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Review Article
Hematology
Iron deficiency in children with a focus on inflammatory conditions
Na Hee Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2024;67(6):283-293.   Published online May 21, 2024
· Iron deficiency has important effects on neurodevelopment and the immune system in children.
· Hepcidine plays an important role in iron homeostasis.
· Diagnosis and treatment of iron deficiency in chronic inflammatory disease are important for patients' quality of life and disease course.
Other
Children’s health affected by parent’s behavioral characteristics: a review
Sung Eun Kim, Jongin Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2024;67(5):232-239.   Published online August 21, 2023
· Parents’ occupational hazards, long working hours, and smoking behaviors should be modified adequately to minimize adverse health effects on their children.
· As of 2023, several diseases from fetal exposure to occupational hazards can be compensated with Industrial Accident Compensation Insurance in South Korea.
· A directed acyclic graph is recommended for medical research to control the effects of parents’ behaviors on children’s health.
Infection
The COVID-19 pandemic: an unprecedented tragedy in the battle against childhood obesity
Maximilian Andreas Storz
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(12):477-482.   Published online November 5, 2020
Large-scale quarantine and home confinement during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic will impose new and unfamiliar stressors on children, thereby worsening the childhood obesity epidemic. Physical, nutritional, and psychosocial factors that promote obesity in children during this special situation complementarily contribute to an unprecedented obesogenic environment. Involved stakeholders, including governments, schools, and families, must make all efforts to minimize the impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on childhood obesity.
Original Article
Cardiology
Iron deficiency anemia as a predictor of coronary artery abnormalities in Kawasaki disease
Sohyun Kim, Lucy Youngmin Eun
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2019;62(8):301-306.   Published online February 8, 2019

Purpose: Coronary artery abnormalities (CAA) are the most important complications of Kawasaki disease (KD). Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is a prevalent micronutrient deficiency and its association with KD remains unknown. We hypothesized that presence of IDA could be a predictor of CAA. Methods: This retrospective study included 173 KD patients, divided into 2 groups according to absence (group 1) and presence...
Gastroenterology
The role of Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 for the absorption of iron preparations in children with iron deficiency anemia
Jeanette Manoppo, Hilda Tasiringan, Audrey Wahani, Adrian Umboh, Max Mantik
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2019;62(5):173-178.   Published online January 25, 2019

Purpose: To determine whether Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 plays a role in absorption of iron preparations given to children with iron deficiency anemia (IDA). Methods: We performed a quasi-experimental study involving pre- and postintervention tests using a control group in North Sulawesi province, Indonesia, between July and September 2017. We conducted a single-blind controlled trial that included primary school children who...
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Iron status in small for gestational age and appropriate for gestational age infants at birth
Hyeon A Kim, Sook-Hyun Park, Eun Joo Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2019;62(3):102-107.   Published online October 24, 2018

Purpose: This study compared the iron statuses of small for gestational age (SGA) and appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants at birth. Methods: The clinical data of 904 newborn infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit were reviewed. Blood samples were drawn from the infants within 24 hours after birth. Serum ferritin level was used as a marker of total...
Review Article
Psychiatric / Psychology
The opportunities of virtual reality in the rehabilitation of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a literature review
Azadeh Bashiri, Marjan Ghazisaeedi, Leila Shahmoradi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2017;60(11):337-343.   Published online November 27, 2017

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in childhood. This disorder, in addition to its main symptoms, creates significant difficulties in education, social performance, and personal relationships. Given the importance of rehabilitation for these patients to combat the above issues, the use of virtual reality (VR) technology is helpful. The aim of this study...

Original Article
Iron and vitamin D status in breastfed infants and their mothers
Yu Sun Kang, Joon Hwan Kim, Eun Hee Ahn, Eun-Gyong Yoo, Moon Kyu Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2015;58(8):283-287.   Published online August 21, 2015
Purpose

We assessed the relationships between iron and vitamin D statuses in breastfed infants and their mothers and evaluated the determinants of iron and vitamin D deficiencies in breastfed infants.

Methods

Seventy breastfed infants aged 4-24 months and their mothers participated in this study from February 2012 to May 2013. Complete blood counts, total iron binding capacity, and levels of C-reactive protein, iron,...

