Article 66(12); Dec 2023
Review Articles
Allergy
Natural course of IgE-mediated food allergy in children
Kyunguk Jeong, Sooyoung Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(12):504-511.   Published online June 14, 2023
· Dendritic, regulatory T, and regulatory B cells significantly contribute to the natural course of food allergy.
· Cow’s milk and hen’s egg allergies tend to resolve in earlier childhood but recent studies show that 50% of patients still persist into school age.
· The potential factors affecting the natural course of food allergy are age at diagnosis, symptom severity, sensitization status and its change rate, and external factors such as diet and interventions.
· There is a considerable possibility of food allergy outgrow if specific IgE levels are 2–5 kUA/L or less, but other factors such as age and recent symptoms should be considered together.
· With a clear understanding of the natural course of food allergy, pediatricians can provide appropriate assessment and interventions to our patients, and consequently can help patients overcome their food allergy and improve the social safety net.
Endocrinology
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and insulin resistance in children
Kyungchul Song, Ho-Seong Kim, Hyun Wook Chae
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(12):512-519.   Published online January 9, 2023
· The prevalence of pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) increased from 8.2% in 2009 to 12.1% in 2018 in Korea.
· Laboratory tests, biomarkers, and imaging studies are used for the early detection of NAFLD.
· Insulin resistance is closely related to NAFLD.
Applications of genomic research in pediatric endocrine diseases
Ja Hye Kim, Jin-Ho Choi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(12):520-530.   Published online June 14, 2023
· Recent advances in molecular genetics have improved our understanding of pediatric endocrine disorders and are now used in mainstream medical practice.
· Genome-wide association studies can increase our understanding of the biological mechanisms of disease and inform new therapeutic options.
· The identification of founder mutations leads to the efficient localization of the genes underlying Mendelian disorders.
· Next-generation sequencing technologies benefit clinical practice and research of pediatric endocrinology.
Editorial
Infection
COVID-19 infection and vaccination among children
Amnuay Kleebayoon, Viroj Wiwanitkit
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(12):531-532.   Published online August 30, 2023
· Coronavirus disease 2019 (OVID-19) infection and immunization have been linked with kidney problems; however, causality has not been proven.
· Concern about confounders is usually needed.
· Correspondence about a published article on the COVID-19 vaccine
Original Articles
General Pediatrics
Virtual reality for pain reduction during intravenous injection in pediatrics: a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials
Ensiyeh Jenabi, Saeid Bashirian, Amir Mohammad Salehi, Masoud Rafiee, Mozhdeh Bashirian
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(12):533-537.   Published online June 14, 2023
Question: This is the first meta-analysis to examine published evidence of the effectiveness of virtual reality at reducing pain during pediatric intravenous injections.
Finding: Our results suggest that virtual reality effectively reduces pain associated with intravenous injections in pediatric patients.
Meaning: These findings suggest the importance of virtual reality in decreasing the pain of intravenous injections among children.
Gastroenterology
Risk factors of prolonged diarrhea in children under 2 years old
Dedy Rahmat, Agus Firmansyah, Ina S. Timan, Saptawati Bardosono, Joedo Prihartono, Pramita Gayatri
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(12):538-544.   Published online November 16, 2023
Question: What are the risk factors for prolonged diarrhea in children under 2 years old?
Finding: History of antibiotic use, zinc deficiency, and elevated fecal alpha-1 antitrypsin levels were the main risk factors of prolonged diarrhea in children under 2 years old with acute diarrhea.
Meaning: Rational antibiotic usage is necessary as well as thorough testing of serum zinc level and fecal alpha-1 antitrypsin levels.
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