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Original Article
General Pediatrics
Risk factors for childhood pneumonia: a case-control study in a high prevalence area in Indonesia
Vivi Ninda Sutriana, Mei Neni Sitaresmi, Abdul Wahab
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(11):588-595.   Published online March 15, 2021
Question: Is the incidence of childhood pneumonia influenced by breastfeeding and basic immunization status?
Finding: Exclusive breastfeeding and complete basic immunization status have an effect in limiting the incidence of childhood pneumonia.
Meaning: While exclusive breastfeeding and complete basic immunization the Expanded Program on Immunization status are important factors for reducing the incidence of childhood pneumonia, indoor air pollution was also a significant risk factor.
Review Article
Infection
Consideration in treatment decisions for refractory Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia
Hye-Kyung Cho
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(9):459-467.   Published online February 10, 2021
• To avoid unnecessary exposure to secondary antibiotics, it is needed to diagnose Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) pneumonia carefully, especially when unresponsiveness to macrolide is suspected.
• Serologic and molecular tests for MP infection and excluding respiratory infection caused by other pathogens might be considered.
• It is necessary to continuously monitor antibiotic susceptibility of MP, and efforts to lower antibiotic pressure are required.
Pulmonology
Current perspectives on atypical pneumonia in children
Jung Yeon Shim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(12):469-476.   Published online June 10, 2020
Macrolides are the first line treatment in atypical pneumonia caused by M. pneumoniae, C. pneumoniae, and L. pneumophila. Macrolide-resistant mycoplasma pneumonia (MRMP) is emerging worldwide, especially in East Asia. Immune modulators such as corticosteroids or second line antibiotics are treatment options for MRMP. Pediatricians should be careful with empirical therapy of macrolides in children with mild to moderate community-acquired pneumonia not to increase the risk of MRMP.
Original Article
Immunology
Immunogenicity and safety of a 12-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in infants aged 6–10 weeks: a randomized double-blind active-controlled trial
Jonghoon Shin, Jamaree Teeratakulpisarn, Thanyawee Puthanakit, Tuangtip Theerawit, Ji Hwa Ryu, Jinhwan Shin, Seulgi Lee, Hayoung Lee, Kyungjun An, Hun Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(7):265-271.   Published online December 6, 2019
Question: The immunogenicity and safety of GBP411 when administered to healthy infants are not understood.
Finding: The intergroup differences were not significant for all 12 serotypes after the booster dose. The overall incidence of solicited local adverse events between the groups did not differ significantly.
Meaning: GBP411 with a 2p+1 dosing schedule induced a substantial immune response, and may be safe for administration to healthy infants.
Review Article
Pulmonology
Benefits and risks of therapeutic alternatives for macrolide resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia in children
Hyeon-Jong Yang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2019;62(6):199-205.   Published online March 15, 2019
Although Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP) has been generally susceptible to macrolides, the emergence of macrolide-resistant MPP (MRMP) has made its treatment challenging. MRMP rapidly spread after the 2000s, especially in East Asia. MRMP is more common in children and adolescents than in adults, which is likely related to the frequent use of macrolides for treating M. pneumoniae infections in children....
Original Article
Pulmonology
The changes of prevalence and etiology of pediatric pneumonia from National Emergency Department Information System in Korea, between 2007 and 2014
Eun Ju Shin, Yunsun Kim, Jin-Young Jeong, Yu Mi Jung, Mi-Hee Lee, Eun Hee Chung
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(9):291-300.   Published online September 15, 2018

Purpose: Understanding changes in pathogen and pneumonia prevalence among pediatric pneumonia patients is important for the prevention of infectious diseases. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed data of children younger than 18 years diagnosed with pneumonia at 117 Emergency Departments in Korea between 2007 and 2014. Results: Over the study period, 329,380 pediatric cases of pneumonia were identified. The most frequent age group was...
Increased procalcitonin level is a risk factor for prolonged fever in children with Mycoplasma pneumonia
Ji Eun Jeong, Ji Eun Soh, Ji Hee Kwak, Hye Lim Jung, Jae Won Shim, Deok Soo Kim, Moon Soo Park, Jung Yeon Shim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(8):258-263.   Published online August 15, 2018

Purpose: Macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP) is characterized by prolonged fever and radiological progression despite macrolide treatment. Few studies have examined serum procalcitonin (PCT) level in children with MPP. We aimed to investigate the association of acute inflammation markers including PCT with clinical parameters in children with MPP. Methods: A total of 147 children were recruited. The diagnosis of MPP...
Review Article
Pulmonology
Mechanism of resistance acquisition and treatment of macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia in children
Hyeon-Jong Yang, Dae Jin Song, Jung Yeon Shim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2017;60(6):167-174.   Published online June 22, 2017

Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP) is one of the most common forms of community-acquired pneumonia in children and adolescents. Outbreaks of MPP occur in 3- to 7-year cycles worldwide; recent epidemics in Korea occurred in 2006–2007, 2011, and 2015–2016. Although MPP is known to be a mild, self-limiting disease with a good response to macrolides, it can also progress into a...

