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Review Article
Comprehensive evaluation of the child with global developmental delays or intellectual disability
Abdullah Aldosari, Tahani Aldosari
Global developmental delay (GDD) and intellectual disability (ID) are relatively common neurodevelopmental disorders that significantly impact affected children, their families, and society. The etiology of GDD/ID is notably diverse, encompassing both genetic and acquired factors. Although the precise cause of most GDD/ID cases remains unclear, an estimated half of all cases can be attributed to genetic factors. Thus, a detailed...
Endocrinology
Applications of genomic research in pediatric endocrine diseases
Ja Hye Kim, Jin-Ho Choi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(12):520-530.   Published online June 14, 2023
· Recent advances in molecular genetics have improved our understanding of pediatric endocrine disorders and are now used in mainstream medical practice.
· Genome-wide association studies can increase our understanding of the biological mechanisms of disease and inform new therapeutic options.
· The identification of founder mutations leads to the efficient localization of the genes underlying Mendelian disorders.
· Next-generation sequencing technologies benefit clinical practice and research of pediatric endocrinology.
Immunology
Modern diagnostic capabilities of neonatal screening for primary immunodeficiencies in newborns
Evgenia Olegovna Khalturina, Natalia Dmitrievna Degtyareva, Anastasiia Vasi’evna Bairashevskaia, Alena Valerievna Mulenkova, Anna Vladimirovna Degtyareva
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(10):504-510.   Published online March 25, 2021
· Neonatal screening for primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs) enables early diagnosis and subsequent initiation of therapy.
· Excision of T-cell receptors and kappa-recombination excision circles are cheaper alternative PID screening methods.
· Sanger DNA sequencing remains the reference method for detecting PID; however, next-generation sequencing technology is increasingly used to diagnose it.
· Here we developed a graphical algorithm for diagnosing primary immunodeficiency syndrome based on modern methods of screening for primary immunodeficiencies in newborns.
Neurology
Genetic tests by next-generation sequencing in children with developmental delay and/or intellectual disability
Ji Yoon Han, In Goo Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(6):195-202.   Published online November 4, 2019
Developments in next-generation sequencing (NGS) techogies have assisted in clarifying the diagnosis and treatment of developmental delay/intellectual disability (DD/ID) via molecular genetic testing. Advances in DNA sequencing technology have not only allowed the evolution of targeted panels but also, and more currently enabled genome-wide analyses to progress from research era to clinical practice. Broad acceptance of accuracy- guided targeted gene...
Case Report
Nephrology (Genitourinary)
De novo mutations in COL4A5 identified by whole exome sequencing in 2 girls with Alport syndrome in Korea
Kyoung Hee Han, Jong Eun Park, Chang-Seok Ki
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2019;62(5):193-197.   Published online November 26, 2018
Alport syndrome (ATS) is an inherited glomerular disease caused by mutations in one of the type IV collagen novel chains (α3, α4, and α5). ATS is characterized by persistent microscopic hematuria that starts during infancy, eventually leading to either progressive nephritis or end-stage renal disease. There are 3 known genetic forms of ATS, namely X-linked ATS, autosomal recessive ATS, and...
Genetics and Metabolism
The first Korean case with Floating-Harbor syndrome with a novel SRCAP mutation diagnosed by targeted exome sequencing
Eun Mi Choi, Dong Hyun Lee, Seok Jin Kang, Ye Jee Shim, Heung Sik Kim, Jun Sik Kim, Jong In Jeong, Jung-Sook Ha, Ja-Hyun Jang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(12):403-406.   Published online September 16, 2018
Floating-Harbor syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant genetic disorder associated with SRCAP mutation. To date, approximately 50 cases of Floating-Harbor syndrome have been reported, but none have been reported in Korea yet. Floating-Harbor syndrome is characterized by delayed bony maturation, unique facial features, and language impairment. Here, we present a 6-year-old boy with a triangular face, deep-set protruding eyes, low-set...
Review Article
Early-onset epileptic encephalopathies and the diagnostic approach to underlying causes
Su-Kyeong Hwang, Soonhak Kwon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2015;58(11):407-414.   Published online November 22, 2015

