Neonatology (Perinatology)

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Letter to the Editor
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Telemedicine as progressive treatment approach for neonatal jaundice due to the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic
Sukanya Sudhir Joshi, Bithiah Roy Benroy, Isabell Nelson Lawrence, Thanuja Jayasri Suresh
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(5):269-271.   Published online February 7, 2022
Question: How can the management of neonatal jaundice (NJ) be enhanced through telemedicine?
Finding: Teleconsultations, drive-through testing, and the use of an application to assess neonatal jaundice at home are being successfully used, but they must be further researched before being implemented on a larger scale.
Meaning: Recent technology allows for the treatment of NJ at home with an application that helps reduce hospital burden.
Original Article
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Comparison of minimally invasive surfactant therapy with intubation surfactant administration and extubation for treating preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome: a randomized clinical trial
Mohammad Kazem Sabzehei, Behnaz Basiri, Maryam Shokouhi, Sajad Ghahremani, Ali Moradi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(4):188-193.   Published online July 28, 2021
Question: Are the short-term outcomes of minimally invasive surfactant therapy (MIST) relatively superior to those of INtubation, SURfactant administration, and Extubation (INSURE) in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS)?
Finding: MIST could be an appropriate substitution for INSURE in preterm infants with RDS since it reduced hospitalization time and number of side effects.
Meaning: MIST is recommended for surfactant administration for its proven advantages over the INSURE technique.
Review Article
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Pathophysiology, classification, and complications of common asymptomatic thrombocytosis in newborn infants
Ga Won Jeon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(4):182-187.   Published online October 18, 2021
· Thrombocytosis, common in newborns and infants (<2 years) (3%–13%), is caused by elevated thrombopoietin (TPO) concentrations.
· Serum TPO levels are significantly higher immediately to 1 month postnatal and decrease with age.
· Platelet counts are positively correlated with gestational age at birth and postnatal age.
· Thrombocytosis is more common in preterm than in term infants.
· Thrombocytosis in newborns is reactive and resolves spontaneously without complications.
Original Article
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Is fetal nuchal cord associated with autism spectrum disorder? A meta-analysis
Ensiyeh Jenabi, Maryam Ahmadi, Azam Maleki
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(3):131-135.   Published online September 24, 2021
Question: Is fetal nuchal cord a risk factor for autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?
Finding: Five articles (1 cohort, 4 case-control; total 3,088 children) were included in the present meta-analysis. Fetal nuchal cord was not a risk factor for ASD (odds ratio, 1.11; 95% confidence interval, 0.66–1.57). There was homogeneity among studies that reported a risk of ASD (I2=0.0).
Meaning: Fetal nuchal cord is not a risk factor for ASD.
Review Article
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Retinopathy of prematurity: a review of epidemiology and current treatment strategies
Eun Hee Hong, Yong Un Shin, Heeyoon Cho
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(3):115-126.   Published online October 12, 2021
There have been global tri-phasic epidemic periods of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). In recent years, its incidence has reportedly been 10%–40% depending on country and study population. Current treatment strategies for ROP include laser photocoagulation, surgical treatment, and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment, the role of which has drawn attention in recent years.
Growth patterns of preterm infants in Korea
Joohee Lim, So Jin Yoon, Soon Min Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(1):1-9.   Published online July 8, 2021
∙ The growth of preterm infants is a main focus of neonatology.
∙ Preterm infants in Korea, especially those with a very low birth weight, achieve retarded growth.
∙ Careful growth monitoring and early intervention will contribute to better development outcomes and quality of life for preterm infants and improve public health.
Original Article
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Effects of carnosine and hypothermia combination therapy on hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in neonatal rats
Jun Chul Byun, Seong Ryong Lee, Chun Soo Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(8):422-428.   Published online February 24, 2021
Question: How can we further improve the neuroprotective effects of hypothermia in newborns with hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury?
Finding: Combination carnosine and hypothermia therapy effectively reduced brain damage in neonatal rats. The in situ zymography, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling assay, and immunofluorescence study results showed that neuroprotective effects were achieved with combination therapy only.
