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Original Article
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Effect of vitamin E supplementation on bilirubin levels in infants with hyperbilirubinemia: a double-blind randomized clinical trial
Mojtaba Cheraghi, Maziar Nikouei, Majid Mansouri, Siros Hemmatpour, Yousef Moradi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2024;67(5):249-256.   Published online March 26, 2024
Question: Is vitamin E a viable therapeutic option for managing neonatal hyperbilirubinemia?
Finding: This randomized clinical trial examined the effects of oral vitamin E supplementation on bilirubin reduction (primary outcome), phototherapy duration, and length of hospital stay (secondary outcome) in 138 infants.
Meaning: Infants administered vitamin E versus placebo demonstrated similar reductions in bilirubin levels and length of hospital stay.
Value of the International Classification of Diseases code for identifying children with biliary atresia
Pornthep Tanpowpong, Chatmanee Lertudomphonwanit, Pornpimon Phuapradit, Suporn Treepongkaruna
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(2):80-85.   Published online August 24, 2020
Question: What is the value of the diagnostic code in identifying cases of biliary atresia in a large administrative database?
Finding: The diagnostic code’s accuracy and sensitivity are acceptable for identifying algorithm-defined cases. A history of pale stool and a presumed diagnosis of biliary atresia prior to referral added value.
Meaning: The addition of clinical data to the diagnostic code significantly increased the diagnostic yield.
Systematic review and meta-analysis
Association between neonatal jaundice and autism spectrum disorders among children: a meta-analysis
Ensiyeh Jenabi, Saeid Bashirian, Salman Khazaei
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(1):8-13.   Published online November 7, 2019
Autism spectrum disorder is a common neurodevelopmental disorder with an unknown etiology. The correlation between neonatal jaundice and the risk of developing autism spectrum disorder was investigated previously. Some studies showed significant associations, whereas others demonstrated no association. In this meta-analysis, we pooled the results of observational studies to examine the association between neonatal jaundice and the risk of autism...
Original Article
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Does anaesthesia in mothers during delivery affect bilirubin levels in their neonates?
Zeinab A El-Kabbany, Nadin N Toaima, Tamer N Toaima, Mona Y Gamal EL-Din
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2017;60(12):385-389.   Published online December 22, 2017

This study aimed to assess whether different anesthetic techniques and oxytocin use applied during delivery affect transcutaneous bilirubin levels during the first 24 hours in neonates.


A total of 1,044 neonates delivered by either caesarian section (C/S) or normal vaginal delivery (NVD) were included in the study. They were classified into 5 groups as follows: group 1: born by C/S using...

Case Report
Transient carnitine transport defect with cholestatic jaundice: report of one case in a premature baby
Hyun-Seok Cho, Young Kwang Choo, Hong Jin Lee, Hyeon-Soo Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2012;55(2):58-62.   Published online February 14, 2012

Carnitine (β-hydroxy-γ-trimethylaminobutyric acid) is involved in the transport of long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondrial matrix and the removal of potentially toxic acylcarnitine esters. Transient carnitine transport defect is a rare condition in newborns reported in 1/90,000 live births. In this paper, we describe a case of transient carnitine transport defect found in a premature baby who had prolonged cholestatic...

Original Article
The relationship between Gly71Arg and TATA box polymorphism of UGT1A1 gene and prolonged hyperbilirubinemia of breast milk feeding infant in Korean
Jae Myoung Lee, Young Ji Han, Ji Sook Kim, Eun Ryoung Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2008;51(2):150-155.   Published online February 15, 2008
Purpose : It has been known that breast milk cause prolonged unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia. UGT1A1 is a important gene of uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) which has a major role of bilirubin metabolism. These findings suggest that there is a relationship between UGT1A1 gene mutation and prolonged jaundice of breast feeding infant. The aim of study was to investigate whether a polymorphism...