Early-onset epileptic encephalopathies are one of the most severe early onset epilepsies that can lead to progressive psychomotor impairment. These syndromes result from identifiable primary causes, such as structural, neurodegenerative, metabolic, or genetic defects, and an increasing number of novel genetic causes continue to be uncovered. A typical diagnostic approach includes documentation of anamnesis, determination of seizure semiology, electroencephalography, and...

Kabuki syndrome: clinical and molecular characteristics
Chong-Kun Cheon, Jung Min Ko
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2015;58(9):317-324.   Published online September 21, 2015

Kabuki syndrome (KS) is a rare syndrome characterized by multiple congenital anomalies and mental retardation. Other characteristics include a peculiar facial gestalt, short stature, skeletal and visceral abnormalities, cardiac anomalies, and immunological defects. Whole exome sequencing has uncovered the genetic basis of KS. Prior to 2013, there was no molecular genetic information about KS in Korean patients. More recently, direct...

Original Article
The Prevalence of Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young(MODY) 3 in Children with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
In Kyoung Choi, Duk Hee Kim, Ho-Seong Kim, Nam Huh, Sang Hyun Paek, Seoung Young Jung
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2004;47(6):641-646.   Published online June 15, 2004
Purpose : Maturity-onset diabetes of the young(MODY) is a subtype of type 2 diabetes defined by autosomal dominant mode of inheritance, onset of diabetes usually before the age of 25 yrs, and a primary defect in the function of the beta cells of the pancreas. MODY3 is known as the most common form and is caused by mutations in hepatocyte...
Characterization of Mutations in Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase(Btk) Gene from Unrelated 3 X-linked Agammaglobulinemia(XLA) Families in Korea
Chang-Hwa Song, Eun-Kyeong Jo, Jeong-Kyu Park, Jung-Soo Kim, Soo-Jong Hong, Jae-Ho Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2002;45(3):302-310.   Published online March 15, 2002
Purpose : X-linked agammaglobulinemia(XLA) is an immunodeficiency caused by abnormalities in Bruton's tyrosine kinase(Btk), and is characterized by a deficiency of peripheral blood B cells. We studied cytoplasmic expression of Btk protein and analyzed the Btk gene in peripheral blood mononuclear cells(PBMC) from three XLA families in Korea. Methods : Heparinized venous blood samples were collected from four XLA patients...
Characterization of Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase Genetic Mutations in One Korean X-linked Agammaglobulinemia Family
Eun-Kyeong Jo, Chang-Hwa Song, Jeong-Kyu Park, Young-Jong Baek, Hye-Young Rhu, Jae-Ho Lee, Tai-Ju Hwang, Hoon Kook
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2002;45(2):183-191.   Published online February 15, 2002
Purpose : X-linked agammaglobulinemia(XLA) is an immunodeficiency caused by abnormalities in Bruton's tyrosine kinase(Btk), and is characterized by a deficiency of peripheral blood B cells. We studied the cytoplasmic expression of Btk protein and analyzed the Btk gene in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from two siblings and one cousin with XLA, as well as additional family members. Methods : Btk...
Early Diagnosis of Rifampin-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis by Gene Analysis of RNA Polymerase B Subunit
Ki Seok Park, Nam Soo Park, Eun Ryoung Kim, Seok Ho Choi, Hyun Phil Cho, Young Ho Moon, Il Soo Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1999;42(10):1403-1411.   Published online October 15, 1999
Purpose : The control of tuberculosis is seriously threatened worldwide by the recently emerging multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. As a result, early detection of drug resistant M.tuberculosis strain has become very important but conventional laboratory methods are time consuming and delayed results often affect patients adversely in controlling tuberculosis. The authors studied the usefulness of the line probe assay to determine...
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