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Review Article
Endocrinology
Pediatric hypertension based on Japanese Society of Hypertension Guidelines (JSH 2019) with actual school blood pressure screening data in Japan
Toru Kikuchi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(6):283-290.   Published online November 26, 2021
The prevalence of Japanese pediatric hypertension is 0.9% based on proper measurement protocols. Hypertensive children tend to be hypertensive adults. Pediatric essential hypertension is characterized by an absence of symptoms, obesity, a family history of hypertension, and a low birth weight. The most common causes of pediatric secondary hypertension are renal parenchymal and renovascular diseases. Important factors controlling pediatric hypertension include healthy lifestyle modifications and pharmacotherapy.
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Retinopathy of prematurity: a review of epidemiology and current treatment strategies
Eun Hee Hong, Yong Un Shin, Heeyoon Cho
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(3):115-126.   Published online October 12, 2021
There have been global tri-phasic epidemic periods of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). In recent years, its incidence has reportedly been 10%–40% depending on country and study population. Current treatment strategies for ROP include laser photocoagulation, surgical treatment, and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment, the role of which has drawn attention in recent years.
Growth patterns of preterm infants in Korea
Joohee Lim, So Jin Yoon, Soon Min Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(1):1-9.   Published online July 8, 2021
∙ The growth of preterm infants is a main focus of neonatology.
∙ Preterm infants in Korea, especially those with a very low birth weight, achieve retarded growth.
∙ Careful growth monitoring and early intervention will contribute to better development outcomes and quality of life for preterm infants and improve public health.
Nutrition
Changes in health status of North Korean children and emerging health challenges of North Korean refugee children
Seong-Woo Choi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(11):552-558.   Published online May 17, 2021
· Among North Korean refugee (NKR) children under 5 years, 61% and 9.3% were underweight in 1998 and 2017, respectively.
· The immunization rate of NKR children exceeded 90% since 2006.
· For NKR children, protein-energy malnutrition was the #1 cause of death in 2009 versus #17 in 2019.
· In 2020, stunting affected 5.4% and 0.9% and obesity affected 10.7% and 2.7% of NKR versus South Korean children, respectively.
Original Article
General Pediatrics
Effect of maternal and child factors on stunting: partial least squares structural equation modeling
Agus Santosa, Essa Novanda Arif, Dinal Abdul Ghoni
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(2):90-97.   Published online May 4, 2021
Question: What effects do maternal and child factors have on stunting? Are there significant indicators of stunting?
Finding: Child and maternal factors had 49.8% and 30.3% effects on stunting, respectively. The primary child factor was infant formula dose, while the primary maternal factor was nutritional status.
Meaning: More attention to nutritional status during pregnancy and ensuring the appropriate dose of infant formula at ages 6–24 months can prevent stunting.
Neonatology (Perinatology)
The relation between serum levels of epidermal growth factor and necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm neonates
Heba Mostafa Ahmed, Nsreen Mostafa Kamel
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2019;62(8):307-311.   Published online March 15, 2019

Purpose: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is one of the most serious complications of prematurity. Many risk factors can contribute to the development of NEC. The epidermal growth factor (EGF) plays a major role in intestinal barrier function, increases intestinal enzyme activity, and improves nutrient transport. The aim of this study was to assess the role of epidermal growth factor in the...
Endocrinology
Comparison of effectiveness of growth hormone therapy according to disease-causing genes in children with Noonan syndrome
Kyo Jin Jo, Yoo Mi Kim, Ju Young Yoon, Yeoun Joo Lee, Young Mi Han, Han-Wook Yoo, Hyang-Sook Kim, Chong Kun Cheon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2019;62(7):274-280.   Published online December 3, 2018

Purpose: To analyze the growth response to growth hormone (GH) therapy in prepubertal patients with Noonan syndrome (NS) harboring different genetic mutations. Methods: Twenty-three patients with prepubertal NS treated at Pusan National University Children’s Hospital between March 2009 and July 2017 were enrolled. According to the disease-causing genes identified, the patients with NS were divided into 4 groups. Three groups were...
Changes of the growth plate in children: 3-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging analysis
Hyung Ho Yun, Hyun-Jung Kim, Min-Sun Jeong, Yun-Sun Choi, Ji-Young Seo
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(7):226-230.   Published online July 15, 2018