Meaning: Carnosine and hypothermia have synergistic neuroprotective effects against brain damage following HI injury
Review Article
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Neurodevelopmental outcomes of very low birth weight infants in the Neonatal Research Network of Japan: importance of neonatal intensive care unit graduate follow-up
Yumi Kono; on behalf of the Neonatal Research Network of Japan
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(7):313-321.   Published online November 9, 2020
· Very low birth weight infants remain at high risk of developing neurodevelopmental impairments in early childhood.
· It is important to establish a network follow-up protocol and complete assessments with fewer dropouts to enable clarification of the outcomes of registered infants.
· All possible strategies should be employed to maintain good compliance after neonatal intensive care unit discharge.
Original Article
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Perinatal outcome and possible vertical transmission of coronavirus disease 2019: experience from North India
Ritu Sharma, Shikha Seth, Rakhee Sharma, Sanju Yadav, Pinky Mishra, Sujaya Mukhopadhyay
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(5):239-246.   Published online February 16, 2021
Question: Is there any risk of vertical transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and what is its neonatal profile?
Finding: Biological samples for vertical transmission were negative in all deliveries; however, 2 neonates tested positive for nasopharyngeal COVID-19 reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. No significant neonatal morbidity was observed.
Meaning: COVID-19 does not increase adverse neonatal outcomes and shows a negligible risk of vertical transmission; however, horizontal transmission cannot be underestimated.
Predictive factors of death in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy receiving selective head cooling
Behnaz Basiri, Mohammadkazem Sabzehei, Mohammadmahdi sabahi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(4):180-187.   Published online August 27, 2020
Question: What is the most important factor that increases mortality in infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) who receive selective head cooling?
Finding: All cases of neonatal mortality were severe HIE (stage 3), and a severely abnormal amplitude-integrated electroencephalography and mortality were increased with the need for advanced neonatal resuscitation upon delivery.
Meaning: Advanced neonatal resuscitation affects HIE outcomes, and medical personnel should be prepared to provide the best intervention.
Fluconazole prophylaxis against invasive candidiasis in very low and extremely low birth weight preterm neonates: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Mahmoud Robati Anaraki, Masoud Nouri-Vaskeh, Shahram Abdoli Oskoei
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(4):172-179.   Published online May 14, 2020
· Mortality is decreased significantly in meta-analysis of studies in different regimen of fluconazole prophylaxis.
· Significant decrease was seen in incidence of invasive candidiasis-associated mortality in extremely low birth weight infants in same schedules of prophylaxis.
· More studies required to relief the concerns.
Editorial
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Which factors predict outcomes of neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy following therapeutic hypothermia?
Gyu Hong Shim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(4):169-171.   Published online December 11, 2020
Determining the therapeutic hypothermia and predict long-term prognosis quickly and accurately in infants with moderate to severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy requires a thorough history taking, physical examination, amplitude-integrated electroencephalography, brain magnetic resonance imaging with diffusion-weighted imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, heart evaluation (cardiac enzymes, electrocardiography, and echocardiography), and several other biomarkers.
Review Article
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Clinical implications of coronavirus disease 2019 in neonates
Do-Hyun Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(4):157-164.   Published online February 4, 2021
• Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV-2) was detected in approximately 3% of neonates of mothers with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
• Neonatal COVID-19 is relatively benign with 16%–22.4% cases asymptomatic.
• Neonates with pre-existing medical conditions and preterm infants are at a higher risk of severe COVID-19.
• Requirement for neonatal mechanical ventilation is 20%–22.4% (vs. 4% in children)
• Low birth weight (13.9%) and premature birth (22.2%) affect neonates of mothers with COVID-19.
Clinical Note
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Secondary renal tubular dysgenesis in a newborn exposed to angiotensin Ⅱ receptor antagonist during gestation
Mi Hyeon Gang, Yong Wook Lee, Mea-young Chang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(3):136-138.   Published online July 21, 2020
Question: The use of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockers during pregnancy causes lethal neonatal complications.
Finding: A neonate, whose mother took a RAS blocker during pregnancy, was diagnosed with renal tubular dysgenesis. He presented with respiratory failure, severe refractory hypotension, and anuria requiring continuous dialysis.
Meaning: Physicians should consider any degree of RAS fetopathy in a newborn born to a hypertensive mother who had use of RAS blockers during her pregnancy.
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