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Original Article
Risk factors of prolonged diarrhea in children under 2 years old
Dedy Rahmat, Agus Firmansyah, Ina S. Timan, Saptawati Bardosono, Joedo Prihartono, Pramita Gayatri
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(12):538-544.   Published online November 16, 2023
Question: What are the risk factors for prolonged diarrhea in children under 2 years old?
Finding: History of antibiotic use, zinc deficiency, and elevated fecal alpha-1 antitrypsin levels were the main risk factors of prolonged diarrhea in children under 2 years old with acute diarrhea.
Meaning: Rational antibiotic usage is necessary as well as thorough testing of serum zinc level and fecal alpha-1 antitrypsin levels.
Case Report
Diphyllobothrium latum infection in a child with recurrent abdominal pain
Seung Hyun Lee, Hyun Park, Seung Taek Yu
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2015;58(11):451-453.   Published online November 22, 2015

Diphyllobothrium latum infection in humans is not common in Republic of Korea. We report a case of fish tapeworm infection in a 10-year-old boy after ingestion of raw perch about 8 months ago. The patient complained of recurrent abdominal pain and watery diarrhea. A tapeworm, 85 cm in length, without scolex and neck, was spontaneously discharged in the feces of...

Review Article
Epidemiology of astrovirus infection in children
Hye Sook Jeong, Ahyong Jeong, Doo-Sung Cheon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2012;55(3):77-82.   Published online March 16, 2012

Human astrovirus (HAstV) is a major cause of acute diarrhea among children, resulting in outbreaks of diarrhea and occasionally hospitalization. Improved surveillance and application of sensitive molecular diagnostics have further defined the impact of HAstV infections in children. These studies have shown that HAstV infections are clinically milder (diarrhea, vomiting, fever) than infections with other enteric agents. Among the 8...

Original Article
What is the 'objective' differential factor of diarrhea in infancy?: Normal state versus diarrheal illness in infants with chronic frequent and loose stool
Jin-Bok Hwang, Kyung Ji Kang, Jung Jeung Lee, Ae Suk Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2010;53(12):1006-1011.   Published online December 31, 2010

This study aimed to identify 'objective' differential factors for normal frequent loose stool (NFLS) and diarrheal illness with dehydration and nutritional deficiency (DIDN) among infants with chronic frequent loose stool (CFLS).


Data were analyzed from infants under 2 years of age with CFLS who had been transferred from general pediatricians. These 46 patients were divided into 2 groups (NFLS versus DIDN)....

