Clin Exp Pediatr > Accepted Articles
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3345/cep.2022.00115    [Accepted]
Published online April 4, 2022.
Neonatal seizures: stepping outside the comfort zone
Menna Hashish  , Mohamed Reda Bassiouny
Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Mansoura University Children's Hospital, Mansoura, Egypt
Correspondence: 
Menna Hashish, Email: mennahashish2010@yahoo.com
Received: 17 January 2022   • Revised: 19 March 2022   • Accepted: 22 March 2022
Abstract
Seizures are the most common neurological disorders in newborns. Managing neonatal seizures is challenging, especially for neurologists who are not neonatal specialists. Acute brain injury during ischemic insult is a key component of seizure occurrence, while genetic and metabolic disorders play less prevalent but more severe roles. The diagnosis of neonatal seizure is ambiguous, as the subjective differentiation between seizure and non-epileptic events is difficult; therefore, electrographic recording is the gold standard for diagnosis. The detection of electrographic seizures by neonatologists is currently facilitated by amplitude-integrated electroencephalography availability in many neonatal intensive care units. Although it is less sensitive than conventional electroencephalography, it is better to record all risky neonates to filter the abnormal events as early as possible to enable the initiation of dedicated therapy at proper dose and time and facilitate the initial response to antiepileptic drugs. This, in turn, helps maintain the balance between unnecessary drug use and their neurotoxic effects. Moreover, the early treatment of electrographic seizures plays a vital role in the suppression of subsequent abnormal brain electricity (status epilepticus) and shortening the hospital stay. An explicit understanding of seizure etiology and pathophysiology should direct attention to the proper prescription of short- and long-term antiepileptic medications to solve the challenging issue of whether neonatal seizures progress to post-neonatal epilepsy and long-term cognitive deficits. This review addresses recent updates in different aspects of neonatal seizures, particularly electrographic discharge, including their definition, etiology, classification, diagnosis, management, and neurodevelopmental outcomes.
Key Words: Cognitive, EEG, Epilepsy, Seizures


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