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Original Article
Association between small for gestational age and risk of autism spectrum disorders: a meta-analysis
Ensiyeh Jenabi, Saeid Bashirian, Zahra Asali, Mahdieh Seyedi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(10):538-542.   Published online January 28, 2021
• The relationship between small for gestational age (SGA) and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and remains conflicting.
• We showed based on odds ratio reports in epidemiological studies that SGA can increase the risk of ASD and SGA is a risk factor for ASD.
• The association between SGA and the risk of ASD has further momentum to the current public health emphasis on appropriate prepregnancy weight and weight gain during pregnancy
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Iron status in small for gestational age and appropriate for gestational age infants at birth
Hyeon A Kim, Sook-Hyun Park, Eun Joo Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2019;62(3):102-107.   Published online October 24, 2018

Purpose: This study compared the iron statuses of small for gestational age (SGA) and appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants at birth. Methods: The clinical data of 904 newborn infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit were reviewed. Blood samples were drawn from the infants within 24 hours after birth. Serum ferritin level was used as a marker of total...
TORCH (toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex virus) screening of small for gestational age and intrauterine growth restricted neonates: efficacy study in a single institute in Korea
Mi Hae Chung, Chan Ok Shin, Juyoung Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(4):114-120.   Published online April 23, 2018

Routine screening for toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus (CMV), and herpes simplex virus (TORCH) in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and small for gestational age (SGA) neonates has become a common practice. However, the incidence of TORCH varies across countries, and the cost of TORCH testing may be disadvantageous compared to disease-specific screening. To evaluate the efficacy of TORCH screening, the medical charts...

Comparison of postnatal catch-up growth according to definitions of small for gestational age infants
Jisun Huh, Ji Yoon Kwon, Hye Ryun Kim, Eun Hee Lee, Young-Jun Rhie, Byung Min Choi, Kee-Hyoung Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(3):71-77.   Published online March 19, 2018

Small for gestational age (SGA) is confusingly defined as birth weight (BW) either below 3rd percentile or 10th percentile for infants. This study aimed to compare postnatal catch-up growth between SGA groups according to different definitions.


Data of 129 infants born with BW below the 10th percentile and admitted to Korea University Anam Hospital and Ansan Hospital were retrospectively reviewed. Height...

Postdischarge growth assessment in very low birth weight infants
Joon-Sik Park, Jungho Han, Jeong Eun Shin, Soon Min Lee, Ho Seon Eun, Min-Soo Park, Kook-In Park, Ran Namgung
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2017;60(3):64-69.   Published online March 27, 2017

The goal of nutritional support for very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants from birth to term is to match the in utero growth rates; however, this is rarely achieved.


We evaluated postdischarge growth patterns and growth failure in 81 Korean VLBW infants through a retrospective study. Weight and height were measured and calculated based on age percentile distribution every 3 months until age 24...

Developmental and Behavioral Medicine
Behavioral and intelligence outcome in 8- to 16-year-old born small for gestational age
Kyung Hee Yi, Yoon Young Yi, Il Tae Hwang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2016;59(10):414-420.   Published online October 17, 2016

We investigated behavioral problems, attention problems, and cognitive function in children and adolescents born small for gestational age (SGA).


Forty-six SGA children born at term and 46 appropriate for gestational age (AGA) children born at term were compared. Psychiatric symptoms were examined with reference to the Korean-Child Behavior Checklist, Korean-Youth Self Report, and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale (ADHD-RS). Cognitive...

Review Article
Catch-up growth and catch-up fat in children born small for gestational age
Won Kyoung Cho, Byung-Kyu Suh
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2016;59(1):1-7.   Published online January 22, 2016

Infants born small for gestational age (SGA) are at increased risk of perinatal morbidity, persistent short stature, and metabolic alterations in later life. Recent studies have focused on the association between birth weight (BW) and later body composition. Some reports suggest that fetal nutrition, as reflected by BW, may have an inverse programing effect on abdominal adiposity later in life....