Incidence of breast milk jaundice in healthy full-term infants
Yong Ho Yoon, Kyong Eun Choi, Kyung Ah Kim, Sun Young Ko, Yeon Kyung Lee, Son Moon Shin
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2007;50(11):1072-1077.   Published online November 15, 2007
Purpose : It has been described that the incidence of breastfeeding jaundice is 13% and that of breast milk jaundice is 2%. The incidence in Korea was believed to be higher, but there were no studies to prove this assumption. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of jaundice of healthy breastfed full-term infants in Korea. Methods :...
Usefulness of auditory brainstem response as early predictor of kernicterus in early breast-feeding jaundice
Jae Won Jang, Gil Sang Lee, Dae Keun Song, Sung Hee Kim, Won Duck Kim, Sang Geel Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2007;50(9):848-854.   Published online September 15, 2007
Purpose : The present study examined the etiology and risk factors of the early breast-feeding jaundice and the usefulness of auditory brainstem response test as early predictor of kernicterus. Methods : Medical records of neonatal jaundice in newborn admitted to Daegu Fatima Hospital between September 2005 and May 2006 were analyzed prospectively. Infants were grouped according to feeding method : breast...
Usefulness of the transcutaneous bilirubinometer during phototherapy in neonatal jaundice
Yung Kwun Lee, Kyung Ah Kim, Sun Young Ko, Yeon Kyung Lee, Son Moon Shin
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2006;49(12):1296-1300.   Published online December 15, 2006
Purpose : We studied the usefulness of transcutaneous bilirubinometers in follow-up of bilirubin levels during phototherapy in neonatal jaundice patients. Methods : Transcutaneous bilirubin (TcB) was measured twice per day on 90 neonatal jaundice patients without risk factors of jaundice by transcutaneous bilirubinometer JM-103(Minolta/Hill-Rom Air-shields, Japan). TcB was measured simultaneously on the patched-forehead (TcB-PF), patched- chest(TcB-PC), unpatched-forehead (TcB-UF) and unpatched-chest (TcB-UC)...
Review Article
Neonatal jaundice
Sang Lak Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2006;49(1):6-13.   Published online January 15, 2006
Jaundice is one of the most common gastrointestinal conditions found in neonatal period, and most jaundice is benign. But because of the possibility of bilirubin toxicity, every newborn infants must be examined to identify the development of severe hyperbilirubinemia. To prevent the development of severe hyperbilirubinemia, promote and support successful breast-feeding, perform a systemic assessment before discharge for the risk...
Original Article
Etiology, Management, and Prognosis of Severe Hyperbilirubinemia (Serum Bilirubin Level=25 mg/dL) in Newborn
Jong Hee Hwang, Ji Hyun Lee, Yu Jin Kim, Su Hyun Koo, Jang Hun Lee, Chang Won Cho, Yun Sil Chang, Won Soon Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2005;48(10):1102-1106.   Published online October 15, 2005
Purpose : The present study examined the etiology, management, and the difference of prognosis according to methodology of treatment in severe hyperbilirubinemia with total serum bilirubin levels of more than 25 mg/dL. Methods : Medical records of severe hyperbilirubiemia in newborns(serum level=25 mg/dL) admitted to the NICU of Samsung Medical Center between October 1994 and June 2004 were reviewed retrospectively. Infants...
Near-Infrared Spectroscopy for Monitoring Cerebral Hemodynamics in Hyperbilirubinemia-induced Newborn Piglets
Jong Hee Hwang, Chang Won Choi, Yun Sil Chang, Won Soon Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2005;48(6):649-654.   Published online June 15, 2005
Purpose : The present study examined how changes in cerebral hemodynamics in newborn piglets with bilirubin infusion can be evaluated by near infrared sepctroscopy(NIRS). Methods : Seventeen newborn piglets were randomly divided into the following three experimental groups : six in the control group(CG); seven in the bilirubin infusion group(BG), and four in the bilirubin infusion with 7-nitroindazole group(NG). To...
