Kim, WS Park, SH Byun, CS Son, HS Ahn, SG Lee, YP Chang, YJ Chung, KS Cho, KH Cho, KC Choeh, MJ Chey, JH Choi, JK Yoon, CI Ahn, S Chida, T Fujiwara
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1993;36(2):244-265.   Published online February 15, 1993
Surfactant replacement therapy in neonates with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) has been introduced in our country since May 1990. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect and short-term outcome of surfactant replacement for neonatal RDS using collective data of uncontrolled trials from different hospitals in Korea. For the period May 1990 to Dec. 1991, a total of 68...
Clinical Observation of Meconium Aspiration Syndrome: Prognostic Implication of Early Meconium Suctioning
Dae Hyun Kim, Dong Hoon Ko, Young Jong Woo, Young Youn Choi, Tae Ju Hwang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1992;35(4):484-491.   Published online April 15, 1992
The authors observed the clinical findings of 36 patients with meconium aspiration syndrome(MAS) to evaluate the effect of early appropriated meconium suctioning on the morbidity and mortality of the syndrome. Patients in the study group, 20 babies born in Chonnam university Hospital, received appropriate meconium suction through endotracheal tube during and rig-ht after the delivery, while the patients in the...
Erratum
Analysis of 5,653 Cases with Congental Heart Disease (CHD) Catheterized at Yonsei Medical Center - A 28-Year Review -
Dong Shik Chin, Jong Kyun Lee, Jun Hee Sul, Sung Kyu Lee, Bum Koo Cho
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1992;35(2):143-156.   Published online February 15, 1992
This is a 28-year analysis of 5,653 cases with congenital heart disease who underwent cardiac catheterization at Yonsei Medical Center from 1964 to 1991. Form 1964, there was a steady increment in the number of catheterized cases with CHD until the late 1970's when the patients population began to increase rapidlly. This was undoubtedly set off by the introduction of the...
Original Article
Clinical observation of small for gestational age.
Young Zong Oh, Cheol Hee Hwang, Young Youn Choi, Young Joung Woo, Tai Ju Hwang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1991;34(1):41-48.   Published online January 31, 1991
Small for gestaional age (SGA) is an entity which we have been slow to recognize in both pediatrics and obstetrics, despite its common occurrence and rather dramatic clinical manifestations. The goal of this study is to be enable all physicians involved in perinatal medical care focus their attention on the fact that infants of the same size but very different gestational ages are...
Statistical Analysis of Death Cases in Pediatric Ward.
Kui Ae Jang, Kyeung Bae Park, Jae Ock Park, Chang Hwi Kim, Sang Jhoo Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1990;33(1):1-9.   Published online January 31, 1990
Statistical analysis of death cases during the 9 years from Jan. 1979 to Dec. 1987 in pediatric ward of Soonchunhyang university hospital was carried out. The following results were observed. 1) Total numbers of admission during the 9 years were 16365, of whom 296 expired. 2) Average mortality rate was 1.8% and the annual mortality rate showed decreasing tendency from 1979 to 1987. 3) In age distribution, the neonates...
Clinical Survey of Perinatal Mortality in Multiple Pregnancy.
Hoon Kook, Dong Hun Cho, Hwa Il Kwag, Kwang Ok Lee, Young Youn Choi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1989;32(3):321-330.   Published online March 31, 1989
A clinical survey was performed on 151 cases of multiple pregnancies (149 cases of twins and 2 cases of triplets) and their 304 multiplets who were born at the Chonnam University Hospital during 7 years from January 1, 1980 to December 31, 1986. The results are as follows: 1) The incidence of twins was 1 out of 50 births, and that of triplets...
Early neonatal Mortality Rate in Newborn Nursery.
Woo Sup Shim, Yoon Taik Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1986;29(10):1087-1094.   Published online October 31, 1986
In 5,162 newborns who were born in National Medical Center during the period from January 1980 to December 1984, the authors investigated the early neonatal mortality within 7 days after birth and some factors associated with it. 1) The early neonatal mortailty rate within 7 days after birth was in average 17.4 and. there was no significant difference between male...
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