Efficacy and safety of growth hormone treatment for children born small for gestational age
Il Tae Hwang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2014;57(9):379-383.   Published online September 30, 2014

Recombinant growth hormone (GH) is an effective treatment for short children who are born small for gestational age (SGA). Short children born SGA who fail to demonstrate catch-up growth by 2-4 years of age are candidates for GH treatment initiated to achieve catch-up growth to a normal height in early childhood, maintain a normal height gain throughout childhood, and achieve...

Original Article
Outcomes of small for gestational age micropremies depending on how young or how small they are
Hee Joon Yu, Eun Sun Kim, Jin Kyu Kim, Hye Soo Yoo, So Yoon Ahn, Yun Sil Chang, Won Soon Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2011;54(6):246-252.   Published online June 30, 2011

The outcomes of small for gestational age (SGA) infants especially in extremely low birth weight infants (ELBWIs) are controversial. This study evaluated the mortality and morbidity of ELBWIs, focusing on whether or not they were also SGA.


The medical records of 415 ELBWIs (birth weight <1,000 g), who were inborn and admitted to the Samsung Medical Center neonatal intensive care unit...

Association of ionized magnesium, total magnesium, gestational age, and intraventricular hemorrhage in preterm babies
Tae-Yeon Kim, Hyun-Hee Lee, Tae-Jung Sung
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2009;52(10):1140-1146.   Published online October 15, 2009
Purpose : The pathophysiology of magnesium, the second highest common compound in humans, is still unclear, especially in preterm babies. We accessed the association between total magnesium (tMg), ionized Mg (iMg), and gestational age (GA) and that between serum magnesium (sMg) and intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) in preterm babies. Methods : In all, 119 inborn preterm infants admitted between July 2006...
Relationship between the depth of cingulate sulcus on neonatal high resolution cranial ultrasound and gestational age
Young Chil Choi, Jin Yong Choi, Jung Hwa Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2009;52(10):1136-1139.   Published online October 15, 2009
Purpose : It is critical that the exact gestational age of a newborn baby, especially premature baby, be determined to evaluate the status of a disease and its management and to estimate the prognosis of a patient. This study aimed to investigate an easy and accurate method to estimate gestational age on cranial ultrasound, requiring minimal additional time and equipment. Methods...
Catch up growth in children born small for gestational age by corrected growth curve
Myung Ki Jung, Ji Eun Song, Seung Yang, Il Tae Hwang, Hae Ran Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2009;52(9):984-990.   Published online September 15, 2009