Purpose: This pilot study assessed changes in the growth plate and growth rates in children during a 6-month period. Methods: The study included 31 healthy children (17 boys, 14 girls) under evaluation for growth retardation. Height, weight, bone age, insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and insulin like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGF-BP3) were measured at baseline and after 6 months....
Final height of Korean patients with early treated congenital hypothyroidism
Jiyun Lee, Jeongho Lee, Dong Hwan Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(7):221-225.   Published online July 15, 2018

Purpose: Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is the most common endocrine disorder in children. Thyroid hormone deprivation results not only in mental retardation but also growth retardation. This study investigates the final height (FH) in Korean patients with CH detected by newborn screening and examines factors that may affect the FH. Methods: The medical records of Korean CH patients (n=45) were reviewed. The...
Review Article
General Pediatrics
The 2017 Korean National Growth Charts for children and adolescents: development, improvement, and prospects
Jae Hyun Kim, Sungha Yun, Seung-sik Hwang, Jung Ok Shim, Hyun Wook Chae, Yeoun Joo Lee, Ji Hyuk Lee, Soon Chul Kim, Dohee Lim, Sei Won Yang, Kyungwon Oh, Jin Soo Moon; for the Committee for the Development of Growth Standards for Korean Children and Adolescents, the Committee for School Health and Public Health Statistics; the Committee for School Health and Public Health Statistics; the Korean Pediatric Society, and Division of Health and Nutrition Survey; Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(5):135-149.   Published online May 28, 2018

Growth charts are curves or tables that facilitate the visualization of anthropometric parameters, and are widely used as an important indicator when evaluating the growth status of children and adolescents. The latest version of the Korean National Growth Charts released in 2007 has raised concerns regarding the inclusion of data from both breastfed and formula-fed infants, higher body mass index...

Original Article
Neonatology (Perinatology)
TORCH (toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex virus) screening of small for gestational age and intrauterine growth restricted neonates: efficacy study in a single institute in Korea
Mi Hae Chung, Chan Ok Shin, Juyoung Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(4):114-120.   Published online April 23, 2018
Purpose

Routine screening for toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus (CMV), and herpes simplex virus (TORCH) in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and small for gestational age (SGA) neonates has become a common practice. However, the incidence of TORCH varies across countries, and the cost of TORCH testing may be disadvantageous compared to disease-specific screening. To evaluate the efficacy of TORCH screening, the medical charts...

Comparison of postnatal catch-up growth according to definitions of small for gestational age infants
Jisun Huh, Ji Yoon Kwon, Hye Ryun Kim, Eun Hee Lee, Young-Jun Rhie, Byung Min Choi, Kee-Hyoung Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(3):71-77.   Published online March 19, 2018
Purpose

Small for gestational age (SGA) is confusingly defined as birth weight (BW) either below 3rd percentile or 10th percentile for infants. This study aimed to compare postnatal catch-up growth between SGA groups according to different definitions.

Methods

Data of 129 infants born with BW below the 10th percentile and admitted to Korea University Anam Hospital and Ansan Hospital were retrospectively reviewed. Height...

Developmental and Behavioral Medicine
Usefulness of the Korean Developmental Screening Test for infants and children for the evaluation of developmental delay in Korean infants and children: a single-center study
Chung-Hyuk Yim, Gun-Ha Kim, Baik-Lin Eun
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2017;60(10):312-319.   Published online October 20, 2017
Purpose

To evaluate the usefulness of the Korean Developmental Screening Test (K-DST) for infants and children for developmental delay assessment.

Methods

This study was based on retrospective studies of the results of the K-DST, Preschool Receptive-Expressive Language Scale (PRES), Sequenced Language Scale for Infants (SELSI), Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT), electroencephalography, magnetic resonance imaging, and extensive...

Case Report
Endocrinology
Concomitant occurrence of Turner syndrome and growth hormone deficiency
Jung Yu, Ha Young Shin, Chong Guk Lee, Jae Hyun Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2016;59(Suppl 1):S121-S124.   Published online November 30, 2016

Turner syndrome (TS) is a genetic disorder in phenotypic females that has characteristic physical features and presents as partial or complete absence of the second sex chromosome. Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is a condition caused by insufficient release of growth hormone from the pituitary gland. The concomitant occurrence of TS and GHD is rare and has not yet been reported...

Original Article
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Modification of nutrition strategy for improvement of postnatal growth in very low birth weight infants
Ah Young Choi, Yong Wook Lee, Mea-young Chang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2016;59(4):165-173.   Published online April 30, 2016
Purpose

To identify the effects of modified parenteral nutrition (PN) and enteral nutrition (EN) regimens on the growth of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants.