Usefulness of the Transcutaneous Bilirubinometer in Neonatal Jaundice
Joo Ran An, Sung Won Park, Hee Chul Lee, Kyung Ah Kim, Sun Young Ko, Yeon Kyung Lee, Son Moon Shin
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2004;47(12):1287-1292.   Published online December 15, 2004
Purpose : To test the usefulness of a new jaundice meter, the JM-103(Minolta/Hill-Rom Air-shields, Japan) which uses a new probe to compensate for different skin pigmentation or thickness, and displayed actual bilirubin level instead of an index number as in the previous model, the JM-102, we compared transcutaneous bilirubin(TCB) with plasma bilirubin(PB) in newborn infants. Methods : TCB was measured on...
Case Report
A Case of ARCI Syndrome with Hypoplasia of Corpus Callosum and Heart Anomaly
Eo-Jin Kim, Young-Ran Yoon, Min-Hae Lee, Ki-Su Kang, Jae-Young Lim, Myoung-Bum Choi, Chan-Hoo Park, Hyang-Ok Woo, Hee-Shang Youn
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2003;46(8):826-830.   Published online August 15, 2003
ARCI syndrome consists of arthrogryposis, renal tubular acidosis, cholestatic jaundice and icthyosis. We experienced an ARCI syndrome case with corpus callosum hypoplasia and atrial septal defect. This case had oral feeding difficulty, multiple joint contracture, renal tubular acidosis and neurogenic muscular atrophy at neonatal period. At two months of age, icthyosis and cholestatic jaundice were diagnosed. The case was hospitalized...
Original Article
The Usefulness of MRCP in the Evaluation of Pancreaticobiliary Diseases in Children
Ji Hyun Uhm, Seung Yeon Lee, Ki Sup Chung
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2002;45(11):1381-1388.   Published online November 15, 2002
Purpose : Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography(MRCP) is a noninvasive method for imaging the pancreaticobiliary tree. The aim of this study was to evalute the usefulness of MRCP for the diagnosis of pancreaticobiliary diseases in children. Methods : From October 1996 to May 2001, 67 patients with obstructive jaundice and three patients with chronic recurrent pancreatitis were evaluated with abdominal ultrasonography and...
The Usefulness of Magnetic Resonance Cholangiography in the Diagnosis of Biliary Atresia
Seok Joo Han, Ki Sup Chung, Myung-Joon Kim, Airi Han, Eui Ho Hwang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2001;44(8):899-907.   Published online August 15, 2001
Purpose : To evaluate the usefulness of magnetic resonance cholangiography(MRC) for the diagnosis of biliary atresia in infantile cholestatic jaundice. Methods : Fifty consecutive infants with cholestatic jaundice underwent single-shot MRC for 3 years. The radiologic diagnosis of non-biliary atresia with MRC was based on visualization of the common bile duct and common hepatic duct. The diagnosis of biliary atresia was...
Comparison of Phototherapy Guidelines for Neonatal Jaundice in Healthy Term Newborns
Hyo-Jung Kim, Chang-Ryul Kim, Jae-Won Oh, Myung-Kul Yum, Soo-Jee Moon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1999;41(5):606-613.   Published online May 15, 1999
Purpose : We hypothesized that phototherapy, if the total serum bilirubin(TSB) is ≥14mg/dl, would decrease not only in frequency and duration, but complications due to phototherapy, such as weight loss, rash, temperature instability, feeding intolerance, and diarrhea, would decrease when compared to phototherapy TSB ≥10mg/dl after 48 hours of life in healthy term newborns without hemolysis. Methods : Forty healthy newborns...
Effect of Oral Administration of Cholestylamine with Phototherapy in the Treatment of Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia
Myung Ho O, Jay Gun Sim, Kee Hyuck Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1998;41(6):741-746.   Published online June 15, 1998
Purpose : Cholestylamine has been shown to release chloride ion and absorbs bile acid in the intestine, forming a nonabsorbable complex preventing enterohepatic circulation. The purpose of this study is to clarify the value of cholestylamine and the adequate dosage, in combination with phototherapy, as well as to confirm whether it shorten the duration of hospitalization. Methods : Total 80 full-term neonates with a...
