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Review Article
Endocrinology
Genetic factors in precocious puberty
Young Suk Shim, Hae Sang Lee, Jin Soon Hwang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(4):172-181.   Published online October 18, 2021
· Mutations in the kisspeptin (KISS1), kisspeptin receptor (KISS1R), makorin ring finger protein 3 (MKRN3), and delta-like homolog 1 (DLK1) genes are associated with idiopathic central precocious puberty (ICPP).
· A few genes related to pubertal onset have been implicated in ICPP.
· Epigenetic factors such as DNA methylation, histone posttranslational modifications, and noncoding ribonucleic acids may be related to ICPP
Original Article
Endocrinology
Effect of agricultural pesticide on precocious puberty in urban children: an exploratory study
Junghwan Suh, Han Saem Choi, Ahreum Kwon, Hyun Wook Chae, Ho-Seong Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(4):146-150.   Published online December 6, 2019
Question: Does agricultural pesticide effect precocious puberty in girls?
Finding: Dinotefuran, an insecticide of neonicotinoid class, was detected in one of 30 patients with precocious puberty, and in 2 girls of the normal control group, which was not statistically significant.
Meaning: There was no close relationship between agricultural pesticides and development of precocious puberty.
The influence of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists on anthropometric change in girls with central precocious puberty
Jong Wan Yoon, Hyun A Park, Jieun Lee, Jae Hyun Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2017;60(12):395-402.   Published online December 22, 2017
Purpose

The potential effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) treatment on the weight of girls with central precocious puberty (CPP) remains a controversy. We investigated anthropometric changes during and after GnRHa treatment among girls with CPP.

Methods

This retrospective study evaluated data from 127 girls with CPP who received GnRHa treatment for ≥2 years. Height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) values were...

Usefulness of pelvic ultrasonography for the diagnosis of central precocious puberty in girls
Jung Yu, Ha Young Shin, Sun Hee Lee, You Sung Kim, Jae Hyun Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2015;58(8):294-300.   Published online August 21, 2015
Purpose

It is difficult to differentiate between central precocious puberty (CPP) and premature thelarche (PT) in girls. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic usefulness of pelvic ultrasonography to distinguish between CPP and PT in girls with early breast development.

Methods

This study included girls with early breast development who visited the clinic between January 2012 and December 2013. Clinical,...

Review Article
Long-term effects of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs in girls with central precocious puberty
Eun Young Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2015;58(1):1-7.   Published online January 31, 2015

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs (GnRHa) are widely used to treat central precocious puberty (CPP). The efficacy and safety of GnRHa treatment are known, but concerns regarding long-term complications are increasing. Follow-up observation results after GnRHa treatment cessation in female CPP patients up to adulthood showed that treatment (especially <6 years) was beneficial for final adult height relative to that of pretreated...

Original Article
Diagnosis and constitutional and laboratory features of Korean girls referred for precocious puberty
Doosoo Kim, Sung-Yoon Cho, Se-Hyun Maeng, Eun Sang Yi, Yu Jin Jung, Sung Won Park, Young Bae Sohn, Dong-Kyu Jin
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2012;55(12):481-486.   Published online December 20, 2012
Purpose

Precocious puberty is defined as breast development before the age of 8 years in girls. The present study aimed to reveal the diagnosis of Korean girls referred for precocious puberty and to compare the constitutional and endocrinological features among diagnosis groups.

Methods

The present study used a retrospective chart review of 988 Korean girls who had visited a pediatric endocrinology clinic from...

LIN28B polymorphisms are associated with central precocious puberty and early puberty in girls
Sung Won Park, Seung-Tae Lee, Young Bae Sohn, Sung Yoon Cho, Se-Hwa Kim, Su Jin Kim, Chi Hwa Kim, Ah-Ra Ko, Kyung-Hoon Paik, Jong-Won Kim, Dong-Kyu Jin
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2012;55(10):388-392.   Published online October 29, 2012
Purpose

Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers within LIN28B have been reported to be related to the timing of pubertal growth. However, no study has investigated the frequency of genetic markers in girls with precocious puberty (PP) or early puberty (EP). This study aimed to determine the frequency of putative genetic markers in girls with PP or EP.

Methods

Genomic DNAs were obtained from 77...