Methods

The study included VLBW infants weighing <1,500 g, admitted to Chungnam National University Hospital between October 2010 and April 2014, who were alive at the time of discharge. Subjects were divided according to 3 periods: period 1...

Nephrology (Genitourinary)
Impaired angiogenesis in the enalapril-treated neonatal rat kidney
Hyung Eun Yim, Kee Hwan Yoo, Eun Soo Bae, Young Sook Hong, Joo Won Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2016;59(1):8-15.   Published online January 22, 2016
Purpose

Nephrogenesis is normally accompanied by a tightly regulated and efficient vascularization. We investigated the effect of angiotensin II inhibition on angiogenesis in the developing rat kidney.

Methods

Newborn rat pups were treated with enalapril (30 mg/kg/day) or vehicle (control) for 7 days after birth. Renal histological changes were checked using Hematoxylin & Eosin staining. We also investigated the intrarenal expression of vascular...

Case Report
Hypopituitarism and Legg-Calve-Perthes disease related to difficult delivery
Veysel Nijat Baş, Salih Uytun, Ümit Erkan Vurdem, Yasemin Altuner Torun
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2015;58(7):270-273.   Published online July 22, 2015

Legg-Calve-Perthes (LCP) disease is characterized by idiopathic avascular osteonecrosis of the epiphysis of the femur head. The main factor that plays a role in the etiology of the disease is decreased blood flow to the epiphysis. Many predisposing factors have been suggested in the etiology of LCP disease, and most have varying degrees of effects. Here we present the case...

Review Article
Nutritional strategy of early amino acid administration in very low birth weight infants
Byong Sop Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2015;58(3):77-83.   Published online March 20, 2015

Relative to a fetus of the same gestational age, very low birth weight (VLBW) infants are more likely to be underfed and to undergo growth restriction during their early hospital stay. The current trend towards "early and aggressive" nutritional strategies in VLBW infants aims to overcome the early nutritional deficiency and thereby boost postnatal catch-up growth, simultaneously improving long-term neurodevelopmental...

Growth hormone treatment and risk of malignancy
Hyun-Wook Chae, Duk-Hee Kim, Ho-Seong Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2015;58(2):41-46.   Published online February 28, 2015

Growth hormone (GH) treatment has been increasingly widely used for children with GH deficiencies as the survival rate of pediatric patients with malignancies has increased. Both GH and insulin-like growth factor-I have mitogenic and antiapoptotic activity, prompting concern that GH treatment may be associated with tumor development. In this review, the authors examined the relationship between GH treatment and cancer...

Efficacy and safety of growth hormone treatment for children born small for gestational age
Il Tae Hwang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2014;57(9):379-383.   Published online September 30, 2014

Recombinant growth hormone (GH) is an effective treatment for short children who are born small for gestational age (SGA). Short children born SGA who fail to demonstrate catch-up growth by 2-4 years of age are candidates for GH treatment initiated to achieve catch-up growth to a normal height in early childhood, maintain a normal height gain throughout childhood, and achieve...

Original Article
Prader-Willi syndrome: a single center's experience in Korea
Yea Ji Kim, Chong Kun Cheon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2014;57(7):310-316.   Published online July 23, 2014
Purpose

Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a complex genetic disorder that results from the lack of paternally expressed genes in the chromosome 15q11-q13 region. This study was performed to delineate the clinical features of PWS infants and toddlers and the effects of two-year growth hormone (GH) treatment according to gender and age at the start of treatment.

Methods

The clinical characteristics and the results...

Case Report
A chromosome 1q44 deletion in a 4-month-old girl; The first report in Korea
Joo Hyun Cho, Eun Song Song, Hee Na Kim, Burm Seok Oh, Young Youn Choi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2014;57(6):292-296.   Published online June 30, 2014

The deletion of the distal long arm of chromosome 1 is associated with a characteristic facial appearance and a pattern of associated malformations. Characteristic manifestations include a round face with prominent 'cupid's bow' and downturned corners of the mouth, thin vermilion borders of lips, a long upper lip with a smooth philtrum, a short and broad nose, epicanthal folds, apparently...

Original Article
Clinical features of macrocephaly at birth in Korea
Goun Jeong, Minkyun Kim, Byoung Hee Han
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2014;57(2):75-78.   Published online February 24, 2014
Purpose

This study aimed to investigate the clinical features of macrocephaly at birth in Korea using ultrasonography.

Methods

We retrospectively investigated the medical records of full-term birth neonates in Cheil General Hospital & Women's Healthcare Center from January 2000 to June 2012. The following parameters were recorded and analyzed: gestational age, sex, birth weight, height, occipitofrontal circumference (OFC), physical examination, perinatal problems, and...

Expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α and PPAR-γ in the lung tissue of obese mice and the effect of rosiglitazone on proinflammatory cytokine expressions in the lung tissue
Seung Lok Ryu, Jae Won Shim, Duk Soo Kim, Hye Lim Jung, Moon Soo Park, Soo-Hee Park, Jinmi Lee, Won-Young Lee, Jung Yeon Shim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2013;56(4):151-158.   Published online April 22, 2013
Purpose

We investigated the mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α, PPAR-γ, adipokines, and cytokines in the lung tissue of lean and obese mice with and without ovalbumin (OVA) challenge, and the effect of rosiglitazone, a PPAR-γ agonist.

Methods

We developed 6 mice models: OVA-challenged lean mice with and without rosiglitazone; obese mice with and without rosiglitazone; and OVA-challenged obese mice with and...

Early neurodevelopment in very low birth weight infants with mild intraventricular hemorrhage or those without intraventricular hemorrhage
Il Rak Choi, Jang Hoon Lee, Moon Sung Park, Ji Yeon Kim, Kyu Hee Park, Gun-Ha Kim, So-Hee Eun
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2012;55(11):414-419.   Published online November 23, 2012
Purpose

This study aimed to assess early development in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants with mild intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) or those without IVH and to identify the perinatal morbidities affecting early neurodevelopmental outcome.

Methods

Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II was used for assessing neurological development in 49 infants with a birth weight <1,500 g and with low grade IVH (≤grade II) or...

Review Article
Endocrine problems in children with Prader-Willi syndrome: special review on associated genetic aspects and early growth hormone treatment
Dong-Kyu Jin
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2012;55(7):224-231.   Published online July 17, 2012

Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a complex multisystem genetic disorder characterized by hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction. The main clinical features include neonatal hypotonia, distinctive facial features, overall developmental delay, and poor growth in infancy, followed by overeating with severe obesity, short stature, and hypogonadism later in development. This paper reviews recent updates regarding the genetic aspects of this disorder. Three mechanisms (paternal deletion,...

Original Article
Evaluation of kidney size in children: a pilot study of renal length as a surrogate of organ growth
Boo Won Kim, Min Kyoung Song, Sochung Chung, Kyo Sun Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2012;55(2):54-57.   Published online February 14, 2012
Purpose

Somatic growth is an important indicator of health in children. Adequate organ growth is essential in growth and directly related to body growth. We consider renal length as a surrogate of organ growth in growing children. Measurement of weight, height, and many anthropometric indices, such as body surface area (BSA), body mass index (BMI), and Rohrer and Kaup indices, are...

Transforming growth factor beta receptor II polymorphisms are associated with Kawasaki disease
Yu Mi Choi, Kye Sik Shim, Kyung Lim Yoon, Mi Young Han, Sung Ho Cha, Su Kang Kim, Joo Ho Jung
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2012;55(1):18-23.   Published online January 31, 2012
Purpose

Transforming growth factor beta receptor 2 (TGFBR2) is a tumor suppressor gene that plays a role in the differentiation of striated cells and remodeling of coronary arteries. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of this gene are associated with Marfan syndrome and sudden death in patients with coronary artery disease. Cardiovascular remodeling and T cell activation of TGFBR2 gene suggest that the...

Review Article
Systematic review of the clinical and genetic aspects of Prader-Willi syndrome
Dong Kyu Jin
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2011;54(2):55-63.   Published online February 28, 2011

Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a complex multisystem genetic disorder that is caused by the lack of expression of paternally inherited imprinted genes on chromosome 15q11-q13. This syndrome has a characteristic phenotype including severe neonatal hypotonia, early-onset hyperphagia, development of morbid obesity, short stature, hypogonadism, learning disabilities, behavioral problems, and psychiatric problems. PWS is an example of a genetic condition caused...

Case Report
A case of thanatophoric dysplasia type I with an R248C mutation in the FGFR3 gene
Eun Jung Noe, Han Wook Yoo, Kwang Nam Kim, So Yeon Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2010;53(12):1022-1025.   Published online December 31, 2010

Thanatophoric dysplasia (TD) is a short-limb neonatal dwarfism syndrome that is usually lethal in the perinatal period. It is characterized by shortening of the limbs, severely small thorax, large head with a prominent forehead, macrocephaly, curved femur, and flattened vertebral bodies. These malformations result from the mutation in fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR-3) gene which is located on the...

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