The usefulness of soluble transferrin receptor in the diagnosis and treatment of iron deficiency anemia in children
Se Hoon Yoon, Dong Sup Kim, Seung Taek Yu, Sae Ron Shin, Du Young Choi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2015;58(1):15-19.   Published online January 31, 2015
Purpose

Soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) is a truncated extracellular form of the membrane transferrin receptor produced by proteolysis. Concentrations of serum sTfR are related to iron status and erythropoiesis in the body. We investigated whether serum sTfR levels can aid in diagnosis and treatment of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in children.

Methods

Ninety-eight patients with IDA were enrolled and were classified according to...

Review Article
Iron deficiency increases blood concentrations of neurotoxic metals in children
Yangho Kim, Sangkyu Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2014;57(8):345-350.   Published online August 25, 2014

Iron deficiency affects approximately one-third of the world's population, occurring most frequently in children aged 6 months to 3 years. Mechanisms of iron absorption are similar to those of other divalent metals, particularly manganese, lead, and cadmium, and a diet deficient in iron can lead to excess absorption of manganese, lead, and cadmium. Iron deficiency may lead to cognitive impairments...

Original Article
Prevalence and risk factors for vitamin D deficiency in children with iron deficiency anemia
Jung Won Yoon, Sung Woo Kim, Eun Gyong Yoo, Moon Kyu Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2012;55(6):206-211.   Published online June 21, 2012
Purpose

The increasing prevalence of breast feeding has led to concerns about vitamin D deficiency (VDD) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in children. We evaluated the prevalence of VDD in a population of Korean children with IDA and assessed the risk factors for VDD in these children.

Methods

A total of 79 children who were diagnosed with IDA were prospectively surveyed from April...

Clinical characteristics and prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in children less than two years of age
Ji Hyun Yoon, Cheong Soo Park, Ji Young Seo, Yun Sun Choi, Young Min Ahn
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2011;54(7):298-303.   Published online July 31, 2011
Purpose

To evaluate the clinical characteristics of vitamin D deficiency and its association with iron deficiency anemia (IDA).

Methods

A total of 171 children aged less than two years underwent 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 tests between January 2007 and July 2009. The study was classified into two groups: normal and vitamin D insufficiency, by their vitamin 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels.

Results

In total, 120 children were in the...

Review Article
Nutritional management of breastfeeding infants for the prevention of common nutrient deficiencies and excesses
Jin Soo Moon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2011;54(7):282-286.   Published online July 31, 2011

Breastfeeding is the best source of nutrition for every infant, and exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months is usually optimal in the common clinical situation. However, inappropriate complementary feeding could lead to a nutrient-deficient status, such as iron deficiency anemia, vitamin D deficiency, and growth faltering. The recent epidemic outbreak of obesity in Korean children emphasizes the need for us to...

Case Report
A case of anemia caused by combined vitamin B12 and iron deficiency manifesting as short stature and delayed puberty
Seung Min Song, Keun Wook Bae, Hoi-Soo Yoon, Ho Joon Im, Jong-Jin Seo
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2010;53(5):661-665.   Published online May 31, 2010

Anemia caused by vitamin B12 deficiency resulting from inadequate dietary intake is rare in children in the modern era because of improvements in nutritional status. However, such anemia can be caused by decreased ingestion or impaired absorption and/or utilization of vitamin B12. We report the case of an 18-year-old man with short stature, prepubertal sexual maturation, exertional dyspnea, and severe...