Therapeutic Effect of Anti-Rotavirus Chicken Egg Yolk Immunoglobulin(IgY) on Diarrhea by Infection of Rotavirus
In Seok Lim, Ho Seok Lee, Wonyong Kim, Eung Sang Choi, Dong Hyuk Jung, Hoo Kil Jung, Sung Seob Yun, Ho Nam Chun
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2005;48(12):1354-1361.   Published online December 15, 2005
Purpose : Rotavirus is an enteric pathogen that affects millions of children globally each year. But no specific therapy is available for the management of rotavirus diarrhea. Due to the clear need to define improved modality for treatment of rotavirus diarrhea, we evaluated the efficacy of anti- rotavirus IgY in the treatment of infants and children with gastroenteritis. Methods : First,...
The Therapeutic Effect of Lactobacillus reuteri in Acute Diarrhea in Infants and Toddlers
Tae-Hun Eom, Eun-Young Oh, Young-Hoon Kim, Hyun-Seung Lee, Pil Sang Jang, Dong-Un Kim, Jin-Tack Kim, Byung-Churl Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2005;48(9):986-990.   Published online September 15, 2005
Purpose : Certain strains of lactobacilli are known to accelerate recovery from acute diarrhea. Lactobacillus reuteri is isolated from human breast milk and a commonly occurring Lactobacillus species with therapeutic potential in acute diarrhea. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the therapeutic effect of L. reuteri in acute diarrhea in young children. Methods : Fifty patients between...
Clinical Lecture
Acute infectious Diarrhea in Pediatirc Patients
Sang Hyuk Ma
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2005;48(3):235-250.   Published online March 15, 2005
Acute diarrhea is one of the most common diseases that are seen in pediatric patients. In the management of acute diarrhea, several differential diagnostic criteria should be considered based on clinical and/or laboratory findings. These criteria include : ① normal variant stool versus diarrhea ② infectious versus non-infectious condition and ③ bacterial versus non-bacterial etiology. The use of antibiotics should...
Original Article
A Clinical Study of Neurologic Abnormalities Associated with Rotavirus Gastroenteritis
Yoon-Duk Kang, Myung-Kul Yum, Jae-Won Oh, Chang-Ryul Kim, In-Joon Seol, Jung-Oak Kang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2004;47(7):751-755.   Published online July 15, 2004
Purpose : Reports of neurologic abnormalities associated with acute diarrhea are increasing recently. It was reported that the incidence of the neurologic abnormalities related to gastroenteritis was higher in rotavirus gastroenteritis than in non-rotavirus gastroenteritis. We investigated the incidence, the manifestations and the prognosis of the neurologic abnormalities associated with rotavirus diarrhea and non-rotavirus diarrhea in Korean children. Methods : Six...
Case Report
A Case of Congenital Chloride Diarrhea in Premature Infant
Sung Kwan Yoon, Eun Young Kim, Kyung Rye Moon, Sang Kee Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2003;46(3):308-311.   Published online March 15, 2003
Congenital chloride diarrhea is a serious autosomal recessive disease, and defect of intestinal electrolyte absorption that involves, specifically, Cl-/HCO3- exchange in the distal part of the ileum and colon. The clinical feature is dominated by profuse, watery diarrhea containing high concentrations of chloride(>90 mmol/L) and sodium. The chloride loss results in severe dehydration with a hypochloremic alkalosis. The molecular pathology...
Original Article
Methemoglobinemia Associated with Diarrheal Disease before 2 Months of Ag
Ji Ah Jung, Jung Won Lee, Jeong Wan Seo
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2001;44(12):1387-1394.   Published online December 15, 2001
Purpose : Methemoglobinemia has been observed during a diarrheal illness among those who were not exposed to oxidizing agents in neonates and young infants. We performed the study to determine predisposing factors in this entity. Methods : The medical records of 24 patients were reviewed, who were admitted for diarrhea with methemoglobinemia to Ewha Womans University MokDong Hospital, from February 1994 to November 2000. The...
Changes in Incidence of Infantile Transient Methemoglobinemia Associated with Infectious Diarrhea during 1989-1999 in Kyungnam Province
Young Suk Kim, Eun-A Kim, Jae-Young Lim, Myoung-Bum Choi, Chan-Hoo Park, Hyang-Ok Woo, Byung-Kiu Park, Hee-Shang Youn, Yang-Suk Jung, Dong-Jin Lee, Jung Hee Kim, Eun Jeong Kim, Chul Kyu Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2000;43(12):1569-1576.   Published online December 15, 2000
