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Original Article
General Pediatrics
Effect of 2–6 weeks of systemic steroids on bone mineral density in children
Athira Kuniyil, Somdipa Pal, Namrita Sachdev, Tribhuvan Pal Yadav
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(5):254-261.   Published online November 18, 2021
Question: Does steroid use for 2–6 weeks in children affect bone mineral content (BMC) or density (BMD)?
Finding: Steroid use for 2–6 weeks significantly decreased BMC and BMD of the whole body, total body less the head, lumbar spine, and distal radius. A significant negative correlation was observed among BMD, duration, and cumulative dose.
Meaning: Steroid use for 2–6 weeks in children negatively affected BMC and BMD.
Review Article
Immunology
Immunopathogenesis of COVID-19 and early immunomodulators
Kyung-Yil Lee, Jung-Woo Rhim, Jin-Han Kang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(7):239-250.   Published online June 18, 2020
The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is spreading globally. Although its etiologic agent is discovered as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), there are many unsolved issues in COVID-19 and other infectious diseases. The causes of different clinical phenotypes and incubation periods among individuals, species specificity, and cytokine storm with lymphopenia as well as the mechanism of damage to organ...
Case Report
Nephrology (Genitourinary)
Successful treatment of tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis with steroid and azathioprine in a 12-year-old boy
Ji Eun Kim, Se Jin Park, Ji Young Oh, Hyeon Joo Jeong, Ji Hong Kim, Jae Il Shin
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2016;59(Suppl 1):S99-S102.   Published online November 30, 2016

Tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis (TINU) syndrome is a rare disease, often underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed in children. We describe the case of a 12-year-old boy who presented to Severance Hospital with a 1-month history of bilateral conjunctival injection. He was first evaluated by an Ophthalmologist in another hospital and diagnosed with panuveitis. Laboratory tests indicated renal failure, and a renal biopsy...

Original Article
High degree of supervision improves adherence to inhaled corticosteroids in children with asthma
Geun Mi Park, Hye Won Han, Hee Se Kim, Jae Youn Kim, Eun Lee, Hyun-Ju Cho, Song-I Yang, Young-Ho Jung, Soo-Jong Hong, Hyung Young Kim, Ju-Hee Seo, Jinho Yu
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2015;58(12):472-477.   Published online December 22, 2015
Purpose

Adherence to treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) is a critical determinant of asthma control. The objective of this study was to assess factors that determine adherence to ICS therapy in children with asthma.

Methods

Fifty-eight children with asthma, aged 5 to 16 years, used ICS with or without a spacer for 3 months. Adherence rates as measured from questionnaires and canisters, asthma...

Initial steroid regimen in idiopathic nephrotic syndrome can be shortened based on duration to first remission
Hee Sun Baek, Ki-Soo Park, Hee Gyung Kang, Cheol Woo Ko, Min Hyun Cho
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2015;58(6):206-210.   Published online June 22, 2015
Purpose

The use of a 12-week steroid regimen (long-term therapy, LT) for the first episode of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (NS) reportedly induces a more sustained remission and lower relapse rate than previous regimens, including an 8-week steroid regimen (short-term therapy, ST). Here, we assessed the potential for selective application of 2 steroid regimens (LT vs. ST) based on the days to...

Case Report
Pulmonary hemorrhage in pediatric lupus anticoagulant hypoprothrombinemia syndrome
Ji Soo Kim, Min Jae Kim, E Young Bae, Dae Chul Jeong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2014;57(4):202-205.   Published online April 30, 2014

Lupus anticoagulant-hypoprothrombinemia syndrome (LAHPS), a very rare disease that is caused by the presence of antifactor II antibodies, is usually counterbalanced by the prothrombotic effect of lupus anticoagulant (LAC). Patients with LAHPS are treated using fresh frozen plasma, steroids, immunosuppressive agents, and immunoglobulins for managing the disease and controlling hemorrhages. Notably, steroids are the important treatment for treating hypoprothrombinemia and...

Original Article
Fractional exhaled nitric oxide and forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of vital capacity in children with controlled asthma
Ji-Yong Yoon, Sung-Il Woo, Heon Kim, Yong-Han Sun, Youn-Soo Hahn
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2012;55(9):330-336.   Published online September 14, 2012
Purpose

Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of vital capacity (FEF25-75) are not included in routine monitoring of asthma control. We observed changes in FeNO level and FEF25-75 after FeNO-based treatment with inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) in children with controlled asthma (CA).

