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Original Article
Nephrology (Genitourinary)
Is vaginal reflux associated with urinary tract infection in female children under the age of 36 months?
Yu Bin Kim, Chih Lung Tang, Ja Wook Koo
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(1):17-23.   Published online January 22, 2018
Purpose

To determine the relationship between vaginal reflux (VR) and urinary tract infection (UTI) in female children aged <36 months.

Methods

A single center retrospective study was performed for 191 girls aged <36 months, with a diagnosis of febrile UTI, who underwent a voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) for assessment of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) at Sanggye Paik Hospital. Fifty-one girls, who underwent VCUG for assessment...

Gastroenterology
Dietary habits and gastroesophageal reflux disease in preschool children
You Jin Choi, Eun Kyo Ha, Su Jin Jeong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2016;59(7):303-307.   Published online July 31, 2016
Purpose

To identify the relationship between dietary habits and childhood gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in preschool children.

Methods

We performed a questionnaire study to analyze the relationship between dietary habits and GERD in 85 preschool children with GERD and 117 healthy children of the same age.

Results

Irregular and picky eating were more p–revalent in the GERD group than in the control group (odds ratio...

Efficacy of proton pump inhibitors and H2 blocker in the treatment of symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux disease in infants
Hamid Reza Azizollahi, Mandana Rafeey
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2016;59(5):226-230.   Published online May 31, 2016
Purpose

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) occurs in pediatric patients when reflux of gastric contents presents with troublesome symptoms. The present study compared the effects of omeprazole and ranitidine for the treatment of symptomatic GERD in infants of 2-12 months.

Methods

This study was a clinical randomized double-blind trial and parallel-group comparison of omeprazole and ranitidine performed at Children Training Hospital in Tabriz, Iran....

Nephrology (Genitourinary)
Usefulness of neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio in young children with febrile urinary tract infection
Song Yi Han, I Re Lee, Se Jin Park, Ji Hong Kim, Jae Il Shin
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2016;59(3):139-144.   Published online March 31, 2016
Purpose

Acute pyelonephritis (APN) is a serious bacterial infection that can cause renal scarring in children. Early identification of APN is critical to improve treatment outcomes. The neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a prognostic marker of many diseases, but it has not yet been established in urinary tract infection (UTI). The aim of this study was to determine whether NLR is a...

Evaluation of new American Academy of Pediatrics guideline for febrile urinary tract infection
Da Min Choi, Tae Hoon Heo, Hyung Eun Yim, Kee Hwan Yoo
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2015;58(9):341-346.   Published online September 21, 2015
Purpose

To evaluate the practical applications of the diagnosis algorithms recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics urinary tract infection (UTI) guideline.

Methods

We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of febrile UTI patients aged between 2 and 24 months. The patients were divided into 3 groups: group I (patients with positive urine culture and urinalysis findings), group II (those with positive urine culture...

Review Article
Endoscopic treatment of vesicoureteral reflux in pediatric patients
Jong Wook Kim, Mi Mi Oh
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2013;56(4):145-150.   Published online April 22, 2013

Endoscopic treatment is a minimally invasive treatment for managing patients with vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). Although several bulking agents have been used for endoscopic treatment, dextranomer/hyaluronic acid is the only bulking agent currently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for treating VUR. Endoscopic treatment of VUR has gained great popularity owing to several obvious benefits, including short operative time,...

Renal scar formation after urinary tract infection in children
Young Seo Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2012;55(10):367-370.   Published online October 29, 2012

Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common bacterial illness in children. Acute pyelonephritis in children may lead to renal scarring with the risk of later hypertension, preeclampsia during pregnancy, proteinuria, and renal insufficiency. Until now, vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) has been considered the most important risk factor for post-UTI renal scar formation in children. VUR predisposes children with UTI to pyelonephritis,...

Original Article
Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy in children
Jye Hae Park, SeonKyeong Rhie, Su Jin Jeong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2011;54(1):17-21.   Published online January 31, 2011
Purpose

Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) can improve nutritional status and reduce the amount of time needed to feed neurologically impaired children. We evaluated the characteristics, complications, and outcomes of neurologically impaired children treated with PEG.

Methods

We retrospectively reviewed the records of 32 neurologically impaired children who underwent PEG between March 2002 and August 2008 at our medical center. Forty-two PEG procedures comprising...