Purpose : Infantile transient methemoglobinemia(ITM) may develop in association with infectious diarrhea without exposure to any toxic oxidizing agents. We observed that the number of ITM associated with infectious diarrhea have increased at the Gyeongsang National University Hospital (GNUH), located in the western area of Kyungnam province during the last 4 years. To determine whether this phenomenon was similarily observed...
Congenital Chloride Diarrhea in 5 Korean Infants
Dong Hun Rhie, Sun Hwan Bae, Ji Eun Choi, Bo Young Yun, Dong Woo Son, Choong Ho Shin, Kyung Hee Park, Jae Sung Ko, Jeong Kee Seo
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2000;43(11):1465-1472.   Published online November 15, 2000
Purpose : Congenital chloride diarrhea(CLD) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by life-long watery diarrhea of prenatal onset with high fecal Cl- concentration. Recent studies have revealed that the protein product of the down-regulated in adenoma(DRA) gene is an intestinal anion transporter molecule and causes CLD when mutated. We investigated the clinical characteristics of CLD in Korean infants in order...
The Utility of Serum Prealbumin Concentrations for Short-term Nutritional Assessment in Patients with Acute Diarrhea
Kyoung Ah Lim, Hae Soon Kim, Jeong Wan Seo, Seung Joo Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1999;42(1):88-93.   Published online January 15, 1999
Purpose : To evaluate the usefulness of serum prealbumin concentration for the nutritional assessment of acute diarrhea. Methods : From February 1997 to August 1997, ninety patients with acute diarrhea(age, 4-24 months) were randomly assigned into two groups on the basis of their intakes for 2 days prior to admission : liquid diet group(N=56, clear liquid and/or oral electrolyte solutions), and...
Clinical Studies of Intractable Diarrhea During Infancy
Jae Hong Park, Cheol Hong Kim, Eui Jun Yang, Sang Wook Park, Sang Wook Nam
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1998;41(7):923-930.   Published online July 15, 1998
Purpose : Intractable diarrhea during infancy is one of the major causes of infant mortality. But, its etiology, clinical courses, or methods of treatment are not well known. Therefore, we conducted a clinical approach to intractable diarrhea during infancy. Methods : We have retrospectively evaluated clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, methods of treatment, days required for recovery, in 23 infants who were...
A Follow-Up Study of Intractable Diarrhea in Early Infancy: Clinical Features of Cow's Milk Allergy and Cow Milk-Sensitive Enteropathy
Young Rak Kwon, Young Ho Ahn, Jin Bok Hwang, Chang Ho Han, Hai Lee Chung, Young Dae Kwon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1995;38(11):1515-1524.   Published online November 15, 1995
Purpose : The multiplicity of poorly defined illnesses and the variability of clinical and laboratory features elicited by milk ingestion in sensitized infants has made it difficult to differentiate them from the more common forms of cow milk intolerance. Following up the cases of intractable diarrhea in early infancy(illI), We investigated the clinical features of cow's milk allergy(CMA) and cow...
Intractable Diarrhea in Early Infancy : Clinical Features on Admission and A Nutritional Management
Jong Won Shin, Kyung Won Hwang, Young Ho Ahn, Jin Bok Hwang, Chang Ho Han, Hai Lee Chung, Young Dae Kwon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1995;38(7):936-945.   Published online July 15, 1995
Purpose : We studied to assess the value of clinical findings on admission in screening of intractable diarrhea in early infancy(IDI) and the efficiency of early trial of semi-elemental form-ula (protein hydrolysate) as a nutritional management in IDI. Methods : We carried out a retrospective review of medical records of twenty-eight early infants with diarrhea and malnutrition who were diagnosed as...
Case Report
A Case of \Intractable Ulcerating Enterocolitis\" of Infant"
Ju Young Jeong, Jeong Kee Seo, Kwi Won Park, Je Geun Chi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1995;38(2):264-270.   Published online February 15, 1995
Intractable ulcerating enterocolitis of infancy is uncommon, inhereditary disease characterized by ulcerating stomatitis, severe perianal disease, affecting the whole gastrointestinal tract, mainly colon with flask shaped large ulcer. It was first described by Sanderson et al in 5 cases of infant with intractable diarrhea having above clinical manifestation. It should be differentiated with Crohn's disease and Behcet's disease. We experienced a...
Original Article
The Metabolic Acidosis and Clinical Outcome in Acute Infantile Diarrhea
Ae Yeon Lim, Yo Ahn Rho, Kee Hwan Yoo, Joo Won Lee, Soon Kyum Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1994;37(3):332-338.   Published online March 15, 1994