Methods

We recruited 148 children with asthma (age, 8 to 16 years) who had maintained...

Review Article
Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia in children
You-Sook Youn, Kyung-Yil Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2012;55(2):42-47.   Published online February 14, 2012

Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP), the smallest self-replicating biological system, is a common cause of upper and lower respiratory tract infections, leading to a wide range of pulmonary and extra-pulmonary manifestations. MP pneumonia has been reported in 10 to 40% of cases of community-acquired pneumonia and shows an even higher proportion during epidemics. MP infection is endemic in larger communities of the...

Original Article
The role of inhaled and/or nasal corticosteroids on the bronchodilator response
Ju Kyung Lee, Dong In Suh, Young Yull Koh
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2010;53(11):951-956.   Published online November 30, 2010
Purpose

To compare the profiles of the bronchodilator response (BDR) among children with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis (AR) and to determine whether BDR in these children is reduced by treatment with inhaled and/or nasal corticosteroid.

Methods

Sixty-eight children with asthma (mean age, 10.9 years), 45 children with comorbid asthma and AR (mean age, 10.5 years), and 44 children with AR alone (mean age,...

Case Report
A case of adolescent Kawasaki disease with Epstein-Barr virus-associated infectious mononucleosis complicated by splenic infarction
Byeong Sam Choi, Bo Sang Kwon, Gi Beom Kim, Yoon Kyung Jeon, Jung-Eun Cheon, Eun Jung Bae, Chung Il Noh, Jung Yun Choi, Yong Soo Yun
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2009;52(9):1029-1034.   Published online September 15, 2009
Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute systemic vasculitis of unknown etiology that affects children. There are few reports that describe the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) as the possible infectious agent of KD. Here, we describe a case of KD in a 15- year-old boy complicated with giant coronary artery aneurysms, pericardial effusion, and splenic infarction. The clinical course of KD was...
Original Article
Effects of inhaled corticosteroids on bone mineral density and bone metabolism in children with asthma
Ic Sun Choi, Jung Hye Byeon, Seung Min Lee, Kyong Suk La, Yeon Joung Oh, Young Yoo, Kee Hyoung Lee, Ji Tae Choung
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2009;52(7):811-817.   Published online July 15, 2009
Purpose : Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are used as first-line agents for the treatment of persistent asthma; however, their use is accompanied by apprehension of potential systemic adverse effects. This study aimed to assess the effects of ICS on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone metabolism in children with asthma. Methods : From February 2008 to September 2008, 26 asthmatic children treated...
Review Article
Atopic dermatitis
Bok Yang Pyun
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2006;49(6):589-592.   Published online June 15, 2006
Atopic dermatitis is estimated to affect 15-20% of the childhood population and there id considerable evidence that the prevalence is increasing. But it is frequently under diagnosed and inappropriately treated yet. Atopic dermatitis can have a large social;. emotional and financial effect on the child and their family. Atopic dermatitis also commonly predated the development of asthma and allergic rhinitis....
Original Article
Association between the Human Surfactant Protein-A(SP-A) Gene Locus and Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Korean Neonates
Jae Hoon Choe, Myung Ho Oh, Jung Ho Ko, Sun Young Kim, In Kyu Lee, Chong Woo Bae
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2004;47(7):735-739.   Published online July 15, 2004
Purpose : Respiratory distress syndrome(RDS) is caused by a deficiency of pulmonary surfactant, which is a lipoprotein complex. Both low levels of surfactant protein A(SP-A) and SP-A alleles have been associated with RDS. However, the genes underlying susceptibility to RDS are insufficiently known. The candidate-gene approach was used to study the association between the SP-A gene locus and RDS in...
Case Report
Fatal Doudenal Ulcer Bleeding in Status Asthmaticus Treated with Theophylline and Steroids
Sang Woo Lee, Chang Keun Kim, Churl Young Chung, Young Doug Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1998;41(4):548-552.   Published online April 15, 1998
It is generally agreed that theophylline preparations and steroids should be given intravenously for status asthmaticus. Theophylline can potentially have adverse gastrointestinal effects including abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and hematemesis. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients treated with corticosteroids without a past history of upper gastrointestinal bleeding has been reported rarely. But the etiologic significance of the stress of status asthmaticus, administration of theophylline or corticosteroids...
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