Original Article
Relationship between iron deficiency anemia and febrile convulsion in infants
Youn Soo Jun, Ho Il Bang, Seung Taek Yu, Sae Ron Shin, Du Young Choi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2010;53(3):392-396.   Published online March 15, 2010
Purpose : The association between iron deficiency anemia and febrile convulsion in infants has been examined in several studies with conflicting results. Therefore, the authors aimed to evaluate the precise relationship involved. Methods : In this case-control study, the authors assessed 100 children with a diagnosis of febrile convulsion, aged between 9 months and 2 years, during January 2007 to...
Review Article
Environmental tobacco smoke and childhood asthma
Dae Jin Song
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2010;53(2):121-128.   Published online February 15, 2010
In recent years, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has become an important worldwide public health issue. Children are particularly vulnerable to ETS because they are still developing. ETS exposure causes a wide range of adverse health effects on childhood asthma. There is convincing evidence that ETS exposure is causally associated with an increased prevalence of asthma, increased severity of asthma and...
Case Report
Perianastomotic ulceration presenting with long-term iron deficiency anemia and growth failure: A case report and review of the literature
Kyung Ji Kang, Eun Ha Kim, Eun Young Jung, Woo-Hyun Park, Yu-Na Kang, Ae Suk Kim, Jin-Bok Hwang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2010;53(1):89-92.   Published online January 15, 2010
Perianastomotic ulceration (PAU) rarely occurs after small bowel resection in infancy. Since the understanding of its pathogenesis is incomplete, an effective method of treatment has not yet been discovered. We report the first case in Korea of a 10-year-old girl with chronic iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and growth failure who was diagnosed with PAU at colonoscopy. Seven years were required...
Original Article
Relationship between Helicobacter pylori infection and iron-deficiency anemia in infants and children
Meong Hi Son, Jung Suk Yeom, Ji Suk Park, Eun Sil Park, Ji Hyun Seo, Jae Young Lim, Chan Hoo Park, Hyang Ok Woo, Hee Shang Youn
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2009;52(5):544-548.   Published online May 15, 2009
Purpose : To elucidate a potential association between Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection and iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) in infants and children in terms of the other factors related to iron utilization and storage although the association of ferritin was previously studied. Methods : We evaluated 135 infants (aged 6-24 months) admitted at Gyeongsang National University Hospital from 2000 to 2006. Western blot...
Weaning food practice in children with iron deficiency anemia
Joo Hee Chang, Woo Sik Cheong, Yong Hoon Jun, Soon Ki Kim, Hung Sik Kim, Sang Kyu Park, Kyung Ha Ryu, Eun Sun Yoo, Chuhl Joo Lyu, Kun soo Lee, Kwang Chul Lee, Jae Young Lim, Du Young Choi, Byung Kyu Choe, Eun Jin Choi, Bong Soon Choi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2009;52(2):159-166.   Published online February 15, 2009
Purpose : Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is one of the most common nutritional deficiencies in children on a weaning diet. We investigated weaning practices in infants and children, as well as their mothers' knowledge about weaning. Methods : We investigated 129 children with IDA and 166 without IDA (aged 6-36 months) who had visited 10 university hospitals between March 2006...
The effect of erythropoietin in neonatal rat model of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury
Heng-Mi Kim, Byung-Ho Choe, Soon-Hak Kwon, Yoon-Kyung Sohn
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2009;52(1):105-110.   Published online January 15, 2009
Purpose : Perinatal asphyxia is an important cause of neonatal mortality and subsequent lifelong neurodevelopmental handicaps. Although many treatment strategies have been tested, there is currently no clinically effective treatment to prevent or reduce the harmful effects of hypoxia and ischemia in humans. Erythropoietin (Epo) has been shown to exert neuroprotective effects in various brain injury models although the exact...
Case Report
A case of restless legs syndrome in a child presenting with growing pains
Dong Soon Kim, Hong Beom Shin, Young Min Ahn
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2008;51(11):1222-1227.   Published online November 15, 2008
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurological sleep disorder in adults characterized by the following diagnostic criteria: an urge to move that is usually associated with unpleasant sensations and symptoms that are worse at rest, relieved by movement, and most severe at night. The definite diagnosis of RLS in children is stricter and consists of self-description of leg discomfort...
Original Article
Reticulocyte hemoglobin content for the diagnosis of iron deficiency in young children with acute infection
Jon Soo Kim, Jun Seok Choi, Doo Young Choi, Chur Woo You
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2008;51(8):827-833.   Published online August 15, 2008
Purpose : Early identification of iron deficiency in young children is essential to prevent damaging long-term consequences. It is often difficult for the pediatrician to know which indices should be used when diagnosing these conditions especially in hospitalized young children. This study investigated the clinical significances of reticulocyte hemoglobin content in young children with acute infection. Methods : We studied...