Three cases of Watson-Alagille syndrome.
Eun Kyeong Bom, Dae Hyun Kim, Dong Hoon Koh, Young Youn Choi, Jae Sook Ma, Tae Ju Hwang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1991;34(12):1699-1706.   Published online December 31, 1991
Watson-Alagille syndrome is a kind of familial intrahepatic biliary atresia associated with charac- teristic face and cardiovascular anomaly. Growth and developmental delay, anomalies of the eyes such as posterior embryotoxon, deformities of the skeletal system are often the manifestations of this syndrome. We experienced three cases of Watson-Alagille syndrome recently. These patients showed charac- teristic faces and had peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis diagnosed by pulmonary...
The Effect of Oxytocin in Induced Labour on Neonatal Jaundice.
Seung Koog Kim, Chong Woo Bae, Young Mook Choi, Chang Il Ahn
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1989;32(10):1337-1344.   Published online October 31, 1989
This study was undertaken to evaluate the relationship between oxytocin which was administered to pregnant women during delivery or pregnancy and hyperbilirubinemia of newborn. Among new- borns who were delivered in KHUH from Feb. 1987 to Sep. 1987 and showed hyperbilirubinemia whithin 1 week after birth without definite etiologies of hyperbilirubinemia of newborn, 30 newborns delivered by induced labour and 30 newborns delivered by...
A Study of Milk β-Glucuronidase Activity in Breast Milk Associating with Neonatal Jaundice.
Soo Chun Kim, Chong Woo Bae, Yong Mook Choi, Chang Il Ahn
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1989;32(9):1202-1209.   Published online September 30, 1989
Since the 1960s, several reports have been presented to explain how the ingestion of human milk is related to neonatal jaundice. Recently, the jaundiced neonates whose mother’s milk contain sub- stances (eg, pregnane 3a, 20β-diol, lipoprotein lipase, free fatty acid, β-glucuronidase etc) facilitating the reabsorption of unconjugated bilirubin in the neonatal intestine through the enhancement of the enterohepatic circulation, were called the breast milk...
Diagnostic Significance of Free Fatty Acid, Lipase and beta-Glucuronidase in Breast Milk Jaunce.
Kyoung Ok Lee, Soon Hak Kwon, Haeng Mi Kim, Doo Hong Ahn
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1988;31(5):559-565.   Published online May 31, 1988
Free fatty acids, lipase activy and β-glucuronidase activity were measured in samples of breast milk collected from mothers of infants with and without breast milk jaundice. The free fatty acids, lipase and β-glucuronidase values in the breast milk from mothers with jaundiced infants were 7.5 ±6.5 mM/L, 5.3 ±3.2 mM/min/ml and 14.6 ±9.6 nM/min/ml respectively. In the group of mothers of infants without jaundice,...
Clinical Studies on Neonatal Jaundice and Exchange Transfusion.
Byoung Hun Kim, Soo Yup Lee, Jeh Hoon Shin, Kyu Hwan Lee, Soo Jee Moon, Chong Moo Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1986;29(5):535-542.   Published online May 31, 1986
Jaundice occurs rather frequently in neonatal period, and yet the irreversible complication, kernicterus, may occur in severe cases with pathologic jaundice, from which the patients are at high risk for mental retardation, cerebral palsy, and even death. To prevent this complication, aggressive measures have been used for the neonatal janudice, such as phototherapy and exchange transfusion. Exchange transfusion has been...
Case Report
Two Cases of Hemolytic Disease of Newborn due to Anti-E.
Se Won Park, Young Sun Kim, Jung Hwan Choi, Hyo Seop Ahn, Chong Ku Yun
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1986;29(2):203-208.   Published online February 28, 1986
Isoimmune hemolytic disease of the newborn is a disease which is caused by maternal sensitization to one of the fetal blood factors. This report presented two esses of isoimmune hemolytic disease due to anti-E in 2 male newborns who were admitted to Seoul University Hospital because of jaundice. Antibody screening and antibody identification tests were made which revealed anti-E antibody...