The relationships between clinical variables and renal parenchymal disease in pediatric clinically suspected urinary tract infection
Jung Lim Byun, Sang Taek Lee, Sochung Chung, Kyo Sun Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2010;53(2):222-227.   Published online February 15, 2010
Purpose : To evaluate the significance of clinical signs and laboratory findings as predictors of renal parenchymal lesions and vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in childhood urinary tract infection (UTI). Methods : From July 2005 to July 2008, 180 patients admitted with a first febrile UTI at the Pediatric Department of Konkuk University Hospital were included in this study. The following were...
Case Report
A case of acute respiratory distress syndrome associated with congenital H-type tracheoesophageal fistula and gastroesophageal reflux
Heewon Chueh, Myo Jing Kim, Jin-A Jung
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2008;51(8):892-895.   Published online August 15, 2008
H-type tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) is extremely rare in infants and children, and clinical manifestations of this condition are diverse based on its severity. Some cases of congenital TEF diagnosed in adulthood have been reported, which indicate the difficulty of early diagnosis of this disease. Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) may induce chronic aspiration, pulmonary aspiration, apparent life-threatening events, and failure to thrive....
A case of congenital vallecular cyst associated with gastroesophageal reflux presenting with stridor, feeding cyanosis, and failure to thrive
Mi Ae Yang, Min Jae Kang, Jeana Hong, Seung Han Shin, Sang Duk Kim, Ee-Kyung Kim, Han-Suk Kim, Jung-Hwan Choi, Tack Kyun Kwon, In-One Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2008;51(7):775-779.   Published online July 15, 2008
Vallecular cyst is an uncommon but potentially dangerous condition causing stridor and has been associated with sudden airway obstruction resulting in death due to its anatomical location in neonates. It may also present with various degrees of feeding problems resulting in failure to thrive. When a vallecular cyst is suspected clinically, endoscopic laryngoscopy is necessary to visualize it. Other conditions...
Original Article
The Occurrence of Renal Scarring in Children with nilateral Vesicoureteral Reflux
Tae Ho Lee, Mi Ran Son, Soon Ok Byun, Jung Woong Moon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2005;48(9):998-1003.   Published online September 15, 2005
Purpose : We evaluated the occurrence of renal scarring in children with unilateral vesicoureteral reflux(VUR), and the relationships between renal scar formation and risk factors such as VUR, duration of fever, acute-phase reactant, age, and sex. Methods : We retrospectively analyzed the data of 35 children newly diagnosed with unilateral vesicoureteral reflux after urinary tract infection(UTI) in Wallace Memorial Baptist...
Case Report
A Case of Sandifer Syndrome
Mira Lee, Soo Hyun Kim, Yong Joo Kim, In Joon Seol
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2003;46(10):1036-1039.   Published online October 15, 2003
Sandifer syndrome is a rare manifestation of gastroesophageal reflux in children, occurring in association with abnormal movement of the head and neck and recurrent episodes of seizure after feeding. This syndrome may be misdiagnosed as infantile seizure and musculoskeletal disorder and may be associated with failure to thrive, anemia, aspiration pneumonia, and esophagitis. In this paper, Sandifer syndrome in a...
Original Article
Urinary Excretion of Various Urinary Proteins in Children with Vesicoureteral Reflux
Da Eun Jung, Ja Wook Koo
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2003;46(10):977-982.   Published online October 15, 2003
Purpose : This study aimed to examine the excretion of various urinary proteins in children with a history of urinary tract infection(UTI), with or without vesicoureteral reflux(VUR) or reflux nephropathy, and to identify means of predicting the severity of VUR or the presence of reflux nephropathy as indicated by these markers, and to know how these markers are changed after...
Incidence of Vesicoureteral Reflux in Asymptomatic Siblings of Patients with Reflux
Jong Shik Kim, Ja Wook Koo
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2002;45(12):1540-1545.   Published online December 15, 2002
Purpose : Vesicoureteral reflux(VUR) is defined as a retrograde flow of urine from the bladder into the upper urinary tract. It has been shown to predispose patients to hypertension, renal scarring, and end-stage renal failure if not recognized and treated. The observation that VUR occurs in siblings of children with reflux at a significantly higher rate than the general pediatric...
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