A comparative study on iron deficiency anemia based on feeding patterns of nine-month-old infants
Hyun Jin Yun, Eun Jeong Choi, Eun Jin Choi, Su Young Hong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2008;51(8):820-826.   Published online August 15, 2008
Purpose : This study was conducted to evaluate the red cell indices and frequency of iron deficiency anemia based on the feeding patterns of nine-month-old infants. Methods : Blood tests were performed on 253 nine-month-old infants, who visited Il Sin Christian Hospital for health check- ups from January to December 2007. Their parents answered telephonic questions regarding their feeding patterns...
A study of mothers knowledge of weaning of infants with iron-deficiency anemia
Sung Jin Kim, Dong Hyun Kim, Joo Hee Chang, Yong Hun Jun, Young Jin Hong, Byong Kwan Son, Soon Ki Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2008;51(5):468-473.   Published online May 15, 2008
Purpose : Iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) is still one of the most common nutrient deficiency disorders, despite improvements in general health and nutrition. This study was designed to investigate the diagnostic values of hematological profiles, including the level of ferritin, and to evaluate the knowledge of mothers on weaning practices for infants and young children with IDA. Methods : This study...
The iron status and the relationship between iron deficiency and body mass index in middle school girls
Hee Youn Han, Chang Joo Hee, Hae Sun Shim, Young Jin Hong, Byong Kwan Son, Hwan Cheol Kim, Soon Ki Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2006;49(11):1174-1179.   Published online November 15, 2006
Purpose : Obesity and iron deficiency are common nutritional problems. Obese children are known to have iron deficiencies, but one presented opposite opinion in Korea. This study investigated the prevalence of obesity and iron deficiency in Incheon and the relationship between iron deficiency and obesity. Methods : Physical measurement and hematologic examinations were done a 764 healthy female students aged 14...
A study on cow's milk and nursing method in relation to iron deficiency
Ji Ung Kang, So Hee Jin, Kyung Dan Choi, Young Taek Jang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2006;49(2):144-149.   Published online February 15, 2006
Purpose : This study investigated the breast-feeding period, the milk bottle-using period, the age of cow's milk, introduced and the amount of cow's milk consumed in relation to anemia. Methods : Over the course of three years, 930 children(12 months to 36 months) who went to the Presbyterian Medical Center, Chonju, Korea were tested for anemia and their parents were surveyed...
Clinical Significance of Immature Reticulocyte Fraction and Reticulocyte Cellular Indices in Pediatric Anemia Patients
Young Seo, Hye Lim Jung, Jae Won Shim, Deok Su Kim, Jeong Yeon Shim, Moon Soo Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2005;48(3):284-291.   Published online March 15, 2005
Purpose : Flow cytometric automated reticulocyte analysis is a superior method to manual reticulocyte counting, with respect to precision and sensitivity. Furthermore, flow cytometric analysis is able to measure immature reticulocyte fraction(IRF) and reticulocyte cellular indices(RCI : cell hemoglobin content : CHr, mean cell volume : MCVr, cell hemoglobin concentration mean : CHCMr, distribytion width : RDWr, HDWr, CHDWr). In...
Clinical Lecture
Differential Diagnosis and Treatment of Anemia in Children
Young Tak Lim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2005;48(2):121-125.   Published online February 15, 2005
Anemia can be defined as a reduction in blood hemoglobin concentration or red cell mass relative to age matched normal values. Clinical presentation may range from obviously pale and lethargy to an incidental finding during screening of an otherwise well appearing child. The differential diagnosis of anemia in each instance is broad with numerous possible etiologies. A careful history and...
Original Article
Iron Deficiency Anemia and Iron Nutrition in Adolescent Female Athletes
Yang Kyong Kim, Bo Young Kang, Young Jin Hong, Byong Kwan Son, Kwang Hoi Kim, Soon Ki Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2004;47(10):1041-1046.   Published online October 15, 2004
Purpose : Iron deficiency, particularly iron deficiency anemia(IDA) often not only decreases athletic performance but also impairs immune function and leads to other physiologic dysfunctions. This study was designed to assess and compare iron status and the IDA prevalence in female adolescent athletes with those of general adolescent students. Methods : Physical measurements and hematologic examinations were performed for adolescent...
Nutritional Assessment and the Effectiveness of Dietary Counseling in Infants and Young Children with Iron Deficiency Anemia
Ja Kyoung Kim, Eun Young Ko, Yu Jin Lee, Yong Hun Jun, Soon Ki Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2003;46(1):11-16.   Published online January 15, 2003
Purpose : Iron deficiency is still the most common nutrient deficient disorder despite the improvement in general health and nutrition. This study is designed to evaluate the dietary history of infants and young children with iron deficiency anemia(IDA) and the effects of nutritional counseling. Methods : This study was conducted on 120 children from 6 to 36 months of age with...
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