Original Article
Hepatobiliary Scintigraphy with 99mTc-DISIDA in the Evaluation of Neonatal Jaundice.
Kwang Soo Hwang, Sae Jin Lee, Kyung Sook Cho, Chong Dae Cho, Bok Hwan Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1984;27(7):664-672.   Published online July 31, 1984
Hepatobiliary scintigraphy with 99mTc-DISIDA was used to evaluate neonates with direct hyperbilirubinemia who were admitted to the department of Pediatrics, Maryknoll hospital, between May 1981 and Jun. 1983. 1)Total number of patients were 10, boys to girls ratio was 4:1, and age distribution ranging from 9 to 200 days of age. 2)Initial studies of the seven patients intrahepatic cholestasis showed definite...
The Effect of Phototherapy in Distance between Light Source and Hyperbilirubinemic Baby.
Jae Gye Ryoo, Hong In Eum, Kyung Tae Kim, Kew Taek Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1983;26(12):1173-1178.   Published online December 31, 1983
Warshaw reported radiat flux is closely related to distance between light source and patient for phototherapy. We tried to compare 30 cm distance (group A) frome light source to patient with 80 cm (group B) for effect of phototherapy. 1) Radiant flux were 4.68±0.3㎼/cm2/nm in group A phototherapy unit ard 1.49±0. 02㎼/cm2/nm in group B...
Case Report
A Case of Hereditary Spherocytosis.
Eui Lim Choi, Chul Hwan Park, Tae Gyu Hwang, In Soon Park, Soon Yong Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1983;26(11):1120-1124.   Published online November 30, 1983
We observed a case of hereditary spherocytosis who was a 4-month-old boy with the chief complaints of jaundice and pallor. Evidence of the same disease was also found in the patient` s father who had never been symptomatic. Diagnosis was made by presence of spherocytes in peripheral blood smear, osmotic fragility- test and autohemolysis test. A brief review of literatures was made.
Original Article
The Effect of Blue Light and White Light, Continous and Intermittent Phototherapy in the Treatment of Jaundice for the Low Birth Weight Infants.
Ki Tae Kim, Heon Kyung Lee, Woo Yeong Chung, Soon Youg Lee, Yeon Soon Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1983;26(4):299-303.   Published online April 30, 1983
The effect of phototherapy was studied between blue and white lights, and continuous and intermittent regimens in the treatment of jaundice for the low birth weights at Busan Children’s Hospital from October, 1981 to March, 1982. The results were as following: 1) The duration of phototherapy necessary to reduce serum bilirubin level below 8 mg/dl were 58.9 hours with blue light, and 102.3 hours with white...
Study of Bilirubin Concentration on The Neonatal Jaundice.
Seung Kwon Kim, Woo Sik Chung, Byung Do Nam, Kew Taek Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1982;25(11):1089-1096.   Published online November 30, 1982
W« studied the guidelines on the serum bilirubin concentration of 15 mg% for the management of neonatal jaundice and compared the group of serum bilirubin concentration below 15 mg% ■and the group of serum bilirubin concentration above 15 mg%. 83 cased of icteric infants without any risk factors for kernicterus, ahove 12 m.g% in serum bilirubin concentration, were born at the St. Benedict hospital...
A Study of Correlation between Bilirubin Leel of Cord Blood and Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia.
Hwan Sup Kang, Chang Il Ahn
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1982;25(10):1039-1045.   Published online October 31, 1982
For adequate management and prevention of severe sequellae of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia^ such as kernicterus, early detection of its presence is very important in fields of neonatology. The author studied the correlation between bilirubin level of the cord blood and neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in random sampled 169 neonates of 729 deliveries during a period of five months since December 1981 at the Kyung Hee University Hospital....
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