Purpose:Being small for gestational age (SGA) is a risk factor of short stature in children. Genetic background such as mid-parental height (MPH) is known to influence growth of children born SGA. We studied the relationship between growth of children born SGA and MPH and studied the effects of insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3)...
Review Article
Consequences of being born small for gestational age : More than being small
Eun-Gyong Yoo
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2009;52(2):152-158.   Published online February 15, 2009
Reduced fetal growth is independently associated with increased risk of health problems in later life, particularly type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Insulin resistance appears to be a key component underlying these metabolic complications. It is suggested that detrimental fetal environment may program insulin resistance syndrome. An insulin-resistant genotype may also result in both low birth weight and insulin resistance...
Growth and sex differentiation of children born small for gestational age
Se Young Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2009;52(2):142-151.   Published online February 15, 2009
The incidence of small for gestational age (SGA) births is frequent, accounting for 2.3% to 8% of all live births. Several childhood and adult diseases are related to early postnatal growth and birth size, and 10% of children born SGA may have a short stature throughout postnatal life. Additionally, they may have abnormal growth hormone (GH)-insulin like growth factor axis,...
The present condition of Korean children born small for gestational age
Il Tae Hwang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2009;52(2):137-141.   Published online February 15, 2009
Depending on the definition used, between 3% and 10% of live neonates are small for gestational age (SGA). The definition of SGA requires the following: (1) accurate knowledge of gestational age; (2) accurate measurements at birth of weight, length, and head circumference; (3) a cutoff, which has been variably set at the 10th percentile, 3rd percentile, or at less than...
Original Article
Quantification of endothelin-1 in human umbilical venous endothelial cell culture supernatants of small for gestational age and preeclampsia neonates
Won Kyoung Cho, So Young Kim, Chung Sik Chun
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2007;50(12):1194-1199.   Published online December 15, 2007
Purpose : It was generally accepted now a days that the pathogenesis of preeclampsia, small for gestational age (SGA), intrauterine growth retardation and fetal origin of adult diseases were related with a endothelial cell dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to know the relation of such diseases by assessing the level of endothelin-1. Methods : SGA babies, newborns of...
Factors influencing birth weight premature infants
Ji A Aum, Hee Jin Jung, Jae Won Huh, Su Young Hong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2007;50(10):954-958.   Published online October 15, 2007
Purpose : The purpose of this study was to identify factors influencing premature infants who are small for their gestational ago. Methods : The medical records of 1,010 premature infants of 26 to 35 weeks of gestational age born at Il-Sin Christian Hospital, Busan from January 2000 to August 2006 were reviewed. We collected data on gestational age, birth weight, infant...
Birth weight for gestational age patterns by sex, plurality, and parity in Korean population
Jung Ju Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2007;50(8):732-739.   Published online August 15, 2007
Purpose : A universal standard of the birth weight for gestational age cannot be made since birth weight distribution varies with races, nations and eras. This report aims to establish the birth weight for gestational age patterns by sex, plurality, and parity, specific for Korean live births. Methods : The national birth certificate data of all live births in Korea from...
The auditory evoked potential in premature small for gestational age infants
Il Hong Moon, Kee Soo Ha, Gui Sang Kim, Byung Min Choi, Baik-Lin Eun, Kee Hwan Yoo, Young Sook Hong, Joo Won Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2006;49(12):1308-1314.   Published online December 15, 2006
Purpose : This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of auditory evoked potential (AEP) in clarifying neuronal development in premature small for gestational age (SGA), and appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants. Methods : A total of 183 premature infants who were born from August 2002 to July 2005, were examined with AEP. They were divided into three groups; AGA, symmetric-SGA...
Effects of NG-monomethyl-L-arginine and L-arginine on cerebral hemodynamics and energy metabolism during reoxygenation-reperfusion after cerebral hypoxia-ischemia in newborn piglets
Sun Young Ko, Saem Kang, Yun Sil Chang, Eun Ae Park, Won Soon Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2006;49(3):317-325.   Published online March 15, 2006
Purpose : This study was carried out to elucidate the effects of nitric oxide synthase(NOS) inhibitor, NG-monomethyl-L-arginine(L-NMMA) and nitric oxide precursor, L-arginine(L-Arg) on cerebral hemodynamics and energy metabolism during reoxygenation-reperfusion(RR) after hypoxia- ischemia(HI) in newborn piglets. Methods : Twenty-eight newborn piglets were divided into 4 groups; Sham normal control(NC), experimental control(EC), L-NMMA(HI & RR with L-NMMA), and L-Arg(HI & RR...
The effect of growth hormone treatment in short children born small for their gestational ages
Joo Hee Seo, Duk Hee Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2006;49(3):312-316.   Published online March 15, 2006
Purpose : Growth hormone(GH) has been recognized as an effective treatment for short children born small for their gestational ages(SGA), and nowadays it has been widely used for the treatment of short children born SGA. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy of GH treatment for the children born SGA. Methods : The study population was made of...
