Clin Exp Pediatr > Accepted Articles
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3345/cep.2021.01746    [Accepted]
Published online April 19, 2022.
Diagnosis and management of asthma in infants and preschoolers
Hai Lee Chung 
Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Daegu Catholic University, Daegu, Korea
Received: 25 November 2021   • Revised: 21 March 2022   • Accepted: 31 March 2022
Abstract
Asthma is one of the most common chronic disease affecting children, and it often starts in infancy and preschool years. In previous birth cohorts, frequent wheezing in early life was associated with the development of asthma in later childhood and reduced lung function persisting into adulthood. Preschool wheezing is considered an umbrella term for distinctive diseases with different clinical features (phenotypes), each of which may be related to different underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms (endotypes). The classification of phenotypes of early wheezing is needed to identify children at high risk for developing asthma later who might benefit from early intervention. However, diagnosis of asthma in infants and preschoolers is particularly difficult because objective lung function tests cannot be performed and definitive biomarkers are lacking. Moreover, management of early asthma is challenging because of its different phenotypic presentations. Many prediction models and asthma guidelines have been developed that provide useful information for physicians to assess young children with recurrent wheezing and present helpful approaches to manage them appropriately. Many recent studies have investigated the application of personalized medicine for early asthma by identifying specific phenotypes and biomarkers. Further researches, including genetic and molecular studies, are needed to establish a clear definition of asthma and develop more targeted therapeutic approaches in this age group.
Key Words: Asthma, Preschoolers, Diagnosis, Management


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