Original Article
Pulmonology
Prevalence and clinical manifestations of macrolide resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia in Korean children
Eun Lee, Hyun-Ju Cho, Soo-Jong Hong, Jina Lee, Heungsup Sung, Jinho Yu
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2017;60(5):151-157.   Published online May 31, 2017
Purpose

Macrolide resistance rate of Mycoplasma pneumoniae has rapidly increased in children. Studies on the clinical features between macrolide susceptible-M. pneumoniae (MSMP) and macrolide resistant-M. pneumoniae (MRMP) are lacking. The aim of this study was to identify the macrolide resistance rate of M. pneumoniae in Korean children with M. pneumoniae penupmonia in 2015 and compare manifestations between MSMP and MRMP.

Methods

Among 122...

Case Report
Genetics and Metabolism
A rare case of Sjogren-Larsson syndrome with recurrent pneumonia and asthma
Azita Tavasoli, Shirin Sayyahfar, Babak Behnam
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2016;59(6):276-279.   Published online June 30, 2016

Sjogren-Larsson syndrome (SLS) is a rare autosomal recessive neurocutaneous disorder with worldwide incidence of 0.4 per 100,000 people. It is characterized by the triad of congenital ichthyosis, spastic diplegia or quadriplegia, and mental retardation. Herein we report a 2-year-old male child with SLS, asthma, and recurrent pneumonia. SLS was confirmed by a molecular genetics study that revealed a deletion mutation...

Original Article
Infection
Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in pediatric patients: an analysis of 15 confirmed consecutive cases during 14 years
Kyung-Ran Kim, Jong Min Kim, Ji-Man Kang, Yae-Jean Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2016;59(6):252-255.   Published online June 30, 2016
Purpose

Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia occurs in various immunocompromised patients. Despite the prophylaxis strategies in clinical practice, certain patients develop P. jirovecii pneumonia. This study was performed to investigate pediatric cases with P. jirovecii pneumonia in a single center.

Methods

We identified pediatric patients younger than 19 years with microbiologically confirmed P. jirovecii pneumonia from January 2000 to February 2014. A retrospective chart review...

Case Report
Neurology
Complete occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery associated with Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia
Ben Kang, Dong Hyun Kim, Young Jin Hong, Byong Kwan Son, Myung Kwan Lim, Yon Ho Choe, Young Se Kwon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2016;59(3):149-152.   Published online March 31, 2016

We report a case of a 5-year-old girl who developed left hemiparesis and left facial palsy, 6 days after the initiation of fever and respiratory symptoms due to pneumonia. Chest radiography, conducted upon admission, showed pneumonic infiltration and pleural effusion in the left lung field. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed acute ischemic infarction in the right middle cerebral artery territory....

Original Article
Emergency Medicine
A nationwide study of children and adolescents with pneumonia who visited Emergency Department in South Korea in 2012
Chang Hyu Lee, Youn Kyoung Won, Eui-Jung Roh, Dong In Suh, Eun Hee Chung
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2016;59(3):132-138.   Published online March 31, 2016
Purpose

Acute respiratory infection, particularly pneumonia, is the most common cause of hospitalization and death among children in developing nations. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of children and adolescents with pneumonia who visited Emergency Department (ED) in South Korea in 2012.

Methods

We analyzed National Emergency Department Information System (NEDIS) records from 146 EDs in South Korea for all pediatric patients...

Case Report
The first pediatric case of tularemia in Korea: manifested with pneumonia and possible infective endocarditis
Jung Sook Yeom, Kyuyol Rhie, Ji Sook Park, Ji-Hyun Seo, Eun Sil Park, Jae-Young Lim, Chan-Hoo Park, Hyang-Ok Woo, Hee-Shang Youn
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2015;58(10):398-401.   Published online October 21, 2015

Tularemia is a potentially severe zoonotic disease caused by Francisella tularensis. A lack of awareness about tularemia can be embarrassing and could result in delayed treatment because of improper diagnosis. The diagnosis of tularemia is difficult, because the infections are rare and the clinical spectrum is broad. As only 1 adult case has been reported in Korea thus far, pediatricians...

Original Article
Hepatitis associated with Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection in Korean children: a prospective study
Kyu Won Kim, Jae Jin Sung, Hann Tchah, Eell Ryoo, Hye Kyung Cho, Yong Han Sun, Kang Ho Cho, Dong Woo Son, In Sang Jeon, Yun Mi Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2015;58(6):211-217.   Published online June 22, 2015
Purpose

Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) infection is a major cause of respiratory infection in school-aged children. Extrapulmonary manifestations of MP infection are common, but liver involvement has been rarely reported. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical characteristics of MP-associated hepatitis.

Methods

This prospective study included 1,044 pediatric patients with MP infection diagnosed serologically with MP IgM at one medical center...

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