To determine the types of metabolic acidosis using anion gap in acute infantile diarrhea and to correlate it with clinical outcome, we examined 103 infants admitted with acute diarrhea. The serum electrolytes (sodium, potassium, chloride, phosphorus), creatinine, CO2 content and anion gap were measured on first admission day. They were classified group A with normal anion gap (8~16 mEq/L) and...
Chronic Diarrhea In Infancy
Hee Soo Kim, Ki Sup Chung
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1994;37(2):212-220.   Published online February 15, 1994
Diarrhea is an extremely common cause of morbidity in infancy. Occasionally it becomes protracted, leading to a vicious cycle of malabsorption, malnutrition and failure to thrive. Thirty nine infants of chronic diarrhea who had been admitted to the Department of pediatrics, Yonsei University College of Medicine for 3 years between September, 1989 and December 1992, were clinically studied and analogized,...
Case Report
A Case of WDHA(Watery Diarrhea Hypokalemia Achiorhydria) Syndrome
Nam Seon Beck, Jun Jai Kim, Beom Soo Park, Jeong Kee Seo, Hyo Seop Ahn, Hyung Ro Moon, Je Geun Chi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1992;35(4):575-580.   Published online April 15, 1992
VIP secreting tumors are rare in children but they produce a dramatic clinical picture, the most prominent feature of which is profuse, watery diarrhea and hypokalemia. A 5-year-old girl was brought to Seoul National University Children's Hospital for evaluation of profuse watery diarrhea. She presented with watery diarrhea, hypokalemia, and stunted growth, and had experienced these problems for four years...
Original Article
Clinical Studies on Enteropathogenic E.Coli Enteritis in a Newborn Nursery.
Chang Hyun Yang, Ran Nam Gung, Chul Lee, Dong Gwan Han
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1986;29(11):1187-1195.   Published online November 30, 1986
We experienced 20 cases of infantile diarrhea caused by Enteropathogenic E. Coli during 2 months from May. 1985 to Jun. 1985 at Yonsei medical center, Newborn nursery. The onset of illness is ususally slow vague signs of reluctance to feed lethargy, spitting up of formula, mild abdominal distention and diarrhea. The outbreak abated abruptly after institution of strict aseptic technique,...
Case Report
A Case of Leiner's Disease Kee Hyuck.
K H Kim, Ran Nam Gung, Chul Lee, Dong Kwan Han, Yoon Kee Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1986;29(8):902-906.   Published online August 31, 1986
We have experienced a case of Leiner’s disease characterized by generalized seborrheic dermatitis, intractable, severe diarrhea, marked wasting, and recurrent local and systemic infections. We are reporting this case with brief review of literatures.
Clinical Trial
Clinical trials of lactous free soy protein based formula for infantile diarrhea.
Soon Wha Kim, Keun Chan Sohn
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1985;28(5):463-469.   Published online May 31, 1985
We observed 50 infants admitted to the Dept, of Pediatrics, National Medical Center to determine the efficacy of lactose free soy protein based formula, domestic products, on the recovery of diarrhea from Sept. 1984 to Dec. 1984. Cases were divided into two groups, group 1 was consisted of 25 infants who were given lactose free soy protein formula, and group...
Original Article
Role of Enterotoxogenic E.Coli in Acute Diarrhea of Childhood in Korea.
Kwang Wook Ko, Jeong Kee Seo, Woo Hyun Chang, Moon Kyo Kim, Nam Ung Yang, Myoung Sik Choi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1983;26(10):949-958.   Published online October 31, 1983
To determine the role of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in diarrheal disease of non-hosp- italized children living in Korea, stool specimens were collected from 330 patients with dia- rrhea and 68 age and sex matched control. Sixty-eight healthy children and 330 diarrheal patients, who visited three private clinics and one municipal hospital in Inchon City, were tested to detect the production of Escherichia coli enterotoxin...
Case Report
Clinical Trials of Lactose Free Soyprotein Formula for Infantile Diarrhea.
Seh Young Chang, Hyeon Soo Park, Keun Soo Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1982;25(1):58-65.   Published online January 31, 1982
We studied 60 hospitalized sick infants with diarrhea to determine the efficacy of lactose free, soy-milk formula(Isomil) on the recovery of diarrhea. 60 sick infants were divided into two groups; Group 1 is consisted of 30 infants who were given Isomil, Group 2 is also consisted of 30 infants who were given 1/2 milk formula during the recovery stage, respectively....
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