Excess of leptin inhibits hypothalamic KiSS-1 expression in pubertal mice
Sung Yeon Ahn, Sei Won Yang, Hee Jae Lee, Jong Seon Byun, Ji Yeon Om, Choong Ho Shin
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2012;55(9):337-343.   Published online September 14, 2012
Purpose

Leptin has been considered a link between metabolic state and reproductive activity. Defective reproductive function can occur in leptin-deficient and leptin-excessive conditions. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of centrally injected leptin on the hypothalamic KiSS-1 system in relation to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) action in the initial stage of puberty.

Methods

Leptin (1 µg) was injected directly into...

Review Article
Effects of phytoestrogen on sexual development
Shin Hye Kim, Mi Jung Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2012;55(8):265-271.   Published online August 23, 2012

Phytoestrogen is an estrogenic compound that occurs naturally in plants. The most common sources of phytoestrogen are soybean products, which contain high levels of isoflavones. This compound, which has structural similarity with estrogen, can act as an estrogen receptor agonist or antagonist. Animal studies provide evidence of the significant effects of phytoestrogen on sexual development, including altered pubertal timing, impaired...

The genes associated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone-dependent precocious puberty
Jin Soon Hwang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2012;55(1):6-10.   Published online January 31, 2012

Human puberty is a complex, coordinated biological process with multiple levels of regulations. The timing of puberty varies greatly in children and is influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. The key genes of pubertal onset, KISS1, GPR54, GNRH1 and GNRHR, may be major causal factors underlying gonadotropin-releasing hormone-dependent precocious puberty (GDPP). Two gain-of-function mutations in KISS1 and GPR54 have...

Case Report
Testicular adrenal rest tumors in a patient with untreated congenital adrenal hyperplasia
Hye Young Jin, Jin Ho Choi, Gu Hwan Kim, Chung Sik Lee, Han Wook Yoo
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2011;54(3):137-140.   Published online March 31, 2011

Testicular adrenal rest tumors (TARTs) are considered to be formed from aberrant adrenal tissue that has become hyperplastic because of elevated adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in male patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). A 6-year-old boy presented with testicular enlargement and pubic hair. He was diagnosed with CAH complicated by precocious puberty. However, he was not followed-up. At the age of...

A case of anemia caused by combined vitamin B12 and iron deficiency manifesting as short stature and delayed puberty
Seung Min Song, Keun Wook Bae, Hoi-Soo Yoon, Ho Joon Im, Jong-Jin Seo
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2010;53(5):661-665.   Published online May 31, 2010

Anemia caused by vitamin B12 deficiency resulting from inadequate dietary intake is rare in children in the modern era because of improvements in nutritional status. However, such anemia can be caused by decreased ingestion or impaired absorption and/or utilization of vitamin B12. We report the case of an 18-year-old man with short stature, prepubertal sexual maturation, exertional dyspnea, and severe...