Birth Weight Distribution by Gestational Age in Korean Population : Using Finite Mixture Modle
Jung-Ju Lee, Chang Gi Park, Kwang-Sun Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2005;48(11):1179-1186.   Published online November 15, 2005
Purpose : A universal standard of the birth weight for gestational age cannot be made since girth weight distribution varies with race and other sociodemographic factors. This report aims to establish the birth weight distribution curve by gestational age, specific for Korean live births. Methods : We used the national birth certificate data of all live births in Korea from January...
Complications and Perinatal Factors According to the Birth Weight Groups in the Infants of Diabetic Mothers
Kyung-Ran Son, Hee-Jo Back, Chang-Yee Cho, Young-Youn Choi, Tae-Bok Song, Chun-Hak Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2003;46(5):447-453.   Published online May 15, 2003
Purpose : This study was performed to compare complications and perinatal factors according to the birth weight groups in the infants of diabetic mothers(IDM). Methods : Three hundred and one singleton diabetic mothers and their babies of more than 30 weeks' gestational age admitted in the department of Pediatrics, Chonnam University Hospital from January 1996 to March 2002 were enrolled....
A Study of Factors Affecting Time of First Stool in Premature Infants
Hyeong Doo Cho, Je Woo Kim, Young Ah Lee, Hae Sun Yoon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1999;42(12):1645-1650.   Published online December 15, 1999
Purpose : To assess the effect of gestational age and illness severity, and the effect of antenatal exposure to magnesium sulfate, glucocorticoids, and antibiotics, on the timing of the first stool in preterm infants. Methods : Medical records of all preterm infants admitted to the neonatal ward at Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital between March 1998 and August 1998 were reviewed. We...
The Study of Transplacental Transfer of Immunoglobulin G in Premature Infants
Sung Soo Moon, Yoon Ki Kang, Soo Chul Cho, Jung Soo Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1998;41(6):747-753.   Published online June 15, 1998
Purpose : Premature infants have low serum immunoglobulin G(IgG) levels because IgG is transplacentally acquired, primarily after 32-34 weeks of gestational age. We studied the transplacental transfer of serum IgG in preterm infants. Methods : The IgG levels in the sera were measured by radial immunodiffusion method(Behring nephelometer, Germany). Results : There was a significant difference between IgG concentration and gestational age; the IgG concentration increased...
Concentrations and Placenta Transferability of Subclasses of IgG in Newborn Infants with Gestational Age
Gyung Hee Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1995;38(11):1476-1485.   Published online November 15, 1995
Purpose : The object of this study was to investigate concentration and placental transfer of IgG subclasses in greater detail and examine the effect of gestational age. Methods : The concentration of IgGl. IgGz. IgG3 and IgG4 were estimated in 119 pairs of maternal and cord sera from pregnancies of various gestation ranging from 32 to 43 weeks using the method...
Clinical Evaluation of Unmarried Maternal Neonates Admitted to NICU
Chang Weon Oh, Suk Hyun Lee, Kyoung Sim Kim, Ki Bok Kim
Accepted January 1, 1970  
Purpose : This study was done to see whether neonates born to unmarried mothers have higher rates of prematurity, low birth weight, perinatal morbidity and mortality than normal married group. Methods : 88 neonates of unmarried mothers who were admitted in our NICU during the 5-year period from January 1987 through December 1991 were evaluated, and as the control gro-up served...
Original Article
The Significance of Nucleated Red Blood Cell Counts in Low Birth Weight Neonates
In Ho Song, Weon Kee Lee, Hye Lim Jung, Dong Hyuck Keum
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1993;36(11):1526-1533.   Published online November 15, 1993
We studied to assess the relationship between intrauterine growth retardation and the increased nucleated red blood cell counts (NRBC) in small for gestational age (SGA) and appropriate for gestational age (AGA) neonates with low birth weight. We also evaluated the nucleated red blood cell counts in low birth weight neonates who had either perinatal asphyxia or hyaline membrane disease (HMD)...
The Changes of Fetal Hemoglobin in Preterm and Small for Gestational Age Newborn Infants
Eun Ae Park, Gyoung Hee Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1993;36(7):919-927.   Published online July 15, 1993
The fetal hemoglobin, which is structurally different from adult hemoglobin, has higher affinity for oxygen and higher resistance to denaturation with alkali than adult hemoglobin. Intrauterine growth retarded neonates have highter mortality and morbidity than normal neonates. In this article, to determine the changes of fetal hemoglobin by gestational age in infants appropriate in wieght for gestational age (AGA) and to...
The Relationship Between Neonatal Hypoglycemia and Newborn Iron Status in Hypoglycemic Large-for-Gestational Age Infants
Myung Ja Yun, In Ho Song, Hye Lim Jung, Dong Hyuck Kum
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1992;35(12):1667-1673.   Published online December 15, 1992
We assessed the relationship between neonatal hypoglycemia and newborn iron status in hypoglycemic large-for-gestational age, euglycemic large for gestational age and euglycemic appropriate for gestational age infants that were admitted to the department of Pediatrics, Koryo General Hospital from July 1989 to June 1990. The results are as follows; 1) The incidence of large for gestational age infants was 3.3% (32...
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