Review Article
Clinical application of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs in children and adolescents
Ho-Seong Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2010;53(3):294-299.   Published online March 15, 2010
Although the increasing incidence of central precocious puberty (CPP) in Korea has recently raised public concerns about health and growth problems, there are many areas of uncertainty regarding the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of CPP. In this paper, we review the definition of precocity, the assessment of CPP, and the hormonal abnormalities that support the diagnosis. In addition, we review...
Original Article
A study of factors influencing advanced puberty
Yong Jun Park, Chang Min Moon, Hwang Jae Yoo
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2010;53(2):146-151.   Published online February 15, 2010
Purpose : The purpose of this study was to evaluate the timing of puberty and the factors inducing advanced puberty in elemental school students of low grades. Methods : The 1st, 2nd, and 3rd grade elemental students from the Goyang province were randomly selected, and their sexual maturation rate was assessed by physical examination. After obtaining an informed consent, a questionnaire...
Analysis of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) test results in girls with precocious puberty
Jung Yun Choi, Hyun-Ju Kang, Won Kyoung Cho, Kyoung Soon Kim, So Hyun Park, Seung Hoon Hahn, Min Ho Jung, Byung Kyu Suh, Byung Churl Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2009;52(12):1377-1382.   Published online December 15, 2009
Purpose : The gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) test results of girls with precocious puberty were analyzed to determine whether this test can efficiently and clearly differentiate between central precocious puberty (CPP) and other disorders. Methods : Clinical and laboratory data of 54 girls with precocious pubertal signs were reviewed. Intravenous GnRH test was performed with blood samples obtained at 0, 30,...
Effect of GnRH analogue on the bone mineral density of precocious or early pubertal girls
Jeong Sook Lim, Heon-Seok Han
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2009;52(12):1370-1376.   Published online December 15, 2009
Purpose : Treatment of precocity with gonadotropin releasing hormone analogue (GnRHa) might theoretically exert a detrimental effect on the bone mass during pubertal development. We investigated the short-term changes in bone mineral density (BMD) during GnRHa treatment and the enhancement in the changes with the co-administration of GnRHa and human growth hormone (hGH). Methods : Forty girls with precocious or...
Review Article
Growth and sex differentiation of children born small for gestational age
Se Young Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2009;52(2):142-151.   Published online February 15, 2009
The incidence of small for gestational age (SGA) births is frequent, accounting for 2.3% to 8% of all live births. Several childhood and adult diseases are related to early postnatal growth and birth size, and 10% of children born SGA may have a short stature throughout postnatal life. Additionally, they may have abnormal growth hormone (GH)-insulin like growth factor axis,...
Original Article
Effect of genistein on the sexual maturation in immature female rats
Woocheol Lee, Sung-Ho Lee, Ryun-Sup Ahn, Mi Jung Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2009;52(1):111-118.   Published online January 15, 2009
Puopose : Exposure to dietary phytoestrogens such as genistein during early childhood is a growing public health concern. We examined the effect of early exposure to genistein on sexual maturation in immature rats. Methods : Weaning (3wk-old) Sprague-Dawley female rats were assigned to three groups (n=6 for each): fed by high dose of genistein (100 mg/kg/d), low dose of genistein...
A comparative study of the puberty suppression effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist in precocious or early puberty girls
Kye-Shik Shim, Chong-Woo Bae, You-Jung Yang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2008;51(6):634-639.   Published online June 15, 2008
Purpose : There has been considerable disagreement regarding the most appropriate dosage of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist in cases of central precocious puberty. The aim of this study was to determine the appropriate dosage for suppression of the puberty in girls with central precocious or early puberty. Methods : Twenty-two girls with early puberty were randomly subjected to 3 types of dosages...
Growth promoting effect of combined gonadotropin releasing hormone analogue and growth hormone therapy in early pubertal girls with predicted low adult heights
Eun-Jeong Hong, Heon-Seok Han
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2007;50(7):678-685.   Published online July 15, 2007
Purpose : Recent reports pointed out that gonadotropin releasing hormone analogue (GnRHa) therapy alone is not so promising for improving adult height in precocious puberty. So, that we studied the growth promoting effect of combined therapy with GnRHa and growth hormone (GH) in early pubertal girls. Methods : Twenty three early pubertal girls (9.73?.59 yr) with predicted adult heights (PAH) below...
Growth promoting effect of short-term gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist with or without growth hormone in girls with early puberty
Eun-Ju Lee, Heon-Seok Han
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2007;50(2):198-204.   Published online February 15, 2007
Purpose : The hope that arresting pubertal developement might increase final adult height has led to an attempt to use GnRH agonist (GnRHa) in children with early puberty and poor growth prognosis. We investigated the growth-promoting effect of GnRH agonists with or without growth hormone (GH) in girls with early puberty and decreased predicted adult height (PAH). Methods : Thirty five...
A study and the growth and the development of microvascular complications in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus
Young Ah Lee, Kyong-Ah Yun, Choong Ho Shin, Sei Won Yang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2007;50(2):190-197.   Published online February 15, 2007
Purpose : Reduced growth and microvascular complications have been recognized as consequences of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). We assessed the effect of T1DM on growth and factors associated with the development of microvascular complications. Methods : We conducted a retrospective longitudinal evaluation of 154 patients above 16 years of age. We analyzed factors which affect final height standard deviation scores...
Effect of GnRH analogue on predicted adult height in girls with early puberty
Byung-Hoon Ahn, Heon-Seok Han
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2006;49(5):552-557.   Published online May 15, 2006
Purpose : The recent results observed in precocious puberty and the hope that interrupting puberty might increase adult height have led to an attempt to use GnRH agonist(GnRHa) in children with premature puberty and a poor growth prognosis. We aimed to analyze the growth promoting effect of GnRHa in girls with early puberty and low predicted adult height(PAH). Methods : Thirty...
The comparison of predicted adult height change and height gain after gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist and combined growth hormone treatment in girls with idiopathic central precocious puberty
Ji-Young Seo, In-Suk Yoon, Choong-Ho Shin, Sei-Won Yang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2006;49(3):305-311.   Published online March 15, 2006
Purpose : GnRH analogues(GnRHa) are used to treat central precocious puberty(CPP). However, in some patients, the GV decrease is so remarkable that it impairs predicted adult height(PAH); and there fore, the addition of growth hormone(GH) is suggested. We analysed the growth changes during two years and final adult height(FAH) in girls with idiopathic CPP treated with combined therapy, compared with...
The Effects of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Agonists on Final Height and its Related Factors in Patients with True Precocious Puberty
Sung Yeon Ahn, Jae Ho Yoo, Choong Ho Shin, Sei Won Yang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2004;47(6):647-655.   Published online June 15, 2004
Purpose : The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of treatment with GnRH agonists on final height(FH) and the influencing factors on height gains. Methods : Twenty-five girls and five boys with true precocious puberty, who were treated with GnRH agonists for more than one year and had attained final height, were evaluated retrospectively. We analysed auxological parameters...
Alteration of Bone Metabolism Markers According to the Progression of Puberty
Seong Yong Lee, Choong Ho Shin, Sei Won Yang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2004;47(2):140-149.   Published online February 15, 2004
Purpose : The object of this study is to evaluate bone metabolism in healthy adolescents according to the progression of puberty. Methods : Forty boys(13.9?.7 years) and 42 girls(12.1?.6 years) were classified by Tanner stage (TS) and bone age. Serum levels of osteocalcin(OC) and bone specific alkaline phosphatase(BALP) were measured as bone formation markers. Serum level of C-terminal telopeptide of type...
Case Report
A Case of True Precocious Puberty Complicating Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia
Su Jin Kim, Ju Suk Lee, Su Yung Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2003;46(4):400-403.   Published online April 15, 2003
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia(CAH) is a recognized cause of precocious pseudopuberty. Some children with CAH also develop true precocious puberty with early maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. We review a case of CAH who eventually developed central precocious puberty nine months after initial treatment with corticosteroid. A 3-year-old boy visited complaining of rapid growth, a large penis and frequent penile erections....
A Case of Hepatoblastoma with Precocious Puberty
Chang Won Choi, Hyun Jin Park, Ki Woong Sung, Eun Sun Yoo, Hee Young Shin, Sei Won Yang, Hyo Seop Ahn
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2000;43(2):288-293.   Published online February 15, 2000
Hepatoblastoma is the most common primary malignant liver tumor in childhood. Most cases are boys generally below three years of age. Hepatoblastoma are associated with various non-metastatic syndromes. Rarely, human chorionic gonadotropin may be produced by the tumor. Ectopic gonadotropin production from this source is a rare cause of precocious puberty in boys. Since a report by Behrendt in 1931,...
Original Article
Sex Hormone Binding Globulin Levels in Children with Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus
Duk Hi Kim, Mi Jung Park, Ho Sung Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1995;38(7):963-969.   Published online July 15, 1995
Purpose : Sex hormone binding globulin(SHBG) is produced in liver and binds to testostero-ne and estradiol. Plasma SHBG levels are increased by estrogen and thyrotoxicosis and decreased by testostrone, insulin, growth hormone, prolactin, obesity and noninsulin dependent diabetes mellitus. SHBG levels in patients with NIDDM is known to be higher than normal, but SHBG levels in children with IDDM is controversial....
Body Composition of Children and Adolescents with Insulin-dependetn Diabetes Mellitus
Hye Young Kang, Mi Jung Park, Duk Hi Kim, You Kyung Park, Jong Ho Lee, Ho Seong Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1994;37(12):1709-1716.   Published online December 15, 1994
Bodycomposition measurement is useful in the diagnosis of pathoogy, assessment of disease process and response to treatment in many endoclonologic and metabolic diseases. The Techniques used currently are mostly indirect, often expensive, difficult and time-consuming. A new method for estimation of body composition, infrared interactance, is rapid, safe, noninvasive, and may be useful in research ad clinical studies. Body composition was...
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